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THE FAUNA OF BRITISH INDIA, 



INOHJBINS 



CRYLON AND BURMA 



POBLISHen UKDBli THE AUTHORITY OF THE SECRETARY OF 

Stats for India in Oouncil. 



EDITED BT IT.-COL. B. B. S. SBWEtL, C.I.E., So.D., P-B-S., I.M.S. 
ASSISTED BY F. W. EDWARDS, M.A., SC.D. 



ODOITATA. 

VOL. 11. 



Lt.-Col. F. C. eraser, I.M.S. 



LONDON: 

TAYLOR AND FEANOIS, RED HON COURT, FLEET STfiEBT.. 
Octoher, 1934. 




JPanSTTED BY TATfLOB. AND yRANOIS, 
BID UOK OOtJBX, FUBET STBEBT. 



CONTENTS. 



Page 

Pkbfaob Y 

€rLQSSABY ix 

COBBIGBITDA TO VOLUMB I XvH 

Systematic Index xxi 

Zygopteea {continued) 1 

Agriidae 1 

Libellaginse 2 

Epallagiase 71 

Philogangiaae 112 

Agriinse 118 

Caliphainse 148 

Anisozygoptbra 151 

Anisopteea 152 

Gomphidse 154 

GompMnse 157 

Epigomphinae 316 

Ictininse 370 

Alphabetical Index 393 



a2 



PREFACE. 



The first volume of ' The Fauna of British India ' dealing 
with the Dragonflies (Order Odonata) was published in 1933, 
■and, in addition to furnishing an introduction to the study 
of these insects, dealt with the whole of the C(ENAGBnD.a; 
or first family of the suborder Zygoptbea. 

In this second volume the Zygopteea are completed and 
the second suborder, Aotsopteea, is introduced. Volume II 
thus deals with the families Agehd^ and Gomphid^, the 
former forming a natural transition to the latter, wMch family 
•contains the most archaic species of the Anisopteea, and 
is related to the Agshdje by the wide separation of the eyes. 

A third suborder (Anisozygopteea) is recognized by most 
authors, but only one species is known from India, and that 
species only from a single, rather doubtful larva; I have 
included a brief reference to it for the sake of completeness 
<p. 151). 

As in the case of the first volume, much of the text and 
several of the text-figures represent a mere revision of the 
serial " Indian Dragonflies " which appeared in, the pages of 
the ' Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society.' The 
whole of the bibliography has been revised and brought up 
to date, species not included in that serial have here been 
dealt with, and most of the text-figures have been redrawn, 
many of those depicting wings being based on actual photo- 
graphs, as giving more and truer details. Moreover, since 



vi PBEFACE. 

the serial was written more material has been collected, 
the previously unknown opposite sexes of several species 
have been discovered, and the identity of other species has 
been more satisfactorily determined. Several notes published 
elsewhere have also been incorporated, and other species, 
new to our fauna, have been introduced. 

My thanks are again due to many willing helpers ; some 
have assisted by supplyiag material, whilst others have given 
valuable advice where needed. Among the former may be 
mentioned Mr. T. Bainbrigge Fletcher, former Imperial 
Entomologist to the Government of India, who sent me from 
time to time large consignments of dragonflies from Assam, 
Burma, and Bihar ; Mr. Charles M. IngUs and Mr. H. V. O'Donel, 
who collected for me in Bihar, Bengal, and Sikkim ; Mr. Charles 
Antram, for colleotions from Eastern Assam ; Col. F. Wall, 
for collections from Burma and Ceylon ; Lt.-Col. B. Frere, 
for collections from the Palni and Nilgiri Hills ; and lastly, 
Mr. Charles Souter, for collections from the Agency Tracts 
and South Kanara. 

In addition to this material, I have had access to the 
collections of several institutions, among which may be 
mentioned those of the Indian Museum, Calcutta ; the 
Agriculture College, Pusa, Bihar ; the Forest Eesearch 
Institute, Dehra Dun ; the DaxjeeUng Museum ; the British 
Museum ; and the Brussels Natural History Museum, these 
last two containing many of the types of the Indian fauna. 
More recently I have been enabled to examine the Indian 
fauna contained in the Williamson collection at Michigan 
University, during a brief stay at Ann Arbor. 

For advice I have to thank Mr. Kenneth Morton of 
Edinburgh and Dr. F. F. Laidlaw of Uffculme, Devon, 
also Mr. D. E. Kimmins of the British Museum, who very 
kindly read through the proofs and undertook the laborious 
task of checking the Bibliography ; and lastly, Dr. F. W. 
Edwards, who acted as Editor in the absence of Lt.-Col. 
R. B. S. Sewell. The work of preparing the volume was much 



PREFACE. Vll- 

lightened by the permission given to use the subject matter 
and text-figures of the serial " Indian Dragonflies " by the= 
Committee of the Bombay Natural History Society, to whom, 
my thanjis are due. 

Since the publication of the fiist volume we have to mourn 
the loss of Mr. E. B. Williamson of Indiana, one of the most- 
painstaking students of the Order Odonata of our time. 
His enthusiasm infected many other entomologists, and. 
directed their attention to the insects of which he had made 
a life-long study ; his inspiration remains to quicken others, 
and the magnificent collection of Odokata, which is now 
housed at Ann Arbor, Michigan, remains a monument tO' 
his zeal as a field-collector. 

The pubhcation of Volume I of this series was beset with 
many difficulties owing to the death of our late Editor, 
Lt.-Col. J. Stephenson — a great loss to science. His death, 
coming shortly before the publication of Volume I, led to 
some of the final corrections not being included ; these are 
given at the commencement of this volume, and it has alsO' 
been thought advisable to republish the Glossary in a some- 
what extended form. 



E. C. ERASER.. 



London, 
September, 1934. 



GLOSSARY. 



Allotype. — The specimen of a species of the opposite sex to the type 
first described, either at the same time as the type or later, and 
either by the original describer of the species or another author. 

Anal appendages. — Short processes at the end of the abdomen of the 
adult insect which, in the male, are employed for seizing the female 
during copulation. There are either two pairs (ZyaoPTBRA) 
or one pair and a single inferior appendage (Anisoptbra) in the 
mala, but only one pair in the female of both suborders. 

Anal bridge (Ab) (flg. 5, B & C, vol. i). — A short longitudinal 
nervure running from Ao parallel to the under side of the disooidal 
cell and continued as the nervure I A in the Zxgoptbba. It ends 
distally by meeting the short transverse nervure descending 
from the distal end of the discoidal cell. (The nervure is absent 
in some genera of the CoB]srAGiiiiD.aB.) 

Anal crossing (Ac) (fig. 5, B & C, vol. i). — A short transverse 
nervure at the base of the wing, traversing the cubital space. 
It is the vestigial crossing-over of the anal nervure, to be continued 
as the nervure I A. In many genera of the Agwxdx the cubital 
space is traversed by many accessory nervures, so that, in these, 
the nervure Ac becomes indistinguishable. 

Anal loop (Al) (flg. 5, A, vol. i, and fig. 45, vol. ii). — An area 
of cells situated -at the base of the hind-wing in many genera 
of the Anisoptbba. It lies adjacent to and posterior to the 
discoidal cell. It may be altogether absent in some species and 
rudimentary in others, in which latter it consists of but 2 or 3 cells. 
In the JEiscmaiDx, Cobdtjlbg-astbbidjb, and CoBDtrmN.a: it is 
oval or quadrate in shape, but in the LiBBLttJLnsr.a: is more or 
less elongated and stocking-ehaped. 

Anal triangle {At) (flg. 43, vol. ii). — A triangular area at the 
extreme base of the hind-wing in the Anisopteea, made up of 
one or more cells, occurring in the male only and occasionally absent 
even in this sex. 

Antealar simus. — A small triangular area on the dorsum of the thorax 
lying just in front of the attachments of the wings. 

Anteclypeits. — The anterior or lower part of the olypeus to which the 
labrum. is attached. 

Antehumeral stripe. — ^A coloured stripe on the dorsum of the thorax 
situated internal to the humeral suture. It is to be contrasted 
with a humeral stripe, which lies on or borders the humeral suture. 

Antennie. — A pair of short, jointed, filamentous organs situated just 
in front of and to the inner side of the eyes. They are made up 
of four to seven segments in both the larva and imago, but some 
segments may be rudimentarj' in the former. 



X GLOSSAEY. 

Antenodal nermires (fig. 5, A, B, & 0, vol. i). — Short transverse 
nervures running from the costal or anterior border of the wings 
to the radius (ffi), proximal to the node. In the C<ENAamxoM 
there are only two of these, which are known as the " primary 
antenodals," and are foimd in many of the higher forms of the 
Anisopteba as especially thickened nervures, quite easily dis- 
tinguishable from all the others. In other families they are 
numerous, ranging from six in lAbellago to an enormous number 
in others. The anterior half of each nervure, traversing the 
costal space, is usually continuous with the posterior half, 
traversing the subcostal space; the two halves are invariably 
continuous in the Zygopteba, and the same applies to the 
LiBELLtixiDiE, but in other Anisopterous genera they are separated. 

Apical. — Parts of the wing or of segments of the abdomen or legs 
which are furthest from the thorax. 

Aro (flg. 5, A & B, vol. i). — A short, oblique, transverse nervure 
near the base of the wings, which forms the outer boundary of 
the basal (or median) space. 

Arohcdo. — Generalized or ancient. Applied to species in which the 
predominant characters are believed to be of ancient origin. 

Auricle. — A small ear-shaped process situated on each side of the second 
abdominal segment. Variable in size ; in the female always 
very small and rudimentary, and often entirely absent. Most 
commonly present in the GoMPHiD.as and JEscHisaDJE. 

Basal. — ^Parts of the wing or of segments of the abdomen or legs which 
are nearest to the thorax. 

Baaal antenodal nervure. — ^An incomplete antenodal nervure situated 
at the extreme base of the wings in a few species of Odonata 
It runs from the subcostal nervure to the radius {JRi), its anterior 
half in the costal space being absent. An important generic 
or specific character when present. 

Basal postcostal nervure. — ^An accessory transverse nervure traversing 
the cubital space proximal to the nervure Ao and situated at the 
extreme base of the wings. It is present only in the most primitive 
genera of the Ccenaqbiid^. 

Basal space. — An elongated space at the extreme base of the wings 
bounded distally by the arc, the radius anteriorly, and the nervure 
Ouii posteriorly. In some genera it is traversed by one or more 
nervures. 

Bicolorous. — Of two colours. 

Bifurcation of Us. — See " forking of Rs." 

Bridge (fig. 5, A, Br, vol. i). — A triangular space bounded outwardly 
by the oblique nervme descending from the node, anteriorly 
by the nervure Hi and posteriorly by IBii. Present only in the 
Anisoftbea. 

Carina. — A chitinous ridge on the dorsum of the thorax or of the 
abdominal segments. 

Caudal giUs. —Accessoiy respiratory organs found at the tail end of 
Zygopterous larvae. They are three in number except for the 
LiBBLi,AGii<r.a), which have only two, and are of very variable shape, 
■ thin and acuminate, lamellate and obtuse, or triquetral or bladder- 
shaped. 

Cells of wings.— The reticulation of areolets forming the network of 
the wings. An area of the wings bounded by nervures. 



GLOSSAEV. XI 

Olypms. — ^The lower or anterior part of the face, which is divided 
into the ante- and the postelypeus, the labrum being attached 
to the former. 

Compressed. — ^Flattened from side to side. 

Oosta (fig. 5, A, B, & C, vol. i). — ^The anterior border of wing, which 
is also known as the costal nervure or costal border of wing. 

Cotype. — Strictly, in cases where the author of a species does not select 
a single type (holotype), any typical specimen of the original series 
on which the description is based is a cotype. The term is 
sometimes more loosely used as equivalent to paratype. 

Coxa. — The basal segment of the legs. 

Crest of frons. — The anterior ridge of the frons which divides the lower 
anterior part from the upper posterior part of the frons. It is 
usually prominent in all the Aitisoptbea, but ill-defined in the 
Zygopteba. 

Cvbital nervure [Ac). — ^A name commonly used for the artal oroasing, 
which see. 

Ovbital spaoe. — A space at the extreme base of the wings situated 
immediately posterior to the basal space and extending out as 
far as the base of the discoidal cell. It is traversed by the 
nervure Ac, and often by many cubital nervures. 

Depressed. — ^Flattened from above downwards. 

Discoidal eeU. — ^A well-defined triangular or quadrilateral space 
situated near the base of the wings, immediately distal to the 
cubital space. It is invariably four-sided in the Zygoptbka, 
although the sides are not equal. It is triangular in the Ahisopteba, 
and only occasionally four-sided in archaic species. The Aniso- 
pterous cell is actually divided by a longitudinal nervure into an 
upper or superior triangle known as the " hypertrigone," and 
an inferior triangle, which latter is here regarded as the discoidal 
cell proper. Conversely the discoidal cell of the Zysoptbra 
may be regarded as a fusion of the hypertrigone with the inferior 
triangle. 

Discoidal field. — The space lying distal to the discoidal cell and bounded 
outwardly by the border of the wing. The nervures MA and 
Ouii constitute its anterior and posterior borders respectively. 

Distal. — ^Eqmvalent to apical, which see. " Distalia " is a collective 
term sometimes applied to several distal segments of the abdomen. 

Divaricate. — ^Diverging from the base or origin. A term usually 
applied to the anal appendages when they splay out from their 
attachments. 

Dorsal. — ^Adjective applied to the upper surface of any part, especially 
the superior surface of the thorax or any abdominal segment. 

Dorsum. — ^The back or superior surface of any part, such as the thorax 
or any abdominal segment. 

EnfvmM. — Smoky or brownish in tint. 

Entire. — ^Adjective applied to any space of the wings when such are 
not traversed by any nervures. 

Epimeron. — ^The posterior division of the side of the thorax. 

JBJpistome. — The postelypeus or upper part of clypeus, which see. 



Xii GLOSSAEY. 

Exuvim. — The cast skin of a larva after each moult or final meta- 
morphosis. (The word only exists in the plural, although employed 
to designate single objects.) 

Femur (pi. femora). — The thigh or 3rd segment of the legs. 

Foramen. — An opening or enclosed space. The superior anal appendages 
sometimes curve and finally meet at their apices so as to enclose 
. a foramen. 

Forcipate. — Shaped like a pair of forceps. 

ForMng of Rs. — The bifurcation of the superior sector of the arc into 
Rii and Riv+v. This forking may be equal or unequal in the 
GoMPHiDjs, and is an important character employed in classi- 
fication. 

Frons. — The forehead. 

F'usiform. — Spindle-shaped. 

Genitalia. — The sexual organs. In the male dragonfly these organs 
are situated on the 2nd and 9th and 10th segments, at the 
junction of the latter two of which is found a gonopore from 
which the spermatozoa are passed into the lobe on segment 2. 
This gonopore is very similar in all dragonflies, but tho structures 
on the 2nd segment vary very widely, and so have been employed 
largely for purposes of classification. In this volume, following 
the practice of most students of dragonflies, the word " genitalia," 
is used to designate the structures on the 2nd abdominal segment 
only. 

The genitalia of the female are situated on the veatral surface 
of the 8th and 9th abdominal segments. 

Genotype. — The type-species of a genus, to which reference should 
be made in the event of any question arising as to the definition 
of the genus. 

JSamules. — Two pairs of minute hooks foimd in the genitalia on the 
2nd segment of the male, and employed in copulation. 

Hirsute. — Coated with long hair. 

Holotype. — Equivalent to type in the strict sense, q. v. 

Humeral — The shoulders of the thorax or outer borders of the dorsum 
of thorax. 

Humeral stripe. — A coloured stripe situated on the humeral suture 
of thorax or bordering it inwardly. 

Humeral suture. — ^A false joint of the thorax situated along the outer 
border of the dorsum. It is indicated by a fine, shallowly sunken 
line. 

Hyaline. — Transparent or colourless. 

Hypertrigon6.—A narrow triangular cell situated longitudinally above 
the disooidal cell in the Anisopterous wing. See " Disooidal cell," 

Imago. — The adult insect. 

Inferior anal appendages. — See "Anal appendages." 

Jugal suMre. — Transverse sutures found on the basal abdominal seg- 
ments of many species of Anisopterous dragonflies. 

Labium. — The lower lip. 

Labrum. — The upper lip. 



GLOSSARY.' xm 

LameUa. — The flattened and broadened segment of the antennas found 
in larv» belonging to the genera LameUigomphus and Sieboldius. 

Lamina. — ^An overlapping plate found at the anterior end of the genital 
sac on the second abdominal segment. 

Lama. — A term applied to any stage preceding the imago or final 
stage of an insect, which differs so markedly from the imago that 
a definite metamorphosis must take place from one to the other. 
The term " nymph," has been applied by many students to the 
larval stages of dragonflies on account of the metamorphosis being 
incomplete, in that there is no true resting stage comparable 
to the pupal stage of the Lepidoptbea. 

Lilaoeoiis. — ^Pale purplish, the colour of lilac blossom. 

MA. — The anterior median nervure or the continuation of the lower 
sector of the are. 

Median space. — ^An alternative term for the " basal space," -which see. 

Membrane. — ^A narrow membrane bordering the base of the wing in 
Anisopterous dragonflies. It is sometimes obsolete. In this 
volume the term is used to denote this special membrane, and not 
the whole of the wing between the nervures as understood by most 
entomologists. 

Mesepimeron. — ^The middle division of the sides of the thorax. 

Mesothorax. — The 2ad segment of the thorax, which, in dragonflies, 
is fused to the metathorax to form the " synthorax." 

Metathorax. — ^The posterior or 3rd segment of the thorax. See 
" Synthorax." 

Metepimeron. — ^The 2ad or posterior part of the sides of the thorax. 

Mid-dorsal carina. — See " Carina." 

Nervure. — One of the veins or skeletal structures of the wing. 

Neurafion. — ^The network of veins, nervures or thickened ridges on 
the wings. 

Nodal index. — The number of ante- and postnodal transverse nervures 
present in the fore- and hind-wings. The numbers nearest the 
vertical line in the formula indicate the number of antenodal 
nervures of each of the four wings of one specimen. 

Node. — ^A thickening situated at an indentation of the costal margin 
of the wings. In the Zygopieba the node usually lies nearer 
the base of the wing than the apex, but in the Anisoptbba it may 
be at the middle of the wing or actually nearer the apex than the 
base of wing. 

Nymph. — See " Larva." 

Oblique nervure. — ^An oblique nervure situated between the nervures 
Rm and IBiii slightly distal to the outer end of the bridge. 
It is duplicated in some archaic species. 

Obsolete. — Degenerating or becoming invisible. 

Obticae. — ^Blunt. 



Xiv GLOSSAEY. 

Occiput. — The back of the head. 

Ocellus. — A simple eye as contrasted with the compound eyes. All 
dragonflies possess three such simple eyes, which are situated 
in a line in front of the vesicle or arranged in a triangle around 
it on the vertex of the head. 

Ovipositor. — The female's apparatus for depositing her eggs either 
in water or in the tissues of plants. It is situated on the ventral 
surfaces of the 8th and 9th abdominal segments and, in the 
Zygopteba and many .^sohnines, is enclosed between two 
strong vulvar scales which lie on either side of it. The ovipositor 
is poorly developed in those females which drop their eggs in 
water, but is a conspicuous organ in those which insert their eggs 
in plants. 

Paratype,. — Any typical specimen, except the actual type (holotype), 
belonging to the original series before an author at the time when 
he describes a species, whether the specimens were all collected 
at the same time and place or not. In the first of these volumes 
on Odonata the term was used to denote specimens lodged in 
accredited public or reference collections for the use of students, 
and diagnosed by approved specialists as similar in all respects 
to the type. 

Pectinate. — Comb-lilie. A term applied to the nervure I A when it 
is multi-branched. 

Petiolate. — Stalked. A term applied to the wings when the base is 
markedly constricted like a stalk. The length of the stalk of 
a wing is measured from its base to where the posterior border 
meets the nervure I A. All the wings of the CcENAOB,iiD.ai, and 
most of those of theAGBiiDJs,are stalked, but it is rare to find even 
a vestige of such in the AnrisoPTBB.A. 

Postanal cell. — Cells lying between the cubital nervure (Ouii) and 
the posterior border of the wings proximal to the level of the 
discoidal cell. Those postanal cells adjacent to the disooidal 
cell in the hind-wings of the Anisombea form, the " anal loop." 

Postdypeus. — The posterior or upper part of the clypeus. See 
" OlypeuB." 

Posterior lobe of prothorax. — The prothorax is composed of three lobos 
fused together, of which the posterior is the most -variable in 
shape. Por this reason its shape is extensively employed for 
diHerentiating genera and species of dragonflies (fig. 131, c, 
vol. i). 

Postnodal nervures (fig. 5, A, B, & C, pn, vol. i, and fig. 1, Pns, 
vol. ii). — Short transverse nervures running between the costal 
border of wing and the radius (iJi), distal to the node. 

Primary antenodals. — The two thickened antenodal nervures found 
in the wings of many species of Anisoptbba, which represent 
the two primitive antenodal nervures of the Cobnagbiidjb. One 
of these is always the antenodal nearest the base of the wing, 
whilst the other is about the 4th to the 7th from the base. 

Prothorax. — The anterior segment of the thorax, which in the Odonata 
is separated from the two posterior segments. See " Posterior 
lobe of prothorax." 



GLOSSARY. XT 

Pruinescence. — ^A white powdery efflorescence which appears on the 
bodies of adult dragonflies, and on the males especially. It is 
often confined to the abdomen, but may be fotmd occasionally 
on most of the body. In other species it is strictly confined to 
the vertex of the head, dorsum of thorax, and dorsum of the 
terminal segments of the abdomen. 

Pminosed. — Coated with pruinescence. 

Pterostigma (fig. 5, A, B, & C, Pt, vol. i.)j — A small, thickened 
area of the wing situated on the costal border near its apex, 
usually dark or differing conspicuously in colour from the remainder 
of the wing, but extremely variable in shape and colour. It may 
be absent in one pair or all of the wings, or in one or both sexes. 
When traversed by nervures it is said to be a false or " pseudo- 
stigma." 

Pubescent. — Coated with short hairs. 

Pulverulent. — Pruinosed, which see. 

Radius (fig. 5, A, B, & C, Ri, vol. i, and fig. 1, Ri, vol. ii). — The 
principal nervure of the wing situated between the subcosta and 
the media. 

Riv+v (fig. 5, A, B, & C, Ri/B+v, vol. i, and fig. 1, Riv+v, vol. ii)._— 
One of the branches of the radius in prolongation of the superior 
sector of the are. 

Reticulation. — The minute network or nervures on the wings. 

Sagittate. — Shaped like the head of an arrow. 

Sectors of arc. — The origins of the nervures Riv+v and MA. These 
may have a common origin, as is usual, or they may be slightly 
separated at their origins from the arc. 

Serrate. — Saw-like edge. 

Spiracle,. — ^Tracheal openings or breathing pores. There are ten pairs 
of these in the dragonfly imago, two pairs being situated on the 
thorax and the others on each of the first eight abdominal segments. 

Stemite. — ^The ventral plate of any segment of the thorax or abdomen. 

Subcosta (fig. 5, A, B, & C, Sc, vol. i).— A nervure running parallel 
to and next to the eosta, extending from the base of the wing 
to as far as the node in dragonflies. 

Subnode. — ^An oblique nervure extending obUquely outward into the 
body of the wing and traversing the space lying between Ri and Rii. 

Subtrigone (fig. 1, St, vol. ii).^ — A triangular area of the wings of 
AuisoPTERi. lying adjacent and proximal to the discoidal cell. 
It may consist of a single cell or be split up by traversing nervures 
into three or more eeSs. In many cases it is merged with and 
is indistinguishable from the distal end of the cubital space. 

Superior anal appendages. — See "Anal appendages." 

Suture. — ^A joiat between two segments or subdivisions of segments. 

Synthoraa. — The thorax of the dragonfly is composed of two segments, 
the prothorax bearing the fore-legs and the synthorax bearing 
the wings and middle and hind legs, the synthorax being formed 
by a fusion of the meso- and metathorax. 



XVI GLOSSAEY. 

Tarsus. — The distal or terminal part of the legs, which is made up of 
three segments in the adult dragonfly. In the larvse of the G omphid^ 
the tarsi of the fore and middle legs possess only two joints, but 
the hind tarsus is similar to that of the imago. In all other 
dragonfly larvse the tarsi of each leg possess three segments. 

Teneral. — Adjective applied to the freshly emerged dragonfly before 
it has hardened and assumed its mature colouring. 

Tergum. — ^The upper part of the thorax lying between the roots of the 
wings. 

Termen. — The posterior border of the wings. 

Thorax. — The middle part of the body, bearing the wings and the legs ; 
in these volumes the word is generally employed as synonymous 
with synthorax (». e., excluding the prothorax). 

Tibia. — The 4th segment of the legs, situated between the femur 
and the tarsus. 

Tarnus. — The angle formed by the meeting of the basal and posterior 
. borders of the wings, which is only pronounced in the Anisopteha. 

Troolwmter. — ^The small 2nd segment of the legs, between the coxa 
and femur. 

Typ^. — ^In the strict sense (equivalent to holotype), as used in ' The 
Tauna of British India,' the type is a speoimon selected by the 
author of a description of a species as the single original of that 
description, and it must be the ultimate criterion for reference 
as to the identity of the species. (In a wider and older sense, 
not used in these volumes, the term is sometimes equivalent to 
cotype, i.e., it covers all the specimens of the original series before 
the author when a species was described *.) 

Ventral. — Adjective applicable to the under surface of any part, 
especially the underside of the thorax or abdoraen. 

ViHex. — .The upper surface of the head, which bears the vesicle and 
ocelli. 

Vesicle. — A small eminence situated on the vertex of the head and 
which either overhangs the ocelli or is situated between them. 
In some species, such as those of the genus Idiorvyx, the vesicle 
is highly specialized in the males. In the Gomphidjh it is usually 
deeply bifid or produced into two points. 

•Vulvar scales. — The protective shoath of the ovipositor, formed of two 
plate-like siiruotures and attached to the sides of the ventral plates 
of the 8th and 9th abdominal segments of the female imago. They 
are small and inconspicuous in most of the Anisopibba, but 
prominent structures in most of the Zyooftbba, and archaic 
species of Anisoptbra. 

* Various lists defining the terms type, parcaype, etc., have been pub- 
lished. A list, including definitions of the several senses in which they 
are used, and of other cognate terms not used in these volumes, will 
be found in an article by Dr. Walther Horn, " XJeber den Musealen 
Missbrauch mit Insekten-Typen," X. Oongr^s International de 
Zoologie (Budapest, 1927), pt. a, pp. 1021-1042 1929). 



CORRIGENDA TO VOLUME I. 



Page xii, line 14, for " eximis " read " eximia." 
„ xii, line 37, /or " Burmeister " read " (Burmeister)." 

„ 30. Afber the last line of couplet 8 add : — 

" Sides of thorax greenish-blue, with two thick 

black stripes enclosing a narrow stripe of [Fras., p. 20." 
the ground-colour X,. nigriceps 

„ 54, line 27, for " Baghwonie " read " Baghownie." 
„ 78, line 13, for " 3 " read " 2 to nearly 4." 

„ 78, line 36, after " resembles " add " Genotype, Indo- 
lestes indica Fras." 

„ 78, after line 12 from bottom of page insert the foUowing 
key:— 

Key to the Species of Indolestes. 

{The mid-dorsal coloured stripe with superior 
and medial processes running out as far [p. 78. 
as the humeral suture indica Pras.' 
The mid-dorsal thoracic coloiu'-stripe with- 
out processes on its borders 2. 

fThe pterostigma four times as long as [p. 83. 

J broad assamioa Fras., 

2. J The pterostigma only twice as long as [p. 82 

L broad 6JZmeoto (Selys)' 

88, line 6 from bottom of page, for " Selys " read 
" (Selys)." 

„ 92. Bhinagrion mima. Delete whole of line 4 of the 

synonymy, 
yoji. n, I, 



xviii COKEIGBNDA. 

Page 96. Mesopodagrion tibetanum. Ddete lines 4 and 5 
of the synonymy. 

„ 121, line 7 from bottom of page, after "yellow" add 
" apices tipped with black in full adults only." 

„ 126, line 27, after " India " add " Since found quite 
commonly on many streams in Travancore 
during September." 

„ 141, line 5 from bottom of page, for " those " read 
" that." 

„ 212. Key to Species of Caconeura, couplet 6, after 
" verticalis v&rticalis" add the following lines : — 

"A red stripe traversing head from eye to eye; [nensis, p. 216." 
thorax entirely black beneath verticalis burma- 

„ 278, for couplet 6 at top of page, substitute the following : — 

"Segment 9 with the black dorsal marking 
bifld ; no apical black ring to this same 
segment ; ground-colour differing from that [p. 298. 

of the male rubricaps Selys, 

Segment 9 with the black dorsal marking 
bifid and with a black apical ring ; groiind- [(JECirby),p.299. 

colour similar to that of the male ceylanicum 

Segment 9 with the black dorsal marking not 
bifld 7." 

„ 294, line 3, for " Kajibthatkhana " read " Rajabhat- 
khana." 

,> 305, Hne 1, for " Burmeister " read " (Burmeister)." 

„ 305, hne 2, for " Burm. " read " (Burm.)." 

„ 310, hne 34, after " Stockholm " imeri " Museum." 

„ 318, line 14, for " risi " read " prmtermissum." 

„ 339, line 21, for " occidentalis " read " occidentale." 

„ 383, line 42, for "," read " and." 

„ 383, line 43, after " Jalpaiguri " insert " District." 

„ 395, hne 22, /or " Duars " read "Jalpaiguri District." 

„ 406, lines 17, 21, and 26, for "Agriocnemis " read 
Ar^iocnemis," 



COEBlaBNDA. XIX 

Page 406, line 18, /or " Odom." read " Odon." 

„ 408, line 23, for " Duars " read " Jalpaiguri District." 

419, line 10 from bottom of page, for " camponi " read 
" campioni." 

, 419, line 8 from bottom of page, for " antelopsoides " 
read " antelopoides." 

, 421, line 8, middle column, for "Agriocnemis " read 
"Argiocnemis." 

, 421, line 33, right column, for "Agriocnemis " read 
"Argiocnemis." 

, 421, line 40, riglit column, for " nursi " read " nursei." 

, 422, line 11 from bottom of page, middle column, for 
"Agriocnemis " read "Argiocnemis." 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX 



Page 
Suborder Zygopteba (con- 
tinued from Vol. I) . . 1 

Fam. Agriidae 1 

Subfam. Libbllagin^s! -^ 

1. Rhinocypba Ramhur .... 5 

1. cuneata (Se/y« 9 

2. spuria Selys 12 

3. quadrimaoulata Selys . . 14 

4. fenestrella Hambur .... 17 
6. iridea 8eh/s 20 

6. igrdpeimis Seh/s 23 

7. trimaculata Seh/s .... 25 

8. unimaculata Sdys .... 27 

9. bifasciata Sdys 29 

10. trifasciata Selps 31 

11. bifenestrata Fraser 33 

12. immaoulata Selys .... 35 

13. hilaryse Fraser 36 

14. whiteheadi Xtj-by .... 39 
16. perforata limbata Selys . 42 

16. perforata beatifioa 

Fraser 44 

17. biforata delimbata SfZys. 45 

18. biforata abbreviata 

Fraser 48 

19. biforata beesoni Fraser . 48 

20. bisignata Selys 49 

2. Calocypha Fraser 52 

1. laidlawi (Fraser) 53 

3. Chlorocyplia Fraser 55 

1. Tittata {Selys) .... 56 

4. LibeUago Selys 68 

1. lineata Uneata (Bur- 

meister) 60 

2. lineata indioa {Fraser) . 63 



Page 
LibeUago {cmtt.) 

3. lineata blanda (iSe?y«). . 65 

4. andam«tiensis [Fraset-) . 66 

5. finalis {Selys) 67 

6. greeni (Zaidlatv) 68 

7. aurantiaca {Selys) 70 

Subfam. EPALLAGINiE 7] 

1. Epallage Charpentier .... 75 

] . f atima ( Charpentier) . . 76 

2. Bayadera Selys 78 

1. indica Selys 79 

2. hyalina Selys 81 

3. longicauda Fraser .... 83 

3. Anisopleura Selys 84 

1. lestoides Selys 86 

2. comes Selys 87 

3. furcata Selys 89 

4. subplatystyla Fruser . . 89 

4. Dysphsea Selys 91 

1. etbela Fraser 92 

2. walli Fraser 94 

5. Allopbsea Fraser 95 

1. ochracea {Selys) 96 

2. brunnea (Selys) 98 

6. Pseiidopbsea Kirhy 99 

1 . splendens {Seh/s) 100 

2. masoni (Selys) 102 

7. Indopbcea Fraser 104 

1. dispar (Ramhur) 105 

2. eardinaljs Fraser 108 

3. fraseri (Laidlaw) 110 

Subfam. PHIL0GANG1N.S .... 112 

1. Philoganga Kirhy 114 

1. montana (Selys) 114 

2. loringae Frassr 116 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 





Page 


SulDfam, Aghiin^ 


lis 


1. Neui'obasis Selys 


119 


1. chinensis chinensis 




{Linn.) 


121 




I'W 


1. graeilia gvaoilia (Raw- 




to-) 


IL'B 


2. gracilis moutana, nom. 






IW 


3. apioalis apicalis Sebjs . . 


1:28 


4. apicalis submontana, 




nom. mv 


130 


5. nigrsseens Fraser 


131 


6. ainoeiia Selps 


133 


7. smarasj'dina Selys 


133 


1. Kcho Selys 


184 


1. margarita inargavita 




Selys 


136 


2. margarita tripartita 
Selys 




137 


4. Olimacobasis Laidlmc . . . . 


137 


1 . modesta LaiMaw 


188 


6, Mnais Selys 


139 


1. andersoni McLaoUan. . 


140 


2. eamsliawi Williamson 


142 


3. ieteroptera Fi-aser 


143 


6. Matrona Selys 


144 


1. loasilaris basilaris Selys 


145 


2. 'basilaris iiigi-ipectus 




Selys 


147 


Subfam. OALiPH^iN^aa 


148 


1, Caliphsea Selys 


149 


1. coufusa Selys 


149 


Suborder Ani sozitgopibba 


lei 


1. Epiophlebia 


161 


1. laidlawi Tillyard 


151 


Suborder Anisoptkra ... 


152 


Fam. Gomphidse 


164 


Subfam. Gomphinje 


1C7 


1, Davidius Selys 


160 


1. zallorensis zallorensis 




Selys 


103 


■ 2. zallorensis delineatus 




Fraser 


164 


3. aberrans aberrans Selys 


. IfiS 


4. aberrans seiiohalensis 




Fraser , 


167 


6. davidi assaiaensis 




Laidlaw . . . .' 


168 


6. mailoryi Fraser 


Ifif) 


7. kumaonensia Fraser . 


171 



2. Anormogomplius Selys 

1. hotojoptnruM Seli/s . . . 

2. kirit-schoiikoi Bartenef 

3. CyelogompliiiN Selys , 

1. ypsilun Selys . . . 

2. liettjrostylus Selys 

3. wilkiuHJ Fraser . 

4. gynost.ylus Fraxer 

4. AnisogDiaphu.i Selys . 

1. occipitii-lia Selys . 
2.. liivittatua Selys . 

3. oritan Laidlaw . . . 

4. caudalirt Fraser . 

5. CJompliu.i Leud/i 

1. pBraoJuUiis Selys . 

2. uilgiricu.s Laikkno 

3. o'dtiimli Friwr . 

6. PlatygoiuphuH Sehjs . 

1 . dolobmtus Selys . 

2. fea> Sehjs 

7. BurniagOHipluis Williamson 

1. pyraiuidaliH Lnidlma 

2. ■wiUlam.soui Fraser . 

3. liaainiaricus Fraser. 

4. sivalikeiiisiH Laidlaw 

5. sinuatua Fraser . . . 

6. laidlawi Frmer . . , 

7. caiiv«rieuH Frnser . 

8. V-flavum Friiser. . . 

8. Davidioidos /''raser 

1. martiui Fm.'ier 

9. M&Ho^am-phiia F}'ir.ifer , 

1. liueatiw (Se.lijs) . . , 

2. hoiiryi Laidhtw . , . 

3. liiidgreni Frnser . . . 

4. risi Fra,w 

f>. fwHitalis (Sulys) . . . 

10. Onychogouipbusi Selys . 

1. saundwsj Selys , , . 

2. duai'icua Frdsn- . . . 

3. bistrigatus (Selps) . 

4. striatus Fraser . . , 

5. M-flavuni Selys . . . 

6. aureus Laidlaw . . , 

7. grammicns (Sawiur, . 

8. echinoccipitalis Frassr 
9: dihgavani Fraser 

10. cerastes (Selys) 
11; circularis Selus 



12. earnahawi (Williamson) 26S 

13. aiinularis Selys "Jsk 

14. Hiaolachlani Seh/a . , 
16. puloberrifflus JS'Wer 

11. Lamelligotufhus Fraser 
1. bif creeps (*Wy«) .... 



Page 
172 



STSTBMATIC INDEX. 



XXIU 



Page 
Lamelligomplius (cont). 

2. risi (Fraser) 273 

S. caoharicus Fraser .... 275 

4. nilgiriensis (Fraser) . . 276 

5. malabarensis Fraser . . 279 

6. acinaees (Laidlaw) .... 280 
12. Nepogomphus, yen. nov. . . 282 

1 . modestus (Selys) 285 

2. walli {Frasei-) 286 

18, Sty logomplms i^rflser 288 

1. inglisi Fraser 290 

14. Megalogomphus Campion. 291 

1. smithi (Se/ys) 294 

2. hannyngtoni {Fraser) , . 296 
8. ceylonicus {Laidlaw) . . 298 

4. superbus Fraser 300 

5. bicornutus {Fraser) . . 308 

6. flavicolor {Fraser) 303 

15. Ophiogomplius Selys 305 

1. reductits Calvert 806 

16. Merogompbus Martin . . 309 

1. longistigma (Fraser) . . 311 

2. martini (Fraser) 313 

Subfam. Epigomphinjj) 315 

1. Sieboldius Selys 816 

1. nigricolor (Fraser) 318 

2. Perissogompbtts Laidlaw . . 319 

1. stevensi Laidlaw .... 821 

3. Bteliogompbus Laidlaw . . 322 

1. selysi Fraser 826 

2. nietueri (iSelys) 826 

3. promelas (Selys) 327 

4. kalarensis, sp. nov 329 

5. ceylonicus (Selt/s) 330 

6. walli Frasei- 881 

7. lyratus Fraser 388 



Page 
Heliogompbus (cont.). 

8, spirillus (Frase)-) 334 

4. Aciogompbus Laidlaw .... 335 

1. fraseri Laidlaw 837 

5. Macrogomphus Seb/s .... 339 

1. annulatua (Selys) .... 342 

2. wynaadicus Fraser .... 344 

3. montanus Selys 345 

4. seductus Fraser 347 

5. lankanensis Fraser .... 349 

6. Miorogomphus Selys 851 

1. torquatus (Selys) 853 

S. aouteri Fraser .'. 855 

3. verticalis (Selys) 357 

4. lilliputians Fraser 357 

5. loogali Fraser 358 

(). minusciilus (Selys) 360 

7. Leptogoniphus Selys 362 

1. inclitus Selys 364 

2. gestroi Selys 365 

8. bidentatus Fraser 867 

4. maculiverte.\- ? Selys . . 369 

Subfam. ICTiNiNiE 870 

1. Ictinus Hainhir 870 

1. rapax Rambur 373 

2. pertinax Selys 377 

8. angulosus Selys 378 

4. atrox Selys 379 

2. Gompbidia Selys 381 

1. T-nigrum Selys 383 

2. abbotti Williamson. ... 385 

3. fletcheri Fraser 386 

4. wiliiamsoni Fraser .... 387 

6. kodaguensis Fraser 389 

6. pearsoni Fraser 391 



Suborder ZYGOPTERA {continued). 

Family AGRIID^. (Fig. i.) 

Dragonflies of medium or large size, with the characters 
of the suborder Zygoptbea, of which they comprise, roughly 
one-third of the species. 

Wings long and usuaUymueh broader than in CcENAGEnD^, 
of equal size and shape, but hind-wings not uncommonly 
broader than fore-wings, petiolate or not, and, in the former 
case, petiole always very short; venation intricate, very 
close; antenodal nervures usually numerous and always 
more than two in number ; diseoidal cells of same shape in 




'•, IRi'ii Riit 

lA COii MA Riv+v 

Kg. 1 —Typical venation of Agriidse. Bs, basal or median space - 
Ana, Pns, antenodal and postnodal nervures ; N node • Arc are 
or aroulus ; Dc, disooidal cell ; Bi, Rii, Siii, lEiii, Bii+v, MA 
Ouii and lA, principal longitudinal nervures. ' 

fore- and hind-wings, nearly always traversed, elongate, and 
thomboidal ; arc situated nearer base of wing than node ; 
node situated about middle of wing. Abdomen variable in 
length, rarely longer than wings. Larvae very different 
in the several subfamilies, possessing two or three caudal, 
and occasionally paired abdominal, g2ls ; always breeding in 
running waters. 

Distribvtion.—Oosmopdlitan. The Indian farma includes 
representatives of five subfamilies. 

VOL. n. B 



2 AGEIIDiE. 

Key to Subfamilies of the Agriidse. 

iPetiolation of wings ending opposite to, or 
slightly proximal to, level of are 2. 
Petiolation absent or ending far proximal to 
level of arc 3. 

' Pterostigma short ; discoidal cell traversed by 
a nervure, convex costalwards and of only 
half length of median space; cubital nervures [p. 148. 

numerous -. OAUMiMiy.is, 

Pterostigma long; discoidal cell entire, costal 
and hinder borders straight, not more than 
one-fifth length of median space; only [p. 112. 

a single cubital nervure PmiMOA.xaix.K, 

Sectors of arc arising from lower third of arc ; 
discoidal cell convex costalwards and as 

long as median space , Amuixx, p. 1 18. 

Sectors of arc arising from middle, or above 
middle, of arc ; discoidal cell straight and 

shorter than median space 4. 

'Epistome ttimid and projecting markedly, like 
a nose, in front of face; abdomen shorter 

than wings 

Epistome normal, face depressed and sloping; 
abdomen always longer than wings Ei'.ii.r..uiix.ii, p. 71 . 



3. 



4. 



Subfamily LIBELLAGINJE. (Fig. 2.) 

LibdlagincB Laidlaw, Keo. Ind. Mus. vol. xiii, p. 24 (1917). 

Head robust, triangular ; eyes oval, large, projecting 
posteriorly, moderately separated from one another ; frons 
horizontal, rather longer than broad ; occiput linear, very 
narrow ; face projecting, as long as the head is broad, anto- 
and post-olypeus very tumid and projecting, rounded and 
vesiculated ; labium slightly longer than broad, split nearly 
to its base into two narrow triangular parts ; labrum oval ; 
antennae with first segment rudimentary, second segment 
cylindrical, the most robust of all, third segment longer 
and more slender, with its apex slightly tumid, terminal or 
apical segment longer than third. 

Prothorax elongate, narrower in front than behind, anterior 
Ijorder raised, hind border with a large lobe, tumid and oval 
in shape. 

Thorax moderately robust, compressed, forming about one- 
quarter total length of body, elongate, dorsum flattened, 
mdd-thoracic carina often bifid so as to enclose a triangular 
space variable in length, extending from one-fourth to whole 
length of carina (when present, known as the " mesothoracic 
.triangle," and important for differentiating species). 

Legs long and slender, extending to apical end of segment 4 
in male, to end of segment 7 in female. Femora and tibise 



UBBLLAGIIT^. 3 

with, long hair-like spines ; tibisB sometimes dilated, often 
densely pulverulent on the flexor surface ; tarsal claws with 
a small spine at end, barely visible in some species (Bhinocypha). 
Wings hyaline or opaque, metallic or iridescent in male, 
usually uncoloured in female and all long and narrow, of 
same length, but in some genera hind- wings of male distinctly 
broadened, always longer than abdomen, especially in female, 
markedly petiolated ; reticulation close, cells tetragonal in 
shape. Bii and IRii not fused with Biv-^v : node nearer 
base of wing than apex ; basal space entire, slightly longer 
than half cubital space ; discoidal cell straight, very narrow, 
traversed by one or several nervures, about one-third shorter 
than basal space, its ends squared or outer end oblique ; arc 




Fig. 2. — Rhinocypha spuria Selys, male. 



nearly straight or markedly bent ; its sectors arising &om 
near middle, from a single point or moderately separated ; Guii 
nearly straight or making a costalwards curve after leaving 
discoidal cell; I A without an inferior branch, straight or 
curved posteriorwards or undulated; no intercalated sectors 
between Cuii and lA ; most sectors running straight, with 
but a little curve towards termen of wing ; many intercalated 
sectors ; 4 to 20 antenodal nervures, first and second or third 
being the primaries, all others not coinciding in the costal 
and subcostal series ; pterostigma present in all wings, except 
in fore- wings of male of LibeUago, long and narrow. 

Abdomen broad, depre3sedj .especially in male, short, 
.segments I and'2 very short, remainder nearly equal in length, 

b2 



AGRIIDiE. 



squared. Anal appendages all very similar, superiors twice' 
as long as segment 10, cylindrical, slightly broader at base, 
curved pincer-like towards one another at apices ; inferiors 
very short, more robust, cylindrical, blunt at apices. Genitalia 
different in the several genera. 

Larvae.— OjAj three larvae of the Libbulaginjs, two of 
Minocypha and one of Libellago, are known. All three agree 
in everything except minor details, so that those of other 
genera of the subfamily are doubtless similar. 

These larvae are very sluggish in habits, cryptic in colouring, 
and therefore difiaeult to find. They cling to roots or broken- up 
d6bris in slow-running streams or at the bottoms of pools in 
streams with swifter current. I have found the easiest way 
to take them is to dredge out a quantity of such debris and 
spread it on the foreshore of the stream, exposed to the sun. 
As soon as it has drained and the creatures have begun to 
feel the heat of their new environment they will begin to 
stir from their lethargy, and as a consequence are at once 
easily detected. 

They possess three spine-like caudal gills, which are un- 
developed in the earher instars. All appear to have banded 
limbs and most of them have cryptic brown markings on the 
head, thorax, and abdomen. The mask is deeply fissured, 
the edges of the fissures overlapping ; the lateral lobos are 
cheliform and furnished with a long movable hook. Tho 
whole mask is of remarkable length, extending back when in 
repose to the hinder legs. 

The gizzard has numerous folds, usually 16 in number, 
each bearing a row of 4 to 5 teeth. The antennse long and 
8- jointed, the basal one very short, the penultimate of groat 
length. 

Autotomy of the caudal gUls is accomplished with tho greatest 
ease, so that it is difficult to obtain a specimen with both gills 
intact ; probably the gills serve more for dofenco than for 
respiration, as the larvae certainly live quite well without them. 

For details of the respective larvae the reader is referred 
to J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. xxxii, pi. iii, figs. 1-.'J, 
p. 690 (1928). 

Distribution. — ^Africa, Southern Asia, Philippines, and 
Australia. 

Key to Genera of the Libellaginse. 



2. 



' Sectors of arc separated at origia ; ptero- 
stigma present in all four wings of both 

seses 

Sectors of are arising from a common 
point; fore-wing of male without 
a pterostigma Libshlaoo Selys, p. 08. 



EHINOCYPHA. 5 

{Wings stalked (petiolated) to far distal [p. 52. 

of nervure Ac (cubital nervure) Caiooypha Fraser, 
Wings stalked to sliglitly proximal of 

nervure Ac 3. 

Wings (at least hind-wings, except in 

SMnoaypha immaoulata) coloiured in [p. 5. 

;3. ^l male ; I A not zigzagged at its origin • . BhiniOCYFHA Bambvir, 
Wings uncoloured in both sexes; I A zig- [p. 55. 

zagged from its origin CKLOEOOYPHi Eraser, 



Genus RfflNOCYPHA Rambur. 

Agrion Gu6rin, Mag. ZooL, Ins. vol. i, t. 15 (1831); Pereheron, Gen. 
Ins., Neur. t. 2 (1835). 

Calopteryx Burmeister, Handb. Ent. vol. ii, p. 826 (1839). 

lAbeUago (pars) Selys, Mon. Lib. Burop. p. 200 (1840). 

Shinoeypha Rarabur, Ins. N^vrop. p. 232 (1842); Selys, Syn. Cal. 
p. 59 (1853); Walker, List Neur. Ins. Brit. Mus. vol. iv, p. 645 
(1853); Selys, Mon. Cal. p. 198 (1854); Kirby, Cat. Odon. p. 112 
(1890); Williamson, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xxviii, pp. 173-175 
(1905); Ris, Ent. Mitteil. vol. v, pp. 310-311 (1916); Laidlaw.Reo. 
Ind. Mus. vol. xiii, pp. 33-39 (1917); Eraser, J. Bombay Nat. 
Hist. Soc. vol. xxix, p. 478 (1923); id., ibid. vol. xxxii, pp. 185- 
189 (1927). 

Characters as for the subfamily ; wings of male, less rarely 
■of female also, coloured vividly with metallic blues, violet, 
.green or fiery coppery, at least in hind-wings, often with clear 
vitreous spots and stripes on hind-wings, which glow with 
opalescent rainbow tints ; antenodal nervures numerous, 
always more than six ; I A not tmdulated at its origin ; petiola- 
tion always ending proximal to ac ; shape of wings very 
variable, either all four very long and narrow, or hind- 
wing considerably dilated at its middle. Mesothoracic 
triangle nearly always present and brightly coloured in most 
species, of variable length, sometimes extending up to alar 
sinus, but often much shorter than this. Legs long and slim, 
hind pairs of tibiae nearly always pruinosed white or yellow 
■on the flexor surface. Anal appendages as for subfamily. 

Larva. — ^Body short and robust, head squarish, eyes 
representing outer angles, antennae seven- jointed, segments 
becoming progressively smaller from base to apex ; prothorax 
small, furnished with four small protuberances on dorsum ; 
wing-eases lying parallel along dorsum; abdomen short and 
cylindrical ; legs of great length in earlier instars, of moderate 
length in adult, hind tibise extending to a short distance 
beyond anal end of abdomen, minutely spiaed, striped with 
pigment ; mask deeply bifid in final instars, edges of fissure 
usually overlapping to enclose a small foramen, very long 
and flattened, extending as far as base of middle pair of legs 
in adult, furnished with two lateral setae and three hooks 



6 AGEIIDiE. 

which may be bifid at apex, movable hook of great length ; 
caudal gills two in number, triquetral in shape, heavily 
spined, 11th abdominal tergite present as an appendix dorsaUx 
unmodified as a gill. Gizzard with sixteen folds, each bearing 
fouri to five teeth. Pound in running water, usually montane 
or 'submontane streams, clinging to weed or submerged 
twigs, etc. 
Distribution. — Oriental and Australasian regions. 
Genotjrpe, B. tincta Rambur. 

Bhinocypha forms a large genus of medium-sized dragonflies, 
and includes some of the most beautiful species of tlie order. 
Not only do their wings display an inimitable play of scintil- 
lating colours, ranging through blues, greens, violet, pink 
to gorgeous fiery coppery red*, but the bodies in most cascvs 
are also gaily decorated with red and blue or yellow of many 
shades. The picture afforded by a couple of males circling 
round one another, their wings glittering with multitiKlhions 
rainbow hues, as they compete for the affections of an adtniiing 
female, is not readily forgotten. They arc the living gems 
of tropic streams, and delight the eye of even a ca.sual observer. 
When matiag, the males perform a kind of nu]itial dances 
before the female, during which they make a great display 
of the white pulverulent flexor surface of the hinder pairs 
of tibise. The legs are trailed and show up dazzlingly white 
in thfe strong sunshine. Meanwhile the fore-wings flutter' 
rapidly to support the insect, whilst the hinder pair are lield 
flat to display their wealth of colour. The female, perchtxl 
on a prominent twig beside the stream, appears to bo totally 
unconcerned by her mate's efforts to attrac^t her. Om-- 
very rarely sees a pair in copula, although vast nunil)ers 
of both sexes may be present on the banks of the stream. 
Less ]^arely a female may be seen ovipositing on a floating 
twig or broken reed. 

Because of the large number of species, it is (>xtrem('ly 
difiicult to establish relationships, and their distribution 
presents many apparently insoluble problems. Roughly 
the whole genus may bo split up into two large divisions : — 

{a) Those with narrow wings, tlie hind scarcely broa<ler 
than the fore, and in which Riii is widely separated and distal 
to the subnode : e. g., R. biforata, perforata, Msignata, etc. 

(&) Those with broader wings, the hind usually being much 
broader than the fore, and in which Riii comes off from the 
subnode : e. g. R. cuneata, spuria, quadrimaculata, irjnipannis, 
etc. 



* The colours of the wings of species of Rhmocypha are entirely duo 
to iridescence. By transmitted light the wings merely show varying 
shades of brown. 



EHINOCYPHA. 7 

B. ignipennis, trimaculata, and unimaculata are clearly 
fairly closely related, not only from the colour of the Tvlngs, 
coppery in all, but also from the fact that all have an aborted 
mesothoracic triangle. 

R. iridea, which shares this latter character, I am inclined 
to view as closely related, as the fore-wings are often coppery. 

A quite natural series, which may incUcate a possible line 
of evolution, is as follows : — 

B. immaculaia — hilaryce — bifasciata — trifasciata — bifene- 
strata — spuria — and so on to the fenestrella group. 

So far as the seventeen Indian species are concerned, it is 
possible to place them in four more or less natural groups, 
of which group perforata appears to be the most primitive. 

Group I. — Fenestrella. 

Third branch of radius {Riii) arising at subnode ; wings 
opaque black, with iridescent vitreous spots of blue, violet, 
or emerald-green ; hind- wings considerably broader than 
fore- wings ; mesothoracic triangle very large, extending 
to antealar sinus, coloured : cuneata — spuria — fenestrella — 
quadrimMculata. 

Group II. — Bifasciata. 

Third branch of radius arising at subnode or very sHghtly 
distal to it ; wings hyaline, or hind-wings marked with one 
or more opaque black bands running from costa to posterior 
border ; hind-wings only shghtly broader than fore- wings ; 
mesothoracic triangle very large, extending to antealar sinus, 
coloured : immacndata — hilaryce — bifasciata — trifasciata — 
bifenestrata. 

Group III. — Unimaculata. 

Third branch of radius arising from subnode or shghtly 
distal to it ; wings fiery metalhc coppery, with iridescent 
vitreous spots of pink, violet, or green {iridea has hind- wing 
and costal border of fore-wing opaque black, with golden 
or violaceous vitreous spots and stripe) ; hind-wings usually 
broader than fore- wings ; mesothoracic triangle obsolete : 
unimaculata — ignipennis — trimaculata — iridea. 

Group IV. — Perforata. 
Third branch of radius arising weU distal to subnode ; 
hiad- wings not broader than fore- wings, both pairs very 
narrow ; hind- wings opaque only in outer third or half, this 
area marked with one or two rows of iridescent vitreous 
spots ; mesothoracic triangle short, not extending more than 
half-way towards antealar sinus : perforata — biforata — bisig- 
nata — whiteheadi . 



AGEIID.^. 



Key to Indian Species of Rhinocypha. 

[p. 35. 

, f Wings uncoloured in both sexes imtnaculata Selys, 

■ \ Wings coloured, at least partly, in male. 2. 

(Dorsal mesothoraoio triangle extending 
as far as root of wings 3. 
Dorsal mesothoracie triangle either ab- 
sent, uncoloured, or extending not more 
than half-way up to root of wings. ... 8. 

f Hind- wings of male with opaque bands . 4. 
3. -i Hind- wings of male opaque, with vitreous 
L spots 6. 

' Hind-wings of male with apex narrowly 
black and an incomplete (more rarely 
complete) black band just proximal 
to pterostigma hilanjce Fras., p. 36. 

Hind-wing with apex narrowly black and 
a black band lying about mid-way 
between pterostigma and node hifasciata Selys, p. i9. 

Similar to last, but with a third, incom- 
plete, black band at level of node .... 5. 

{Apical, medial, and nodal bands separated, trifasciata Solys, p. 3 1 . 
All three bands connected narrowly 
along costal and hinder borders of 

wing, thus enclosing two largo spaces, bifenestrata Fras.,p. 33. 

" The large apical vitreous spot separated 
from the costal border by not more 

than one or two rows of cells cuneata Selys, p. 9. 

Apical vitreous spot separated from 
costal border by at least throe or four 
rows of cells 7. 

Apical vitreous spot moderately small, 
lying exactly under pterostigma; [p. 17. 

medium-sized species feneatrella Ramb., 

Apical vitreous spot large, lying almost 
entirely proximal to line of ptero- 
stigma; mid-row of vitreous spots 
more or less confluent; large species, 
hind-wing 27-28 mm spuria Solys, p. 12. 

Apical vitreous spot moderately large, 
lypg partly proximal to line of ptero- 
stigma; mid-row of vitreous spots 
always well separated, costal spot 

extending much nearer to node than] quadrimaculata Selya, 
middle spot; small species, hind- wing y p. 14, and race hemi- 

. 20-24 mm J hyalina FimiT, p. 17 . 

Mesothoracie triangle uncoloured or 
entirely obsolete ; hind-wing distinctly 
broader than fore-wing 9, 

Mesothoracie triangle coloured, extend- 
ing from one-third to half-way up 
dorsum; hind-wing nearly same 
as fore-wing j , . 13. 



V.i 



a. J 



10, 



11 



BHINOCYPHA. 9 

Wings fiery burnished coppery metallic ; 

no opaque areas in fore-wings 10. 

Wings opaque black, hind-wing with 

a sickle-shaped vitreous spot at distal 

end which partially encircles outer 

row of vitreoxis spots ; costal border of 

fore-wing narrowly black nearly as far 

as node indea Selys, p. 20. 

'Hind-wing with a large subquadrate 

violet-green vitreous spot at its centre; [p. 27. 

very large species ummaculata Selys, 

Hind-wing with a medial row of vitreous 

spots and an inner linear spot 11. 

Small species; hind-wing 23 mm. or less ; 

inner vitreous spot very elongate .... trvmaculataBAys, p. 25. 
Larger species; hind-wing 26 mm. or 

more; inner vitreous spot much 

shorter ignipennis Selys, p. 23. 

("Only apical third of hind-wing opaque; 

22 J a siagle row of vitreous spots 13. 

■ j Apical half of hind-wing opaque; two\perforata Perch, and 

j_ rows of vitreous spots J [subsp., pp. 41-44. 

' Mesothoraoio triangle very small, pink;l biforata subsp. biforaia 

vitreous spots elongate; only extreme V Selys and abbreviata 

apex of fore-wing tipped with black . . J Fras., pp. 45& 48. 
Mesothoracie triangle larger, extending 

half-way along dorsxim, pink; vitreous") Sj/orato subsp. delim- 

spots shorter ; apex of fore-wing tipped ( bata Selys and bee- 

with black as far as inner end of ptero- f soni Fras., pp. 45 & 

stigma J 48. 

Similar to the last, but nearly the apical 

third of fore-wing black bisignata Selys, p. 49. 

Mesothoraoio triangle small, blue; an 

isolated spot distal to the row of 

vitreous spots; opaque area of fore- 
wing equal to that of hind-wing, 

intensely black, the vitreous spots 

peacock-blue ; wings markedly 

roxmded at apices wMteheaM Kirby, p. 39. 



169. Rhinocypha euneata Selys. (Fig. 3 and PI. I, fig. 1.) 

Rhinocypha euneata Selys, Syn. Cal. p. 60 (1853); id., Mon. Cal. 
p. 206 (1854); Kirby, Cat. Odon. p. 113 (1890); Williamson, 
Proe. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xxviii, pp. 173, 174 (1905); Laidlaw, 
Reo. Ind. Mus. vol. xiii, p. 36, pi. ii (1917) ; Fraser, J. Bombay- 
Nat. Hist. Soo. vol. xxix, p. 478 (1923); id., ibid. vol. xxxii, 
pp. 189, 190, pi. ii, fig. 2 (1927). 

LibeVago euneata Walker, List Ne\u:. Ins. Brit. Mus. iv, p. 650 
(1853). 

Bhinocypha adamantina Forster, Ann. Mus. Nat. Hung. vol. i, 
p. 547 (1903). 

Male. — Abdomen 24 mm. Hind-wing 27-28 mm. 
Head : ground-colour velvety black ; labium black ; labrum 
black, with a pale blue spot on either side ; rest of head 



13 



10 AGEIIDJ5. 

unmarked save for a tiny spot of rust-red on outer side of 
ocelli, and another smaller, bluish spot on each side of occiput ; 
■ eyes brown. Prothomx black, with a pale blue longitudmal 
streak on the mid-dorsum of posterior lobe. Thorax black ; 
mesothoracic triangle very large, extending as far as antealar 
sinus, pointed at apex, palest blue in colour, a tiny humoral 
point just behind upper end of humeral auturo, a linear streak 
along anterior border of second lateral suture, not extending 
up as far as wing-roots, and dividing into two snuiU spots 
below ; lastly, an upper short streak on rnctopinieron, all 
reddish-yellow. Legs black, the two hinder pairs of tibiae 
pure white from dense pruinescence on flexor surfaces, distal 
portion of hind femora less so. Wings opaque from apices 
to about 5 to 7 cells proximal to node, bases hyaline, palely 
saffronated; opaque area in fore-wings occupying roughly 
about costal half of wing, hinder border of this area serrate ; 
ill hind-wings this area begins 4 to 5 cells proximal to node 
and runs obliquely back and out from tliiH ])oint in a very 




Pig. 3. — ^Wings of Bhinact/pha cuneata Solys. main. 

irregular and serrate manner, leaving a vitreous sti'eak of 
pale violaceous anterior to discoidal cell, which deeply indents 
the opaque area and runs inward to a little beyond iimor end of 
discoidal cell ; inner border of the opaqxic area, poHtorior to 
the discoidal cell, also violaceous vitreous. The opaque* area 
presents a medial row of spots, all more or less csonfluent, 
and presenting an infinite variety of patterns. The anterior 
or costal spot lies between iilj and Riii (first and third branches 
of radius), and is usually separated from the hinder two ; 
it extends inward well beyond the others. Posterior spots 



EHINOCYPHA. H 

usually confluent, extending to within one cell-row of hind 
border of wing. In addition to this medial row, a very large 
preapieal spot extends from Ri nearly to hind border of wing, 
oval in outline, its inner and outer borders serrate, its outer 
border in line with inner end of pterostigma. The latter 
black, with an elongate spot of pale blue at its centre. Iri- 
descent spots and vitreous hind area of fore-wings peacock- 
blue or pale violaceous, according to angle from which they 
are viewed. Abdomen black, unmarked. Superior anal 
appendages slender, moderately separated, slightly curved 
in at apices. 

Female. — Hind- wing 28-30 mm. Abdomen 21 mm. 

The following description is made from specimens from 
Turzum, near Darjeehng : — 

Head marked as in male, but with the following additional 
spots, all bright ochreous : — A small spot on each side of the 
anterior ocellus and just anterior to its level ; a large spot 
at base of antennse, a pyriform spot on each side of frons, 
cheeks narrowly, bases of mandibles, and, finally, a small spot 
or stripe on each side of rhinarium. Prothorax black, marked 
with bright ochreous as follows : — A median streak on dorsum 
of posterior lobe as in male, a short streak on sides and a large 
oval spot laterally, just below posterior lobe. Thorax black, 
marked with bright ochreous as follows : — Fine Unes on 
humeral and median lateral sutures, incomplete below, same 
markings as seen in male but considerably broader, especially 
the metepimeral marking, which is broad and roughly tri- 
angular ; finally, a minute antehumeral streak on lower part of 
thorax. Mesothoracic triangle mapped out in lines of yellow. 
Legs black, not pruinosed. Wings hyaline, evenly enfumed 
throughout, so that they appear brown when overlapping 
and folded over dorsum. Abdomen black, marked with 
ochreous as follows : — ^Dorsal cariaa finely as far as segment 7, 
a zigzag lateral stripe on segment 1, a lateral basal longitudinal 
stripe and an apical spot on segments 2 to 4, and the spot only 
on segments 5 to 7 ; ventro-lateral stripe on segments 2 to 6. 
In some specimens many of these markings are more or less 
obsolete, younger specimens being as a rule better marked. 
Anal appendages black, pointed, cylindrical, twice as long as 
segment 10 ; vulvar scale very robust, extending to end of 
abdomen ; pterostigma brownish-black, clouded with enfumed 
white, oblique, and rather squared distally, pointed within. 

Distribution. — Noetheen Bengal and Assam. I possess- 
specimens from Gopaldhara, Assam, and from Mungpoo and 
Turzum, Darjeeling District, collected by Messrs. H. Stevens,. 
Oscar Lindgren, and Chas. M. Inglis. The type is said to 
have come from Tibet and may well have done so ; it is- 
a male in the Selysian collection. 



12 AGEHDJi!. 

R. adamantina Forst. is obviously merely a variety of this 
species ; the type, from Sikkim, is in the Michigan University 
collection. 

The species is easily distinguished by the apical vitreous 
spot encroaching to within one or two colls of the costal 
margin of the wing. 

170. Rhinoeypha spuria Selys. (Fig. 2). 

RUnocypha spuria Selys, Bull. Aead. Belg. (2) vol. xlvii, p. 388 
(1879); Kirby, Cat. Odon. p. 113 (1890); Selys, Ann. Mus. Civ. 
Genov. (2) vol. x (xxx), p. 491 (1891); "Williamson, Proc. U.S. 
Nat. Mus. vol. xxviii, pp. 173, 174, & 177 (1 905) ; Laidlaw, Kec. 
Ind. Mus. vol. xiii, pp. 36, 37 (1917); Frasor, J. Bombay Nat. 
Hist. Soo. vol. xxix, p. 478 (1923) ; id., ibid. vol. xxxii, pp. 190- 
192 (1927). 

Male. — Hind-wing 27-28 mm. Abdomen 24 mm. 

Head : black, marked with citron-yellow as follows : — 
A small oval spot on outer side of each posterior ocellus and 
a tiny occipital spot on each side, these markings being similar 
to those of JR. cuneata ; labium black, labrum unmarked. 
Prothorax black, marked with citron-yellow as follows : — 
A linear streak on mid-dorsum of posterior lobe and a small 
spot at each of its outer angles, another larger spot below 
this and a large triangular spot on each side of middle lobe. 
Thorax black, marked with yellow as follows :■ — An upper 
linear antehumeral spot, an upper humeral stripe broken 
above, close to hind border of suture, a broad irregular 
stripe on sides on hind part of mcsepimeron, and an elongate 
triangular streak on hind part of metepimeron, which is often 
broken in two ; lastly, and occasionally, a small spot on upper 
part of mesepimeron and a tiny streak along upper part of 
first lateral suture. All these markings, both protlioracie 
and thoracic, subject to variation, the prothoraeic and smaller 
markings on thorax often obsolete. Mosothoracic triangle 
very long and broad, liJaceous. Legs black, the two posterior 
pairs of tibise snowy white from pruinesconco on flexor surface. 
Wings opaque black, with a steely blue or green reflex in 
outer three-fourths, marked with vitreous spots and areas of 
lilaceous or purple ; in some lights these spots have a mother- 
of-pearl reflex. In the fore-wing the opaque area covers 
costal three-fourths, the vitreous area posterior to it having 
a beautiful violaceous reflex ; border of opaque area markedly 
serrate ; inwardly it begins four cells proximal to node and 
has a markedly jagged border ■, in the hind-wings the same 
area begins about 2 to 3 cells proximal to the node, and is 
indented by two vitreous areas, the anterior of which extends 
in for a distance of 4 to 5 cells, the posterior, which is on. the 
wing-border, for a distance of 3 to 4 cells. The vitreous 



EHINOCYPHA. 13^ 

areas in this wing consist of a middle row of spots and an 
apical, the latter lying mth its outer two-thirds under the 
pterostigma, and nearly quadrate in shape, being bounded 
by IBii and ISiii. Middle row of spots rather variable, 
consisting of four linear spots, the anterior or costal one made 
up of 2 rows of cells, the next of 2 or 3 at its outer end, the 
third of some isolated cells and the hinder of 2 or 3 rows at its 
outer end. The inner border of these four rows forms a slightly 
convex outline, the second being a little more distal than 
the others. About 20 antenodal nervnres in both wings ; 
4 to 5 traversing nervures in discoidal cell. Pterostigma 
blackish-brown, marked with a very large, elongate, lilaceous 
spot in the hind- wings. Abdomen black, with dark metallic 
reflex, segment 1 with a small lateral yellow spot, 2 and 3 
with a linear streak along ventral border. Anal appendages 
similar to those ofB. cuneata. 

Female. — ^Abdomen 22 mm. Hind- wing 30 mm. 

Head velvety black, marked with bright ochreous spots ; 
labium black, its lateral lobes white ; labrum black, the whole 
of its central area yellow, deeply notched by a tongue-like 
prolongation of the black at its base. In addition to the 
spots found in the male, bases of mandibles broadly, cheeks 
and basal segment of antennse, a small triangular spot on 
each side of rhinarium, a large triangular spot on each side- 
of upper surface of frons, a small spot on each side of the 
anterior ocellus, and, lastly, a small medial oval spot on 
occiput, yellow. Proihorax marked as in male, but rather 
more extensively. Thorax with similar yellowish markings 
as in male, but these are greenish-yellow in hue and much 
more extensive. The upper and anterior lines bordering 
the humeral and first lateral sutures are generally complete,, 
and the antehumeral marking becomes a weU-marked stripe 
extending in a curved manner inwards from the upper end 
of the humeral suture towards the antealar sinus and then 
straight down the whole length of the dorsum parallel to the 
mesothoracic triangle, which is finely outlined in yellow. 
Wings evenly enfiimed and palely safEronated throughout, 
hyaline, unmarked ; pterostigma black, its central area 
ochreous ; 14 to 16 antenodal nervures in hind- and fore-wings. 
Legs black, the two posterior pairs of tibiae pruinosed. Abdomen 
metallic-black, with the following yellow markings : — Seg- 
ments 2 to 7 with the mid-dorsal carina narrowly yellow ; 
segment 1 with its apical border and a large curved or angulated 
lateral spot ; segments 2 to 5 with a longitudinal basal stripe 
and an apical spot, as well as a ventro-lateral stripe. On 
segment 6, and sometimes 7, the apical spot only present. 
Segments 2 to 6 with apical border laterally yellowish. Anal 
appendages and vulvar scale as in cuneata. 



14 A(;Rrii).K. 

Distribidion.— Assam : Shilloni;. Burma: Kalaw, Hoiithem 
Shall States ; Chin HIUh. 

R. spuria is one of the Uirgestand most beautiful Mpeeicvs of 
the gemis. It is spcciiieally distinct from R. quadrimaculakt,, 
which is one of the smallest species oi' the gcuus. Thci 
difference in size is so striking that wlum plai'ed side by- 
side there is never any doubt as to whicOi is whieh. Both 
Wilhamson and Laidlaw, however, express the opinion that, 
judging by the descriptions, the two are eons])ecific, so that 
it s'eeins advisable to settle this point once ai\(l for all by 
pointing out the difforonces. In a large number of specimens 
I find : — 

R. spuria. A', (jiiiidrhmantlata. 

Reticulation of wings rather llnliculiitioii very claw*. 

open. 

Vitreous stripes in hind-wing Vitrooiis striptw (ixloiiding dis- 

invading opaque black area for a talwards into <)pa<)no area I'or 
distance of 3 to 5 cells. a diHtani'o oC 7 to 8 coMm. 

Apical vitreous spot nearly Apical vitreous wpot trans- 

square, limited posteriorly by vcn-scly olonpito, inurh tiawowcr 
nervureliim. than lonR, oxtomlint; one colI-row 

posterior to [Riil. 
Middle row of spots always four Middle row of npot.s alinost 

in number; second spot from costal always three in iunnb(T; michllo 
border equal in length to hinder spot much shorter tlia,u hinder 
spot, inset but slightly; inner spot and insot markedly to Iho 
border of spots shallowly concave. others, so that th<» inner hordor uf 

spots is ckioply i^oncravo. 
Abdomen 24 mm. Hind-wing Abdomen 1 9 mm. Hind -wing 

28 mm. 21 mm. 

The extent and shape of the apical spot is the bcsst guide. 
Type in the Brussels Museum. 

171. RMnoeypha quadrimaeulata Solys. (Fig. 4.) 

Shinocypfia guadnmacidata Selys, Syn. Cal. p. 60 (1853); id., 
Mon. Cal. p. 202 (1854); Kirby, 'Cat. Odon. p. 112 (1890); 
Williamson, Proo. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xxviii, pp. 173, 174, 17r), 
176-7 ( 1905) ; Laidlaw, Eoo. lad. Mus. vol. xiii, pp. 30, ,'{7 ( 1 9 1 7) ; 
Fraser, Mem. Dept. Agrio. India (Ent.), vol. vii, p. 64 (1»3J ); id., 
J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. xxxii, pp. 192, lOI! (1927). 

lAbellago quadrimaoulata Walker, List Nour. Ins. Brit. Mum. iv, 
p. 651 (1853). 

Male. — Abdomen 19 mm. Hind-wing 21 mm. 

Head black, with a small spot on outer side of each posterior 
ocellus and a smaller spot on each aide of occiput ; labium 
and labrum black, unmarked. Prothorax black, unmarked. 
Thorax black, marked with yellow as follows :— A fine humeral 
line interrupted below, and a moderately broad lateral stripe 
on anterior border of hind lateral suture. Occasionally 
a small elongate spot on metepimeron, but this, as well as 
the humeral marking, usually absent. (Teneral specimens 



EHIKOCYPHA. 15 

have markings very similar to those of R. spuria, both on 
prothorax and thorax, but, although retained in adults of this 
species, they are invariably lost in adults of ii!. quadrimaculata, 
excepting the broader lateral stripe.) Mesothoracic triangle 
narrow, long, pink. Legs black, distal halves of two posterior 
pairs of femora, and tibise, snowy-white on the flexor 
surfaces from pruinescence. Wings shaped as in R. cuneata 
and £. spuria, hind-wings considerably broader than fore- 
wings, and dilated at middle, opaque black, with dark plum- 
coloured steely reflex, and marked with vitreous areas and 
spots as follows : — An apical spot, much broader than long, 
bounded by Bii costalwards, overlapping by one row of cells 
IRiii posteriorly, its inner and outer borders serrate ; a medial 
row of spots, usually 3 in number, but occasionally 4, the 




Kg. 4. — Wings of Bhinocypha qvadrimaculata Selys, male. 

anterior or costal spot made up of 2 rows of cells, and extending 
in towards the node much nearer than the other two spots of 
the series, the second or middle spot much shorter than the 
other two, and situated more distal than either ; third spot, 
when it exists, made up of 2 or 3 cells only ; lastly, posterior 
spot situated obliquely, so that its outer posterior corner 
may be in apposition to hind border of wing, made up of 3 rows 
of cells. At the inner border of the opaque area, which is 
very irregular, are seen two deep indentations due to invasion 
of hyaline vitreous areas ; these vary in extent, but usually 
invade the opaque area for a distance of 6 to 8 cells. In the 
fore-wing the opaque area covers the costal three-fourths, 
its hind border being markedly serrate, and its inner border, 
which extends 4 to 5 cells proximal to the node, markedly 



16 AG-EHD-^. 



dentate. The area posterior to the black area vitreous and 
peacock-blue or piu-ple, according to the angle of vie-w. Vitreous 
spots and areas in hmd-wing purple or emerald-green, according 
to angle from which viewed. Antenodal nervures 16 to 18 
in number ; discoidal cell traversed 4 to 5 times ; pterostigma 
black. Abdomen black, with a vestigial lateral spot on sides 
of first segment and ventro-lateral stripes on third and fourth. 
Anal appendages as for R. spuria. 

Female. — ^Abdomen 20 mm. Hind-wing 25 mm. 

Head velvety black, marked with ochreous spots as follows : — 
A reniform spot on outer side of each posterior ocellus, a largish 
rounded spot on each side of occiput, and a medial oval or 
linear spot between and behind them on hind border of occiput. 
An oval spot in front of, and on each side of, anterior ocellus, 
a large triangular spot on each side of frons, a large spot on 
each side of rhinarium and a larger one on the summit of that 
structure. Cheeks, bases of mandibles broadly, second joint 
of antennas, and, lastly, two larger triangular spots on labrum, 
bright ochreous ; labium black, inner borders of lateral 
lobes yeUowish-white. Prothorax black, with a longitudinal 
medial stripe on posterior lobe, and another, rounded or tri- 
angular, at each of its outer comers ; a large oval medio- 
lateral spot. Thorax black, marked with ochreous as follows : — 
Mesothoracic triangle finely mapped out in yellow, an ante- 
humeral fine stripe, which begins at upper end of humeral 
suture, curves rapidly in and then down to anterior border 
of thorax, running parallel to mesothoracic triangle ; a fine 
post-humeral line, complete, running close to and behind 
humeral suture, another fiaer line running close to first lateral 
suture, and separated narrowly from an upper spot on mesepi- 
meron ; a broad irregular stripe bordering anterior aspect of 
second lateral suture ; and, finally, an elongate spot on metepi- 
meron. Legs black, two posterior pairs of tibiae and femora 
sparsely prainosed. Wings moderately, deeply, and evenly 
enfumed with brown; pterostigma blackish, with a difiuse 
yellowish centre more conspicuous distally; antenodal nervures 
14 to 15 in number. Abdomen black, marked with yellow 
as foUows :— A very large spot on each side of segment 1, 
a broad elongate spot at base and an apical spot on sides of 2 • 
these are repeated on sides of 3 to 7, but the elongate longi- 
tudinal basal spot linear and gradually shortening from 
segment to segment ; segments 8 and 9 with only a lateral spot 
largest on the latter segment ; dorsal carina narrowly yeUow 
from segment 2 to 7 ; segment 10 unmarked. Anal appendages 
and vulvar scale similar to those of .B. cuneata. 

Distribution.— -R&TQ in Bubma : its zoo-centre seems to be 
about Nee^. I have seen specimens from Almora in Kumaon 
(UiOTED PEovnrcBs) and Falodhi. and there is a specimen in 



EHINOCYPHA. 17 

the Vienna Museum from Kashmir. Mr. Chas. Inglis has taken 
it in SiKKiM and around Darjeeling, but sparingly, whilst 
•Col. F. Wall, has sent me specimens from Maymyo, TJppbe 
BuBMA. It has also been collected round Dehra Dim (Ukited 
Provinces). 

It would appear that B. qiMzdrimaculata is gradually 
replaced eastwards by B. spuria and B. feriestrella, but that 
it is specifically distinct from both. The differences between 
the former are set forth above under the description of 
B. spuria. 

Type probably in the Selysian coUeetion, Brussels Museum. 

Race ^em«%aZima Fraser, Mem. Dept.Agr. India (Ent.),vol.vii, 
p. 64 (1921). 

Male. — ^Abdomen 23 mm. Hind-wing 23 mm. 

Differs from typical quadrimaculata by opaque area of 
fore-wing covering only costal half and by apical vitreous 
spot in hind-wing extending back to 3 rows of cells posterior 
to IBiii, instead of only one. Mesothoracic triangle Klaceous, 
as in B. spuria. The opaque area of the hind-wing is sharply 
bevelled off proximally, so that the vitreous spots indenting 
it are merged in the adjacent vitreous area, and the border 
appears regularly indented or serrate. There is a foiurth 
row of cells, vestigial in nature, in the medial row of spots. 

Female. — ^Abdomen 21 mm. Hind-wing 28 mm. Not 
differing from the type. 

A pair from Shillong, Assam, collected by Mr. T. Bainbrigge 
Fletcher, now deposited in the British Museum. 

In a male from the Naga HiUs, in my own collection, the 
apical spot is similar to that of reice Tiemihyalina, but the fore- 
wing is as broadly opaque as in t3rpical B. quadrimaculxxla. 



172. RMnoeypba fenestrella Rambur. (Fig. 5.) 

BMnocyjpha fenestrella Kambiir, Ins. Nevrop. p. 236 (1842); 
Selys, Syn. Cal. p. 60 (1853); id., Mon. Cal. p. 204 (1854); id.. 
Bull. Acad. Belg. (2) vol. xlvii, p. 387 (1879) ; Kirby, Cat. Odon. 
p. 113 (1890); Williamson, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xxviii, 
pp. 173-179 (1905) ; Laidlaw, Reo. Ind. Mus. vol. xiii, pp. 35-37 
(1917); Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soe. vol. xxxii, pp. 193, 
194, pi. iii, fig. 2 (1927). 

Libellago fenestrella Walker, List Neur. Ins. Brit. Mus. iv, p. 650 
(1853). 

Male. — ^Abdomen 19 mm. Hind-wing 21 mm. 

Head velvety black, with an oval oohreous spot on outer 
side of each posterior ocellus and another rounded spot on 
each side of occiput. In the type the former of these spots 
is vestigial and the latter obsolete, but in specimens from 
JBomeo and Burma which I have examined they are clearly 

VOL. n. 



18 AGEHDJE. 

visible. Prothorax black, with a longitudinal mid-dorsal 
stripe on posterior lobe white (absent in the type). Thorax 
black, with, a bright citron-yellow irregular stripe bordering 
second lateral suture anteriorly, and an elongate spot on 
metepimeron. The type has also a fine incomplete line on 
the humeral suture and another on the upper part of the first 
lateral suture. Mesothoracic triangle extending to antealar 
sinus, palest pink or Klaceous. Four yellow spots beneath 
thorax. Legs black, the two posterior pairs of tibiae pul- 
verulent-white on flexor surface. Abdomen glossy black 
with steely reflex, first segment with a small bright citron- 
yellow spot on each side. Wings hyaline at base, opaque black 
for the distal three-fourths, hyaline area tinted yellow, opaque 
area steely green or blue, marked with vitreous spots which 




Kg. 5.— Wings oiRhmooyphafenestrella Rambxir, male. 

glow emerald-green, hlaceous, mother-of-pearl or a beautiful 
rose-pmk, according to angle from which viewed. The opaque 
area m the fore-wing occupies variably the anterior three- 
lourths or half of wmg, and in specimens from Smtang Borneo 
the vitreous a,rea extends up at the apex as far as the ptero- 
stigma._ The hyahne area posterior to it in this wing, and for 
some distance proxknaUy at the base, is a beautiful vitreous 
peacock-blue. The dark area has a very irregular border 
basally and is markedly serrate behind. In the hmd-wine 
the opaque a,rea begins about 5 ceDs proximal to the node 
and extends back in a very ragged manner as in B. quadri- 
mmvtata, leaving two deep indentations made by the bordering 
vitreous area exactly as in R. quadrimacuhta. In the Bomean 



EHIlfOOYPHA. 1& 

examples the opaque area has a very oblique border, as seen 
in. a. quadrimaculata race hemihyalina, so that these two 
indentations are barely distinguishable from the other irregular 
serrations, and the bordering vitreous area is correspondingly 
broadened. At the apex of the wing, and sitimted exactly 
b&math the pterosUgma, is a variably sized spot, but usually 
much smaller than the corresponding apical spot found in 
B. cuneata, R. spuria, and B. quadrimaculata, being rarely 
more than 4 rows of cells in depth. Costalwards it is bounded 
by IBii, and posteriorly it extends about one row of cells 
beyond Biii, but is subject to slight variation from this. The 
middle row of spots shows even greater variability, consisting 
of 3 or 4 spots, the two middle of which are often confluent. 
The spots do not vary markedly in length as a rule, as in 
B. quadrimaculata, and their inner and outer borders form, 
a regular curve. Pterostigma black, broadly lilaceous beneath, 
in the Mad-wing. Antenodal nervures 13 to 16 in number ; 
discoidal cell traversed 3 to 4 times. Anal appendages similar 
to those of -B. quadrimaculata. 

Female. — ^Abdomen 17 mm. Hiad-wiag 24 mm. (Rambur's 
type.) 
Abdomen 19 mm. Hind-wing 28 mm. (Specimen 
from Upper Burma.) 

Head black, marked exactly the same as in B. quadrimaculata. 
Proihorax marked similarly to that of.fi. quadrimaculata, but 
the two lateral spots much larger. Thorax with an ante- 
humeral fine line broadening below, and curved out above 
along border of antealar sinus as far as upper end of humeral 
suture ; a fine Hne which starts above and behind the humeral 
suture crosses its middle, and ends shortly before the anterior 
border of the thorax. Laterally the markings are similar to 
those oiB. quadrimaculata. Below are foimd two long yellow 
spots shaped Hke the broad head of a stabbing spear. (These 
two spots serve to separate this species from the female of 
B. quadrivmculata.) Legs black, the two posterior pairs of 
femora distinctly pruinosed white. Wings faiatly and evenly 
enfmned, tinted with yellow at base ; antenodal nervurea 
16 to 17 in number ; discoidal space traversed four times ; 
pterostigma black, dark yellow for the greater part of its 
centre. Abdomen black, marked with ochreous spots as 
follows ; — ^A largish lateral spot on segment 1, a smaller apical 
spot on segments 2 to 7, and a ventro-lateral stripe on seg- 
ments 2 to 4. Mid-dorsal carina very finely ochreous from 
segments 2 to 7. Arial appendages and vulvar scale similar 
to those oiB. cuneata. 

Distribution. — ^The type, a male taken in 1825, is supposed 
io have come from Malacca, and is in the Paris Museum ; 
a second male was taken at Pulo-Penang I. A third male, 

02 



20 AGEHD^. 

•which was in the Dale collection, now in the British Museum, 
is labelled "India." The oo-type female described by Rambur 
is in the Paris Museum, and is labelled as from China. 
I have males from Sintang, Borneo, and a pair from Gokteik, 
just above Maymyo, Uppbb Buema, collected by Col. Wall. 
It is apparently found scattered throughout Southern Asia 
in submontane areas. 

The female described by Rambur is teneral and incomplete ; 

the description given above was made from Col. Wall's 

specimen. 
R. fenesirella is easily determined by the position of the 

apical spot on the hind-wing, situated exactly under the 

pterostigma, whUst the female may be recognized by the 

markings on the under side of the thorax. 

173. Rhinoeypha iridea Selys. (Pig. 6 and PI. I, fig. 3.) 

Ehinoeypha iridea Selys, Ann. Mus. Civ. G-enova, (2) vol. x (xxx) 
pp. 492-494 (1891) ; WiUiamson, Proo. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xxviii, 
pp. 173, 181 (1905); Laidlaw, Ree. Ind. Mus. vol. xiii, p. 37 
(1917); Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soo. vol. xxxii, vx>. 195. 
196 (1927). '^^ 

Mak.— Abdomen 20-22 mm. Hiad-wing 25-26 mm. 

Head velvety black, marked with yellow as follows : — ^A 
small spot on outer side of each posterior ocellus, a rounded 
spot on each side of occiput, and an oval spot on posterior 
border at its centre ; labium black, basal halves of middle 
and lateral lobes yellowish-white ; bases of mandibles bluish ; 
labrum with a broad transverse stripe pale blue, indented by 
a small prolongation of the basal black in the middle line. 

Frofhorax black, marked with azure-blue as follows • 

A medial longitudinal stripe on posterior lobe, a large lateral 
spot on each side of middle lobe, and a small spot at outer 
.angles of posterior lobe. In teneral specimens these markings 
■are yellowish, the hind margin of posterior lobe being narrowly 
yeUow. Thorax black, marked with azure-blue as follows •-- 
A &ie amtehumeral stripe, curved outwardly above, expandino- 
■slightly below, an equaHy narrow humeral liae lying along 
hmd border of humeral suture, a similar line adjacent to 
tost lateral suture, a broad oblique stripe on posterior half 
.of mesepmaeron not extending to roots of wings, and broadening 
abruptly and markedly on lower half of mesepimeron ; finally 
*he whole central part of the metepimeron is azure-blue 
^S-s black, the two posterior pairs of tibi« and the distal 
two-thn:ds of the two posterior pairs of femora densely 
prumosed white Wmgs partly opaque, hind-wings S 
toctly broader than fore-wings ; fore-wings hyaline It base 
vitreous towards apex, costa for a depth of two cell-rows 
opaque black as far as 10 to 12 ceUs distal to node, behind 



RHINOCyPHA. 



21 



which the wings glow with an iridescence of many colours, 
according to the angle from which they are viewed. Extreme 
apex dull violaceous, greater part of wiag golden-green as 
far proximal as node. Opaque area along costa often extending 
nearer node ia space between Ri and Rii than between costa 
and Bi. In hind-wing opaque area extending irregularly 
basally as far as middle of discoidal cell at that level, and for 
about 3 ceUs proximal to node along costa ; this area marked 
by vitreous spots and stripes as follows : — ^An elongate sickle- 
shaped stripe, made up of a siagle row of cells, margined 
costalwards by Rii and beginning about 15 cells distal to 
the node, extends distal to level of middle of pterostigma, 
at which point it ttims down in a regular sickle-shaped curve, 
this end of the stripe made up of 12 rows of cells, broad at 




«ipej^i£:ftg:ff.'v 



Fig. 6. — ^Wings of Bhinocypha iridea Selys, male. 



costal end, tapering towards hind border of wing, which it 
nearly meets ; costal end of this curved stripe nearly con- 
tinuous with an elongate spot which lies ta the angle formed 
by Rii and Biii at the subnode, and which is about 18 cells 
long. Lying within the angle or curve formed by the curved 
band is another vitreous spot, which Ues between IBii and 
Riv-\-v, is irregularly quadrate, and very broken and jagged 
on its ioner and outer borders. Immediately posterior to 
the first spot is a third, separated from it by 4 rows of cells 
and bordered behind by Guii, equal in length to subnodal 
spot. The whole posterior border of the wiags from 
nervure ac to outer end of Ri narrowly hyaline. Finally, an 
elongate spot which begins adjacent to the arc, bordered 



22 AGEUD^. 

behind by Biv+v, and extending distally into the opaque area 
for a distance of about 18 eeUs. Sickle-shaped band and border 
of wing glowing golden-green; spots rose-pink or purple 
or emerald-green, according to angle from which viewed. 
Tterostigma black, yellow outwardly. Abdomen black, marked 
with azure-blue as follows :— A triangular spot on each side 
of segment 1 and its apical border, an elongate spot and 
an apical point on each side of segments 2 and 3, the long spot 
abbreviated on 2, long and tapering to a point on 3 ; seg- 
ments 4 to 8 with the elongate spot only. AtmI ap:pendages 
similar to those of i?. cuneaia. 

Female.— Abdomen 20 mm. Hind-wing 28 mm. 

Head black, marked with yellow spots as follows : — Similar 
spots as found in male, and, in addition, a large rounded spot 
on summit of epistome, obsolete in adults, bases of mandibles, 
a triangular spot on each side of epistome, two large sub- 
triangular spots on upper surface of frons, an oval spot on 
■each side of anterior ocellus, and, narrowly, the cheeks. 
Middle and lateral lobe of labium yellowish- white, except 
the extreme tips. Prothorax and thorax similar to those of 
male, but mesothoracic triangle outlined in yellow instead 
of pink, and markings more greenish-yellow instead of blue. 
Legs black, tibisB and femora pruinosed white on flexor sur- 
faces. Wivgs entirely hyaline, tinted with greenish-yellow; 
pterostigma framed narrowly in black, clouded with blackish 
inwardly, yellow outwardly ; 14 to 15 antenodal nervures ; 
diseoidal ceU traversed 3 to 4 times in both sexes. Abdomen 
Mack, marked with azure-blue as in male, but spots confluent 
to form a single stripe on segments 1 to 4, and segments 8 and 9 
with an apical lateral spot ; segment 3 with a ventral stripe. 
Anal appendages and vulvar scale similar to those ofR. cuneata. 

Distribution. — ^Uppbr Burma only. It occurs from May to 
August at Maymyo, Southern Shan States, Upper Burma, 
where Col. P. WaU found it comparatively common. 

R. iridea is related to the other species of the unimaculata 
group by the primitive condition of its mesothoracic triangle, 
which, in the male, resembles that of the female. 

This description differs in several points from the original 
Selysian one, which was made from a sub-adult specimen. 
Thus the markings of the labrum, prothorax, and thorax 
are given by Selys as yellow instead of azure-blue. In this 
species, probably better than in any other known dragonfly, 
one sees the gradual development of colour, especially in the 
wing-markings, which develop gradually in the course of 
several days Mke the details of a developing photograph. 
Mature specimens are comparatively rare in collections, 
most showing a thin greyish marking like an insufficiently 
exposed and under-developed photograph. The fuUy matured 



EHINOCyPHA, 23 

insect is probably the most beautiful of all dragonflies if 
one considers the combinations and harmony of colouring, 
together with the delicacy and artistic nature of the design 
in the hind- wings. 

Type in the Genoa Museum, from Leito. 

174. Rhinocypha ignipennis Selys. 

Khinocypha ignipennis Selys, Bull. Aoad. Belg. (2) vol. xlvii, 
pp. 389, 390 (1879) ; Kirby, Cat. Odon. p. 113 (1890) ; WilUam- 
son, Proo. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xxviii, pp. 173, 179-181 (1905) ; 
Laidlaw, Ree. Ind. Mus. vol. xiii, p. 35 (1917) ; Fraser, Mem. 
Dept. Agrio. India (Ent.), vol. viii, pp. 79, 80, pi. ix (1922) ; 
id., J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. xxxii, pp. 311, 312 (1927); 
id., ibid. p. 690, pi. iii, fig. 1 (larva) (1928). 

Mak.. — ^Abdomen 22 mm. Hing-wiag 22 mm. 

Head : labium black ; labrum black, unmarked in adults, 
with two oval bluish spots in tenerals ; face glossy black, 
upper part of head velvety black, with a small oval orange 
spot on outer side of each posterior ocellus and a small rounded 
postocular spot on each side of occiput. At rear of latter, 
and mid-way between these two spots, a small linear orange 
spot. Prothorax velvety black, with a small median orange 
spot on hind part of median lobe and a long lateral spot of 
pale blue or yellowish on each side. Thorax velvety black, 
marked with orange as follows : — ^A tiny upper antehumeral 
spot, a fine linear posthumeral stripe broadly broken above, 
incomplete below, a short linear spot on upper part of first 
lateral suture, and an elongate, oblique, lateral, orange stripe 
on each side on lower part of thorax, broadly broken in two 
by anterior border of metepimeron. Legs black, the two 
posterior pairs of tibiae not pulverulent on inner side as in 
most other species. Wings semi-opaque from node to apices, 
this area dark brown by transmitted Ught, brilliant fiery 
coppery by reflected light. Hind-wings with two rows of 
vitreous spots which vary in tint from mother-of-pearl to 
palest peach-blossom pink or pale blue ; the spot nearest 
the base about 14 cells long, one ceU-row wide, begins about 
6 cells proximal to the node and ends dis tally about 2 to 4 
postnodal cells beyond the node, lying between MA and 
Ew-{-v. Outer row consisting of three long stripes similarly 
coloured, the costal stripe rather the longest of the three, 
the posterior sUghtly the shortest, the costal stripe lying 
between IRii and Riii, about 26 cells long ; middle stripe 
between same nervures as basal spot, about 22 ceUs long, 
one cell wide proximally, three distally ; posterior stripe 
15 cells long, lying between Cuii and MA. Pterostigma dark 
yellowish-brown framed in black, and with inner third th^ 
.same colour. Inner hyaline areas of wings tinted with pale 



24 AGEnD^. 

yellow ; 16 to 18 antenodal nervures ; discoidal cells traversed 
3 to 4 times ; petiolation begins nearer level of proximal 
antenodal than level of arc. Abdomen black or steely blue, 
marked, on sides of first two segments oiily, with a large 
orange spot on segment 1 and a tiny apical spot on segment 2. 
Teneral specimens are marked very nearly as in the female, 
described below. AtmI appendages black, shaped as in 
B. cuneata. 

Female. — ^Abdomen 21 mm. Hind-wing 28 mm. 

Head black, spotted with yellow or orange as follows : — 
Base of labimn and a spot on each lateral lobe, a broad oval 
spot on each side of base of labmm, mandibles broadly, a large 
spot on each cheek and basal joints of antennae, a tiny spot 
on each side of epistome, a large, broadly oval, transverse 
spot on each side of frons, with a smaller spot just behind 
each, a rounded spot on each side of anterior ocellus, and, 
lastly, the same spots as in the male. Profhorax black, with 
bright yellow markings as follows : — ^A fine mid-dorsal line 
running from posterior lobe to anterior end, the marginal 
crest of the posterior lobe and an inward prolongation from 
this; a very large bell-shaped spot on sides of the middle lobe. 
Thorax velvety black, marked as in male, but more broadly so, 
the oblique lateral stripes extending the whole length of the 
thorax, and broken in three places by the lateral and humeral 
sutures. Humeral spot linear and, after a short interval, 
continued as a fine stripe to anterior end of thorax ; post- 
humeral stripe complete. Beneath, two large orange spots 
on posterior area of thorax. Mid-dorsal carina and mid-line 
of antealar sinus finely yellow. Legs black, flexor surfaces- 
of femora slightly but distinctly pulverulent. Wirigs hyaline, 
palely enfumed greenish-yellow. Pterostigma as in male ; 
antenodal nervures about 20 in number. Abdomen black, 
marked with yellow or ochreous as follows : — Segment 1 with 
a large lateral spot, 2 to 4 with an apico-lateral spot and a linear 
spot nearly confluent with it, lengthening to a stripe on seg- 
ments 3 and 4 ; lastly, segments 5 and 6 with a vestigial 
apico-lateral spot. Anal appendages and vulvar scale as in 
B. cuneata. 

Distribution.— Assam and Uppee Burma. Mr. T. Bainbrigge' 
Fletcher has found it quite common at Shillong, Assam, 
from September to November. The Selysian ti/pe comes from 
this district, and is now in the Brussels Museum. The speci- 
men described by Wflliamson from Burma is undoubtedly 
a teneral male of this species, and is the only record from 
Burma. 

The species is quite easily distinguished from all others 
save R. trimaculata, which has the same glorious colouring, 
but which is smaller and has the vitreous spots much shorter 



BHIHOCYPHA. 25 

than in B. ignipennis. B. fulgipennis (Siam) has similarly 
coloured wings, but they are broader and the thorax bears 
a coloured mesothoracic triangle. The colouring of the wings 
of these three handsome insects reminds one strongly of the 
gorgeous fiery Indian sunsets, and is unparalleled in nature. 



175. Bhinoeypha trimaeulata Selys. (Pig. 7 and PI. II, fig. 1.) 

JRMnocypha trimacidata Selys, Sjm. Cal. p. 62 (1853) ; id., Mon. Cal. 
p. 211 (1854); Kirby, Cat. Odon. p. 113 (1890); Laidlaw, Reo. 
Ind. Mus. vol. xiii, p. 36 (1917); Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. 
Soo. vol. xxxii, pp. 312, 313 (1927). 

Male. — ^Abdomen 18 mm. Hind-wing 22 mm. 
Head velvety black ; labium and labrum unmarked ; 
vertex and occiput marked as in R. ignipennis. Prothorax 




Fig. 7. — Wings oi Bhinoeypha trimacidata Selys, male. 

velvety black, quite unmarked. Thorax glossy black, marked 
■with bright yellow, bluish-green, or blue, according to age of 
specimen, as follows : — ^A tiny upper humeral spot, a fine 
linear posthumeral stripe, broken above, a short fine line 
on upper part of first lateral suture, an irregular oblique 
stripe running the full length of each side of thorax, broken 
into three spots, one of which occupies the central part of 
the metepimeron, and another, more elongate, the centre of 
the mesepimeron. Legs black ; tibia not pulverulent. Wings 
fiery coppery red, even more brilliant than in R. ignipennis,. 
semi-opaque from level of node in hind-wings, from slightly 
distal to that level in the fore- wings, where the costal margin 



AGErro^. 



of the wing is hyaline as far as beyond the pterostigma. 
In hind- wing, four vitreous spots of palest iridescent blue or 
peach- blossom pink, the palest one of which is about 17 cells 
long, extends from distal end of discoidal cell to level of 
third postnodal cell, and lies between MA and Biv~\-v. The 
outer spots consist of a series of three, all of about the same 
length, the costal spot lying between IBii and Biii and about 
13 cells long, the medial and posterior spots each 10 cells 
long, the latter lying between Cuii and MA. Pterostigma 
blackish- brown, clouded with white in its outer half in sub- 
adults. Antenodal nervures 15 to 17 in number ; discoidal 
ceU traversed 2 or 3 times. Abdomen glossy black, with 
a lateral apical spot on each side of segments 1 and 2. AtmI 
appendages black, shaped as for the genus. 
Female. — ^Abdomen 17 mm. Hind- wing 23 mm. 
Head velvety black, marked with pale yellow as follows : — 
Base of labium, which has a greenish tinge, a pair of small 
basal spots on labrum, bases of mandibles broadly, a large 
darker yellow spot on upper surface of rhinarium and two large 
cuneiform spots just behind it ; basal segments of antennte, 
a rounded spot in front and on either side of anterior ocellus, 
a small spot on either side of rhinarium, and, finally, the same 
spots as seen in the male. Prothorax black, with a large 
yellow spot on each side of mid-lobe, a short mid-dorsal line 
on posterior lobe and a large spot on each side, low down, 
near the trochanters. Thorax black, marked with yellow 
as follows :— Similar spots to those seen in the male, but larger, 
often with a greenish tmge, and probably bluish during life • 
in addition, a long linear streak on lower half of humeral 
region. Beneath thorax two broad longitudinal streaks of 
greenish-yellow. Legs black, not pruinescent. Wings deeply 
enfumed, burnt brown, especially the hind-wings and towards 
the apices. Pterostigma black, white in its outer half; 
12 antenodal nervures ; discoidal cells traversed twice in all 
wmgs. Abdomen black, marked with blue, the lirst seven 
segr^nts with a lateral apical spot on each side, the second 
to fifth with a lateral stripe on each side, in line with, but not 
confiuent with, the apical spots. Anal appendages and vulvar 
scale black, shaped as for the genus. 

Distribution —ThQ Selysian types, two males in the British 
Museum are from Tibet. The species, discovered in 1853, was 
not found agaui untU Mr. Antram took it in numbers at Cachar 
Assam m September 1921. It must be remarkably restricted 
to particular locahties, or such a handsome and briUiant insect 
would have been taken many times in the intervening sixtv- 
eight years. If possible, it outshines in brilhancy its near 
relation B. zgmpenms, from which it is distinguished by its 



KHINOCYPHA. 27 

smaller size and the much shorter vitreous spots of the hind- 
wing. The female is also distinguished by its smaller size 
■and by its blue markings, etc. 

Specimens have been placed in the British Museum, others 
are in my own collection. 

176. RMnocypha unimaeulata Selys. (Fig. 8.) 

Rhinocypha unimaculata Selys, Sjoi. Cal. p. 61 (1853); id., Mon. 

Cal. p. 207 (185i); Kirby, Cat. Odon. p. 113 (1890); Laidlaw, 

Rec. Ind. Mus. vol. xiii, p. 35 (1917); Praser, J. Bombay Nat. 

Hist. Soo. vol. sxix, p. 479 (1923) ; id., ibid. vol. xxxii, pp. 313, 

314 (1927). 
Libellago unimaculata Walker, List !Neur. Ins. Brit. Mus. iv,p. 649 

(1853). 

Male. — ^Abdomen 24 mm. Hind- wing 27-30 mm. 

Head velvety black ; labium and labrum unmarked ; 
rounded spots of chrome-yellow on each side of occiput, 
one on outer side of each posterior ocellus, and a central 
spot on posterior border of occiput. Prothorax black, with 
a large irregular yellow spot on each side of middle lobe, 
a small linear mid-dorsal spot on posterior lobe, and a narrow 
yellow lateral margin to the same lobe. Thorax glossy 
black, marked with bright yeUow lines as foUows : — ^A short 
obUque, linear, upper humeral spot, a long antehumeral line, 
incomplete above, markedly angulate below, a fine posthumeral 
line broken above, a short upper line on first lateral suture, 
and, finally, the same broad, broken, obUque stripes on lower 
part of sides of thorax as those seen in R. ignipennis and 
B. trimaculata. The mid-dorsal carina is usually finely 
mapped out in yeUow, and this may be continued on to the 
antealar sinus. Legs black, the two posterior pairs of femora 
and tibiae densely pruinosed white, with a creamy yellow tinge. 
Wings enfumed brown from slightly distal to level of node 
m fore-wings, and sHghtly proximal to the same level in 
hind- wings, where this area is prolonged as a diffuse tongue 
in the space between IRiii and Biv-{-v. This area is also 
considerably darker in the hind-wings, and in both pairs 
is of a similar brilhant fiery coppery red as in B. ignipennis 
and B. trimaculata. In hind- wings the middle of this coppery 
area bears a large, roughly quadrate vitreous spot, which 
.glows emerald-green or peacock-blue, according to the angle 
from which it is viewed. Its inner border is markedly indented, 
its outer roughly convex; its costal border is bounded hyBii, 
its posterior almost reaches the wing-margin. The spot Mes 
considerably nearer the node than the pterostigma. Bases 
of wings hyahne, palely tinted with yellow. Pterostigma 
blackish-brown, outer half paler. Apices of wings very finely 



28 



agbhtim. 



retictilated, espeeiaUy between eosta and Bt. Discoidal ceU& 
traversed from 5 to 7 times ; 21 to 23 antenodal nervures. 
Abdomen black, marked with yeUow as follows :— The first six 
segments with a ventral stripe running nearly the full length ; 
segments 1 to 3 with an apical lateral spot on each side ; 
intersegmental nodes narrowly yeUow. Anal appendages 
black, relatively short, shaped as for the genus. 

Female.— AMomea 22 mm. Hmd-wmg 31-32 mm. 

Markings of body very similar to those of male, but more 
extensive. 

Head with same spots as in male, with the addition oi tne 
following :— Lateral lobes of labium, two obscure basal spots 
on labrum, bases of mandibles broadly, the yellow colour 
here confluent with a stripe which runs up the cheeks adjacent 




Kg. 8. — ^Wings oi Rhinocypha unimaculata Selys, male. 



to and bordering the eyes, also extending on to basal joints of 
antennae, and confluent with two large cuneiform spots on 
upper surface of rhinarium. On the latter, in front above, 
a large rounded spot ; a round spot on each side of, and in 
front of, the anterior ocellus, two tiny points between the 
posterior ocelli, and a spot on the lower part of the sides of 
the rhinarium. Postoctdar spots much larger than in male, 
and nearly united by a transverse spot on hind border of 
occiput. Prothorax black, marked as in male, but the mid- 
dorsal stripe runs nearly the whole length of the dorsum 
from the hind border of the posterior lobe, and the lateral 
markings are much better defined. Thorax glossy black. 



BHINOCYPHA. 29 

marked as in male, but considerably more extensively. Ante- 
humeral line continued up and curved outwards above to 
become confluent with the humeral oblique spot. Six small 
spots beneath thorax. Legs black, the two posterior pairs 
of femora and tibiae pruinosed yeUow, as in the male. Abdomen 
glossy black, marked with parallel stripes of yellow, one ventral 
as in the male, extending from segments 1 to 7, and a lateral 
stripe on each side, on the same segments, becoming broken 
up into a stripe, and an apical spot on each segment from 
4 to 7. Mid-dorsal carina finely yellow on segments 2 to 7. 
AtmI appendages and vulvar scale as for the genus. 

Distribution. — ^The species seems to be centred about 
Darjeeling, and is estabhshed in several districts in northern 
Beng.4Ij and Assam. I have taken specimens in May and 
June, perching on rocks in mid-stream, at Mungpoo, 3,600 fb., 
British Sikkim. The type is in the Selysian collection at 
Brussels, without locality save " India." 

M. unimacidata is the largest species of the genus, and 
is distinguished very readily by its striking markings and 
colours. By the absence of the mesothoracio triangle and 
the coppery colours of the wings it is closely related to the 
foregoing species. A fusion of the middle series of vitreous 
spots has resulted in the large median spot ; thus, in one of my 
own specioaens the spot is practically cut in two by an invasion 
of the dark area above. 



177. Bhinocypha bifasciata Selys. (Fig. 9.) 

Bhinocypha bifasoiata Selys, Bull. Acad. Belg. (3) vol. slviii, p. 386 
(1879); Kirby, Cat. Odon. p. 113 (1890); Laidlaw, Eeo. lud. 
Mus. vol. xiii, p. 34 (1917); Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 
vol. xsis, p. 478 (1923) ; id., ibid. vol. xxxii, pp. 314, 315 (1927). 

Male. — ^Abdomen 22 mm. Hind-wing 25 mm. 

Head glossy black in front, velvety black above ; labium and 
labrum unmarked, a large oval spot on outer side of each 
posterior ocellus and a small round postoeular spot on each 
side of occiput. Prothorax black, with a mid-dorsal longitudinal 
spot on the posterior lobe. Thorax glossy black, marked 
on sides with a broad broken yellow band, made up of a smaU 
serrate spot on metepimeron, and an elongate pyriform spot 
on mesepimeron capped by a U-shaped spot anteriorly. 
Mesothoracio triangle very large, extending from alar sinus 
to anterior border of thorax, palest azure-blue. Legs black, 
the two posterior pairs of femora and tibiae heavily pruinosed 
white, this snow-like excrescence overlapping the margins 
of the tibiae and making them appear dilated. Wings parti ally 
hyaline, from discoidal cell to apex greyish by transmitted 
light, palely yeUow at base. The darkened area by reflected 



30 



AGEHDa]. 



Hsht is a beautiful violet-blue or emerald-green, according 
to the angle from wMch it is viewed. The wmgs in this 
area have a satiny gloss, and the hind-wings are traversed 
by two brown bands from costa to hind border, one at apex 
of hind- wings and the other a short distance on inner side of 
pterostigma. Both bands very narrow, and the inner very- 
irregular and diverse in shape. The iridescent area limited 
anteriorly by Rii. Discoidal cells traversed 5 times ; 
15 to 18 antenodal nervures. Pterostigma black, white 
or yellowish outwardly. Abdomen glossy black, with a small 
apical spot of yellow on sides of segments 1 and 2. Anal 
appendages black, and similar in shape to those oi R. cwneata. 
Female.— AMomm 18 mm. Hind-wing 28 mm. 




Kg. 9. — Wings o{ Rhinooypha bifasoiata Selys, male. 



Head similar to that of male, but with a medial spot on 
hind border of occiput and a moderately sized bright yellow 
spot on each cheek near the eye continued up as a very narrow 
streak against the eye. Prothorax with an additional large 
spot just below posterior lobe. Thorax with mesothoracie 
triangle present, yellow in its upper half, this colour con- 
tinued narrowly along both sides of the triangle below. Lateral 
markings broader than in male, and there are some additional 
markings, as follows : — ^An upper antehumeral spot and a lower 
stripe, widely separated, a fine posthumeral stripe broadly 
interrupted above, where is isolated a tiny upper point, 
and not extending downwards as far as anterior border of 
thorax ; there is also a fine broken line on first lateral suture 
and a small spot on upper part of mesepimeron. 



EHINOCYPHA. 31 

evenly and palely enfumed throughout, with a pale greenish 
tint. Pterostignaa black, its outer half or two- thirds yellowish. 
Discoidal cells with 3 to 5 traversing nervures ; 15 to 18 
antenodal nervures. Abdomen black, marked with ochreous. 
as follows : — A large lateral spot on segment 1, an apical spot 
and a basal stripe on segments 2 to 4, segment 5 with a small 
basal spot only, while segments 2 and 3 have a vestigial ventral 
stripe also. Anal appendages and vulvar scale as usual in 
the genus. 

Distribution. — ^Bengal and Assam, more especially the latter. 
The type in the Selysian collection, in the Brussels Museum, 
is from Darjeeling. I have seen several specimens taken at 
Gopaldhara by Mr. H. Stevens during October and November. 

There is no difi&eulty in distinguishing this beautiful species ; 
the two opaque bands at once determine it, R. hilaryce having 
the inner band much nearer the pterostigma, and the vitreous 
area limited to the outer apical area of the wing. 

The wings of this species and R. trifasciafa are markedly 
pleated and, if held in certain positions, one set of pleats 
glows with a satin-like violety blue sheen, whilst the other 
set shines emerald-green. The restriction of the markings 
of the head will distinguish the female from that of other 
Indian species. 

178. RMnoeypha trifasciata Selys. (Fig. 10 and PI. II, fig. 3.) 

Khinoaypha trifasciata Selys, Syn. Cal. p. 61 (1853); id., Mon. Cal. 

p. 207 (1854); Kirby, Cat. Odon. p. 113 (1890); Laidlaw, Ree. 

lad. Mus. vol. xiii, p. 34 (1917) ; Fraser, J. Bombay ISTat. Hist. 

See. vol. xsix, p. 478 (1923); id., ibid. vol. xxm, pp. 315, 316 

(1927). 
Libellago trifasciata Walker, List Neur. Ins. Brit. Mus. vol. iv, 

p. 650 (1853). 

Male. — ^Abdomen 24 mm. Hind- wing 27 mm. 

This species is very similar to the last, but is invariably 
larger, and the male bears an additional opaque band on the 
hind- wings. 

Head with markings exactly similar to those of jB. bifasciata. 
Prothorax black, with a mid-dorsal longitudinal bluish spot 
on posterior lobe. Thorax black, marked very similarly to 
that ofR. bifasciata ; mesothoracic triangle very large, extending 
from alar sinus to anterior border of thorax, pale blue. A fine 
yellow line on first lateral suture, broken above, a shorter 
line on second lateral suture, incomplete below, a small spot 
below root of fore-wing, and the usual irregular broken stripe 
along lower part of sides of thorax ; this consists of a smallish 
spot on the metepimeron, triangular in shape, an elongate 
spot on the mesepimeron, with a cuneiform angulate spot 
on its anterior part. Wings coloured like those of ^. bifasciata 



52 



AGKtlD^. 



vitreous area of equal extent, and bluish- violaceous or emerald- 
green, according to the angle from which it is viewed. Three 
blackish-brown bands traverse the hind-wings from costa 
to posterior border. An apical band extending inwards to 
outer end of pterostigma, its inner border concave ; a medial 
band situate at about the junction of the outer and middle 
thirds of the wing, with serrate concave inner border, slightly 
sinuous convex outer, from 6 to 8 ceUs wide. An iimer band 
with its inner border in line with, or slightly distal to, level of 
node, Umited costalwards by Eiii, reaching the hind border 




Fig. 10.— Wings of Ehinocypha trifasciata Selys, male. 

of the wing, moderately straight on its proximal, but with 
three outer prolongations on its distal, border. Pterostigma 
hlackish-brown, central part of that of hind-wings paler ■ 
20 to 22 antenodal nervures ; discoidal ceUs traversed 6 times' 
Abdomen black, marked on each side of segments 1 to 3 
with a small apico-lateral spot of yellow. Anal a^ppendages 
black, shaped as for the genus. Legs black, the two posterior 
pan:s ol femora and tibi* heavily pruinosed white 
^emoZe.— Abdomen 22 mm. Hind-wing 29 mm" 
Very simila,r to the female of iE. bifascicaa, but considerably 
^rger. Mesothoracic triangle long and broad, as in the male 
dark oehreous m colour. Markings of head, thorax, and 
abdomen exactly as m B. bifasciata, with the exception if^e 
mesothoracxc triangle, which is as described above 

Distnbutwn.~The type in the Selysian collection in the 
Brussels Museum, is labeUed " India," without furlw Sdica! 
SI V T^i SP^^'™? i^ *lie British Museum are from 
Jiangra Valley, Ptthjab. Three males in the Indian Museum 



EHINOCYPHA. 3S 

Calcutta, are from Kailana, United Pbovinces, so that 
it would appear that this species has a more northerly and 
westerly distribution than that of B. bifasciata. The twO' 
species are undoubtedly distinct, although closely related. 

The opaque bands of the hind-wings are subject to 
considerable variation in shape and length. The description 
given above is from a specimen in my own collection. 

179. RMnoeypha Mfenestrata Fraser. (Pig. 11.) 

Wvinocypha bifenestrata Fraser, Mem. Dept. Agrio. India (Ent.) 
vol. vii, no. 7, p. 63 (1922) ; id., J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soe. 
vol. xxix, p. 478 (1923) ; id., ibid. vol. xxxii, pp. 316, 317, pi. iii, 
fig. 1 (1927). 

Male. — ^Abdomen 25 mm. EQnd-wing 27 mm. 

Head black ; labium and labrum unmarked ; a small 
oval yellow spot on outer side of each posterior ocellus,- and 
a smaller rounded spot on each side of occiput. Prothorax 
black, Tmmarked. Thorax black, marked with yeUow as 
follows : — A vestigial broken posthumeral line, incomplete 
below, a narrow stripe bordering front of second lateral 
suture, and a small spot below hind-wing. Mesothoracic 
triangle extending from alar sinus to anterior border of thorax, 
pale lilaceous. Legs black, the two posterior pairs of tibiae 
pruinosed white. Wings largely opaque, by fusion of three 
broad bands which enclose two large vitreous spots. Base 
as far as outer end of discoidal cell hyaline, rather brightly 
saffronated. Opaque area in fore-wings variable, usually 
broadly serrated and limited posteriorly by IRiii, but some- 
times more closely serrated and extendmg as far back as MA 
at base and IBiv nearer apex of wing. Hyaline area posterior 
to opaque area vitreous and a beautiful violet by reflected 
light, extending basally at one point to proximal to the 
outer end of the discoidal cell. In hind- wings the opaque 
area extends proximaUy as far as 3 or 4 cells proximal to 
node near costal margin of wing, and from thence runs 
obliquely out to posterior border of wing, with a very irregular 
border. By a confluence of the three bands, two large vitreous 
violaceous spots are enclosed, varying much in size and shape 
in individual specimens. In the type the outer two bands 
are not much wider than in B. tnfasciata, being narrowly 
connected along the costal and hind borders of the wing, 
but in some specimens the apical opaque band extends as fer 
in as slightly proximal to the iimer end of the pterostigma. 
Inner spot usually partially bisected by a prolongation of the 
inner band, one cell wide, running posterior to Riii, and in 
some specimens this prolongation actually fuses with the middle 
band, thus completely bisectiag the inner vitreous spot. 
VOL. n. D 



34 



AGEUD^. 



In the type the middle and inner bands are only very narrowly 
confluent along both costal and hind margins of the wing, 
so that the inner spot is of large dimensions. Pterostigma 
black, its outer three-fourths white, but clouded with light 
brown in fore-wings ; antenodal nervures 19 to 20 ; discoidal 
cells traversed 6 times. Abdomen black, quite unmarked. 
Anal appendages black, shaped as for the genus. 

Female. — ^Abdomen 21 mm. Hind- whig 31 mm. 

Head : labium and labrum black ; rest of head velvety 
black, marked with bright ochreous as foUows : — ^A large spot 
at base of mandibles, a narrow streak against the eyes ex- 
panding on to the cheeks, a narrow longitudinal streak on 
lower part of epistome, a tiny point just in front and to the 
•outer side of middle ocellus, and two linear spots on frons 




'4M 






Kg. 11.— Wings of Bhdnoaypha bifenesfrata Fras., male. 

m front of latter, a large rounded spot on outer side of each 
outer ocellus and a similar postocular spot behind it ; lastly, 
a large triangular spot at middle of hind border of occiput.' 
These markings liable to some variation ; thus, the spots on 
the frons may be very large and triangular, or entirely absent, 
■while the occipital spot may be small and liaear or large and 
.crown-shaped. Protharax black, marked with bright ochreous 
as follows :— A mid-dorsal longitudinal streak running from 
posterior lobe on to middle lobe, a small spot on lower part 
of posterior lobe and a spot, which may be large and triangular 
or reduced to a mere pomt, on each side of middle lobe. 

Thorax black, marked with bright ochreous as follows • 

Mesothoracic triangle, except for its lower part, intersecting 
suture of alar smus, a very fine antehumeral stripe, often 



EHINOCyPHA. 35 

broken into a chain of tiny points, and best defined in its lower 
part, a posthumeral stripe incomplete below and broadly 
broken in its upper part, a linear spot on upper part of mesepi- 
meron, and a fine incomplete line bordering first lateral suture ; 
finally, a broad irregular broken stripe on lower part of sides 
of thorax and two small rounded spots beneath. Legs black, 
tibiae not pruiaosed. Wings uniformly enfumed brown ; 
pterostigma black, slightly clouded in its outer part with 
yellow ; discoidal cells traversed 4 to 6 times ; petiolation 
short, from near the first antenodal nervnre or between the 
first and second ; 20 to 21 antenodal nervures, 32 to 34 post- 
nodals. Anal appendages and vulvar scale as for the genus. 
Abdomen black, marked with bright ochreous as follows : — 
A smalt cuneiform spot on each side of segment 1, a small 
apico-Iateral spot followed by a short streak, and a ventral 
stripe on sides of segments 2 to 4 ; segments 5 and 6 similar, 
but upper streak obsolete and apical spot much reduced. 

Distribution. — ^Bengal : Mungpoo, Darjeehng District, 
8,600 ft;., May and June, and again in August and September. 
Mr. Inglis has also taken it in April, but it is rare during that 
month. Mr. Inglis, Mr. Shaw, and myself took upwards of forty 
specimens at the end of May along the beds of streams, usually 
settled on rocks, and never engaging in sustained flight like 
that of iJ. bisignata. 

This species is, I think, more nearly related to B. cuneata 
than to R. bifasciata, but it appears to Unk up groups 
cuneata and bifasciata, and may have originated by a fusion 
of the opaque bands of i?. trifasciata. 

Type in the British Museum. 

180. Rhinoeypha immaeulata Selys. 

HhinocypJia immaeulata Selys, Biill. Acad. Belg. (2) vol. xlvii, 
p. 385 (1879); Earby, Cat. Odon. p. 113 (J?, unimaaulata, 
a lapsus calami for M. immaeulata) (1890) ; Laidlaw, Reo. Ind. 
Mus. vol. xiii, pp. 34, 35 (1917) ; Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. 
Soe. vol. xxix, p. 478 (1923); id., ibid. vol. xxxii, pp. 317, 318 
(1927). 

Male. — ^Abdomen 22-25 mm. Hind-wing 27-28 mm. 

Head black, m.arked with blue and ochreous spots as 
follows : — XBases of mandibles, cheeks, a stripe bordering the 
eyes, a reniform spot on each side of frons, and a smaller 
rounded spot just behind these, paJe blue. An oval spot 
on outer side of each posterior ocellus, and a round post- 
ocular spot on each side of occiput, ochreous ; labium and 
labrum unmarked. Prothorax black, marked with a mid- 
dorsal longitudinal blue line beginning on posterior lobe, 
.and a large spot on each side. Thorax black, marked with 
.bright yellow as follows : — ^A fine lower antehumeral stripe, 

d2 



36 AGEHDiE. 

a fine upper humeral stripe incomplete below, a small upper 
spot near first suture, a thick irregular broken stripe on lower 
part of sides, consisting of a triangular spot on metepimeron, 
and an irregular longitudinal stripe on mesepimeron. Four 
to six yellow spots on underside of thorax. Mesothoracic 
triangle very large, extending from anterior border of thorax 
to alar sinus, pale blue. Legs black, posterior pairs of femora 
yellow on flexor surface, tibiae of the same legs pruinosed 
white. Abdomen black, marked with yellow as follows : — 
A small spot on each side of segment 1, a lateral stripe and 
an apical spot in line with the former on each side of segments 
2 to 5 ; finally, a ventro-lateral stripe, not extending as far as 
apex of segment, on each side of segments 3 to 6. In old 
males the lateral stripes on segments 3 to 6 are lost, the apical 
spot alone remaining, or it may even be lost on segments 4 to 6. 
Anal appendages black, shaped as for the genus. Wings 
entirely hyaline (the only species of the genus in which they are 
so), shaped as for R. trifasciata, 15 to 16 antenodal nervures, 
discoidal cells with 5 to 6 traversing nervures ; pterostigma 
blackish-brown, its outer and costal part paler or yellowish. 

Femcde. — ^Abdomen 22 mm. Hind-wing 28-30 mm. 

Very similar to male. Markings of head better defined, and 
all bright yellow. Thorax with a large mesothoracic triangle, 
outlined in yellow, black at its centre ; other markings rather 
broader. Legs black, not pruinosed. Wings hyaline, occasion- 
ally enfumed in old adults ; pterostigma black, whitish in 
its outer part ; antenodal nervures 16 in number. Abdomen 
black, marked as in the male. Anal appendages and vulvar 
scale as for the genus. 

Distribiaion.—Kaomi only from Cherrapunji, Khasi Hills,, 
Assam. On the wing during September and October. 

This interesting species is easily distinguished from all 
others of the genus by the total absence of markings, or even 
vitreous iridescence, on the wings. 

Type in the Selys collection, Brussels Museum. 

181. RJunoeypha Mlaryse Fraser. (Fig. 12.) 

Rhinocypha hUarycB Fraser, Reo. Ind. Mxis. vol. xxix, pp. 83-86 

ofA* i^?-^^U '^■' '''• Bombay Nat. Hist. Soo. vol. xxxiirpp. 318, 
319, pi. m, fig. 2 (1927). ^^ ' 

ifofe.— Abdomen 21-22 mm. Hind-wing 27 mm. 

Head : labium black, lateral lobes creamy white ; labrum 
azure-blue, its anterior border and base narrowly black, the 
basal black with a median point ; epistome glossy black in 
front, velvety black above, with a smaU triangular spot of 
blue on each side ; frons with a large quadrangular blue spot 
on each side, with its outer angle pointed and prolonged 



EHINOCYPHA. 



37 



outwards, the two spots very narrowly separated and con- 
fluent with two large subrotund spots of the same colour 
on the vertex, which lie in close apposition to the median 
ocellus. Laterally, bases of mandibles, penultimate segment 
of antennae, and a narrow irregular stripe bordering the eyes, 
bluish. Lastly, a tiny point on outer side of each lateral 
ocellus, another on each side of occiput, and a small linear 
spot at its middle. (In dried specimens these markings are 
yellow or greenish- blue, but in life the adtilt markings are 
always blue.) Prothorax black, marked with blue, bluish-green, 
or yellow, according to age of specimen, as follows : — ^A narrow 
median linear stripe which begins on posterior lobe and tapers 
away anteriorly, a smaU triangular spot on each side of posterior 
lobe, and a short oval on each side of middle lobe. TJtorax 
Hack, marked with blue and yeUow as follows : — ^Mesothoraoic 




Kg. 12. — ^Wings of Rhinocypha hilaryw Fras., male. 



triangle pale turquoise-blue, elongate, extending as far up as 
alar sinus ; a fine humeral stripe aziure-blue ; laterally an irregular 
thick interrupted stripe extending the whole length of the 
thorax, rather zigzagged anteriorly, and broadened into an 
elongate triangular spot on metepimeron. Legs black, tibiae 
and distal parts of femora of the two posterior pairs of legs 
pruinosed white on flexor surface. Wivvgs hyaline, palely 
enfumed with greenish-yellow, marked with opaque black and 
vitreous- violet areas as follows : — ^Fore-wing with only extreme 
■apex bordered or clouded with opaque black ; pterostigma 
black ; hind- wing with apex broadly opaque black, inner 
border of opaque area serrated, running almost straight back 
ffom middle of pterostigma to hind border of wing, and, 
£naUy, continued as a narrow border along hind edge of the 



38 AGEHD-S;. 

•vring for about its apical fourth. At a short distance from the 
proximal end of the pterostigma is seen a narrow opaque 
black fascia, nearty always broadly broken at its middle 
into a small quadrate or angulate spot lying between Rii and 
IRii, and a markedly irregular spot confluent with the narrow 
black bordering of the wing ; rarely the two spots are united 
by a narrow isthmus, but in no two specimens are they ever 
exactly ahke. The vitreous -violet areas comprise the whole 
of the area included between the apical black bordering and 
the irregular fascia, as well as three linear spots situate between 
the level of the node and the narrow black fascia, nearer the 
latter than former. Of these, the anterior stripe is the longest, 
about 20 to 25 cells long, and situated between Rii and Riii ; 
the median stripe, lying between IRiii and Riv-'rv, is half the 
length of the former, its outer end in line with the outer end 
of the same ; finally, the third, or hinder spot, lying between 
MA and Guii, is very narrow, and continues outward along 
the posterior border of the wing, to become confluent with the 
narrow opaque black border ; pterostigma black, with a large 
oval pale blue spot in its outer two-thirds ; discoidal cell 
traversed 4 to 5 times ; petiolation variable, beginning 
opposite the second or third antenodal, but usually opposite 
the second ; 17 to 19 antenodal nervures, 28 to 38 postnodal 
nervures (very variable). Abdomen black, marked with 
bluish-green or yellow as follows :— Segment 1 with a large 
lateral triangular spot on each side ; segment 2 with a similar 
spot situate at the apex, as well as a ventral stripe nearer 
apex than base of segment ; segment 3 similar, but apical 
spot smaller and ventral stripe longer, extending for nearly 
the whole length of the segment ; segments 4 and 5 similar to 3 
but the markings becoming obsolete ; 6 and 7 with vestigial 
ventral stripes only. Anal appendages as usual in the genus. 

Female.— Ahdomen 21-22 mm. Hind-wing 30-32 mm. 

Head : markings similar to those of male, but bright yellow 
instead of blue. Lateral spot on epistome larger, and, in addi- 
tion, a lateral stripe on either side of its front. Prothorax 
smiilar to that of male. Thorax black, marked with bright 
yeUow as follows :— Mesothoracic triangle outlined in yellow 
the two lateral Unes converging and fusing above, and then 
contmued as a median line bisecting the antealar sinus • 
a fane complete antehumeral stripe curving slightly outwards 
above, and mwards below ; a fine humeral stripe, incomplete 
below ; a strongly curved stripe on upper part of mesepimeron • 
and lastly, a broad irregular stripe traversing the whole 
length of the lower part of the thorax, as in the male. Wims 

hyahne palely enfumed throughout, tinted slightlywith yellow 
especiaUy at base ; pterostigma black, its outer part bearing 



ehutocypha. 3& 

a broad oval yellowish spot ; 15 to 19 antenodal nervures, 
26 to 31 postnodals ; discoidal cells traversed 2 to 4 times ; 
petiolation begins between the first and second antenodals. 
Abdomen black, similar to that of male, but with yellow 
markings ; segments 2 and 3 have also a lateral stripe lying 
above and parallel to the ventral stripe, in line with, but 
not confluent with, the apical spot, whilst the ventral stripe 
is obsolete after segment 3 and aU markings are obsolete 
after segment 6. AtmI a/ppendages and vulvar scale as usual 
in the genus. 

Distribution. — ^Uppee Burma : Maymyo. Quite a number 
of both sexes were taken by Col. F. Wall, I.M.S., dtn:ing the 
months of June, July, and August. The insect appears to be 
remarkably local. 

The shape of the mesothoracic triangle and the wings show 
that R. Mlaryce belongs to group bifasciata. It can only be 
confounded with E. bifasciata, in which, however, the proximal 
fascia is complete and situated much nearer the node, the 
vitreous area also covering nearly the entire wings. 

Type and allotype in the British Museum. 

182. RMnocypha whitehead! Kirby. (Fig. 13.) 

BMnocypha whiteheadi Kirby, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) vol. v, 
p. 536, pi. xii, fig. 4 (1900); Martin, Mission Pavie, Neurop. 
(sep.), p. 17 (1904) ; Laidlaw, Ree. Ind. Mua. vol. xiii, pp. 38, 39 
(1917); Fraser, Mem. Dept. Agrio. India (Ent.), vol. vii, 
pi. viii, fig. 4 (1922); id., J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soe. vol. xxxii, 
pp. 450, 451 (1928). 



3. — ^Abdomen 17 mm. Hind-wing 21 mm. 
Head : labium, labrum, and rest of head velvety black, 
marked with blue as follows : — On each side a reniform or 
oval spot on outer side of posterior ocellus, a smaller post- 
ocular spot behind it, and a medial linear occipital spot behind 
the postocular spot. Prothorax black, marked on each side 
with a rounded pale blue spot, and a large blue spot, shaped 
like an arrow-head, on dorsum of posterior lobe and hind 
part of middle lobe. Thorax velvety black, with a dark violet 
lustre, marked with azure-blue and chrome-yellow as follows : — 
Mesothoracic triangle pale blue, extending considerably less 
than half-way up dorsum of thorax, and very broad at base, 
far more so than in other species of the genus ; an ante- 
humeral stripe, consisting of a small isolated spot above, 
and a narrow curved stripe on the lower half of the dorsum ; 
a fine posthumeral stripe closely apposed to the humeral 
suture, broken above to leave a small isolated spot, behind 
which is another elongate larger spot, aU blue. A broad 
interrupted stripe on lower part of sides yeUow, but the portion 



40 



AGEnDiE. 



on the metepimeron blue anteriorly; pniinosed white 
beneath. Legs black, femora and the two posterior pairs of 
tibise pniinosed white. Wings hyaline, palely tinted with yeUow 
at base, opaque blackish-brown apically, hind-wing marked 
on this part with three rows of vitreous -violet spots. Fore- 
wing with apical portion opaque blackish-brown as far inwards 
as rather more than half-way from apex to node, extending 
nearer node along costal border of wing, inner border of dark 
area serrate and running obliquely backward and outwards ; 
pterostigma black, cells immediately beneath it hyaline. 
Hind-wing with opaque area darker and extending inwards for 
about three-fourths the distance between apex and node, its 
inner border very irregular, indented and serrate. Vitreous 




Fig. 13. — Wings of Rhinooypha whiteheadi Kirby, male. 

spots a beautiful violet, from whatever angle they are viewed. 
Apical spot single, 4 cell-rows deep by 6 cells wide, irregularly 
shaped, situated 3 cell-rows behind pterostigma, which is 
black ; middle row of spots 3 in number, all in alignment 
^nd of about equal length, about 10 cells wide, costal spot 
lying between IRii and Riii, median spot between IRiii and 
Riv-\-v, posterior spot between Cuii and lA ; proximal spot 
single, short, only 5 cells long, lying between IRii and Riv-{-v, 
projecting slightly iato opaque area. All the wings with 
14 to 15 antenodal nervures ; discoidal cell traversed 3 times 
in the fore-wing, 4 times m the hind-wing ; wings petiolated 
to level of second antenodal ; 21 to 26 postnodals. Wings of 



SHIITOCYPHA. 41 

approximately the same shape and length, long and narrow, 
the hind-wings slightly broader than the fore-wings. Abdomen 
black, marked with azure- blue as foUows : — Segments I to 4 
with lateral rounded spot at apical end of segments, growing 
successively smaller from 1 to 4, segment I has also the 
apical border narrowly lined with blue, and there is a short 
ventro-lateral stripe on segments 2 and 3. AtuiI appendages 
shaped as for the genus ; inferior appendages with a series 
of small robust spines on upper surface. 

Female. — ^Unknown. 

Distribution. — ^Assam : Cachar. Very local, but apparently 
not uncommon where found, to judge by the numbers taken 
by Mr. Antram. Martin records it from Tonkin, but I was 
unable to find any specimens in his collection in the Paris 
Museum, and infer that he has mistaken a race of JS. perforata 
for this species. There is a single male from Sibsagar, Assam, 
in the Indian Museiun. 

Although belonging to group perforaia, it is not very closely 
related to B. perforata itself, and cannot even be considered as 
a subspecies of that species, as has been suggested. The 
wings in B. whiteheadi are not only broader than in 
B. perforata, but are distinctly rounded at the apices. It 
ought not to be difficult to discover the female of this 
beautiful insect. 

Type in the British Museum. 

RMnoeypha perforata (Percheron). (Fig. 14.) 

Agrion perforatus Percheron, (Jen. Ins., Neur. t. 2 (1833). 

BMnocypha perforata Eambur, Ins. Nevrop. p. 235 (1842) j Selys, 
Syn. Cal. p. 63 (1853); id., Mon. Cal. p. 219 (1854); id., BuU. 
Aoad. Belg. (2) vol. xxxv, p. 487 (1873); Kirby, Cat. Odoa. 
p. 114 (1890); Martin, Mission Pavie, Neurop. (aep.) p. 17 
(1904); Williamson, Proe. TJ.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xxvii, p. 174 
(1905); Laidlaw, Bee. Ind. Mus. vol. xiii, pp. 38, 39 (1917); 
Fraser, Mem. Dept. Agrio. India (Ent.), vol. vii, pi. vui, 
fig. 3 (1922); id., J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soe. vol. xxix, p. 479 
(1923); id., ibid. vol. xxxii, p. 451, pi. i, fig. 3 (1928). 

LibeUago perforata Walker, List Netir. Ins. Brit. Mus. vol. iv, p. 647, 
(1853). 

Shinocypha apicaiis Kruger, Stett. Ent. Zeit. p. 79 (1898); Laid- 
law, Fascio. Malayenses (Zool.), pt. i, p. 196 (1903). 

RMnoeypha mas Laidlaw, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lend. pp. 88-90, pi. vi, 
fig. 6 (1902). 

The typical form of B. perforata is not found within Indian 
limits, but is represented by its subspecies or races limbata 
and beatifica, described below. The type was taken ha Cochin 
■China, and cotypes exist in the McLachlan collection from the 
island of Hainan, China, collected by Swinhoe. B. perforata 
perforcOa differs from the form limbata by not having the 



42 AGKIID^. 

border of the apes of the hind-wing hyaline, and by the 
reduction of the opaque area in both fore- and hind-wings. 
In the fore-wing this area occupies a little more than the 
apical fourth, but in the hind-wing it extends to within 4 
cells of the node. In the form limbata this area extends 




Kg. 14.— Wings of Bhinocypha perforata perforata Ferch., male. 

nearly up to the node in the fore-wings, but is variable in the 
Mnd-wmgs, usuaUy extending to about the same distance 
from the node, whereas in the form beatifica it extends right 
up to the node. 
Type in the Paris Museum. 

183. Rhinoeypha perforata limbata Selys. 

Bhinooypha perforata var. limbata Selys, Bull. Aoad. Bels (2V 
vol xIvH p. 892 (1879); Kirby, Cat. Odon. p. 114 (1890) 
Laidlaw, Reo. Ind. Mus. vol. xiii, p. 38 (1917) 

Bhmocypha perforata Umhata Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist Soc 
vol. xxxu, pp. 451, 452 (1928). 

ifaZe.— Abdomen 16-18 mm. Hind-wing 25 mm 
Head- labium dirty white, apices of lobes black; labrum 
and rest of head velvety black, with a small rounded spot 
on outer side of each posterior ocellus, a larger rounded post- 

P^f^<^^ black, with the greater part of the posterior lobe 
oftbT^M^i Tr'-^?"^ ^ ^^^«® '^^"^ «P°* on either side 

trianl^^H-^°^'v/^°''^ ^^^^"*y ^^'^' "^esothoracic 
triangle extendmg rather more than one-third up the dorsum 

Maceous On the outer side of this triangle,^ andsSh; 

tTfo^f^-^'' ,.'*•/ ^^'^" subtriangular azure-blue spot S 

Its posterior border meeting the anterior part of the humTral 

suture. Above this spot is a small triangular upper hZera ■ 

Tof t^SZ'7}^' ^''''^^ ^ g^-*'r partly tSnS 
IS ot the same colour, viz., nearly the whole of the mesepi- 



EHINOCYPHA. 43. 

meron, the upper two-thirds of the metepimeron, and a narrow 
prolongation along the hind border of the humeral suture,, 
reaching as far as the root of the fore -wings. Beneath 
thorax 2 to 4 yeUow spots which may be somewhat obscured 
by pruinescence. In the Siamese and Annamese forms 
there are only two small rounded spots on the hind part of 
the thorax, whereas, in specimens from Assam, there are two 
additional larger oval spots in line with and in front of these. 
Legs black, flexor surfaces of the two posterior pairs of femora. 
and tibiae pruinosed white or creamy white. Wings very 
long and very narrow, of equal breadth, hyaline in the basal 
part, where they are palely tinted with yellow ; opaque 
blacMsh-brown in the apical portion, marked with two series 
of vitreous spots in hind-wing. Fore-wings with outer third 
only opaque, this area stopping short of hind border of wing, 
with a serrate border proximally and prolonged inwards 
along the costal border, between the costa and Ri, to within 

2 to 4 cells of the node ; hyaline border of wing, posterior 
to opaque area, vitreous with bluish, violaceous or green 
reflex, which may extend as far as the extreme apex of the 
wing. Pterostigma black ; 15 antenodal nervures, 24 post- 
nodals ; discoidal cell traversed twice only ; petiolation 
ending at level of second antenodal nervure. Hind- wing 
with opaque area extending inwards to within 1 to 4 cells of 
node, proximal border of this area ragged and indented deeply 
by a vitreous spot 8 or 9 cells long, between IBiii and Biv-\-v.- 
Hind border of wing narrowly hyaline and vitreous, finely 
reticulated, and extending round apex of wing as far as ptero- 
stigma. Apical series of vitreous spots very variable, usually 
composed of 3 linear spots, which decrease in length from the 
costa to the hind border of the wing, and which slightly overlap 
the level of the inner end of the pterostigma. Costal spot 11 
to 16 ceUs long, lying between IJRii and Riii ; posterior spot 

3 cell-rows deep by 4 to 8 cells long, lying between IRiii and 
Riv-\-v, wMlst the middle spot, which is 2 to 3 cell-rows deep 
by 9 to 10 ceUs long, Ues mid-way between the two others, 
banded by short intercalated sectors ; inner series lying rather 
nearer node than pterostigma, composed of 3 spots, a costal 
spot 1 cell-row wide by 10 cells long, lying between IRii and 
Riii, a medial spot 2 cell-rows wide by 10 to 15 cells long,, 
between IBiii and Riv-\-v, and a posterior spot 1 cell-row 
wide by 9 to 12 cells long, between MA and Cuii. All these 
vitreous spots and areas glowing emerald-green or opalescent,, 
according to the angle from which they are viewed ; 28 post- 
nodal nervures, 14 to 15 antenodals ; discoidal cell traversed 
3 to 4 times ; petiolation the same as ia fore-wing ; ptero- 
stigma black. Abdomen black, marked laterally with azure- 
blue as follows : — Segment 1 with a large cuneiform spot on. 



44 AGEIIDJB. 

each side, 2 with a bUobed longitudinal spot extending jfrom 
near base to apical border, 3 and 4 both with a long wedge- 
shaped spot, with base of wedge at apical border of segment, 
segments 5 to 9 each with a short triangular apical spot, 
that on 9 much reduced. Anal appendages black, superiors 
slender, cyliudrical, semicircular, a little broadened at apex, 
which is strongly incurved, and minutely spined on outer 
side near apex. Inferiors half the length of the superiors, 
moderately separated, bluntly pointed, a little denticulated 
at apex. 

Female. — ^Abdomen 18 mm. Hind-wing 26 mm. 

Differs from male by having wings entirely hyaline, tinted 
palely with greenish-yellow ; pterostigma blackish-brown, 
its outer half yeUow at the centre, especially in hind- wings ; 
13 to 15 antenodal nervures in fore- wings, 26 to 30 postnodals. 

Head similar to that of male, with the addition of a large 
spot of yeUow on upper surface of epistome and two smaller 
ones behind it. Spots on vertex and occiput also yellow, 
body-markings like those of male, but yellow instead of blue, 
mesothoracic triangle finely outhned in yellow, its centre 
black. Legs black, tibise and femora not pruinosed. Abdomen 
black, with yellow markiags as in male, but with additional 
ventro-lateral stripes on segments 2 to 5. Vulvar scale as for 
the genus. 

Distribution.— B. p. limbata extends from Annam, through 
Siam, to Btjema and Assam. The type, in the Selysian 
collection, is from East Burma. 

The abdominal markings, said by Selys to be more restricted 
than in typical R. perforata, are not found to be so when 
a series of specimens is examined. In the fore- wing, at least, 
the opaque area is greatly reduced as comparedtoJJ.jp. limbata 
orR.p. beatifica. 

184. RMnoeypha perforata beatifica Fraser. 

^^j^'^ypffPfforatahmUfiM Fraser, Rec. Ind. Mus. vol. xxix, 
pp! 452 45^^i 1928) ^ ' ' ^""^'^^y ^S'*" ^i^t. Soo. vol. xxxii. 

SimHar in size and markmgs to B. p. limbata, from which 
It diflers by the greater extent of the opaque area in all the 
wxDgs, this area reachmg right up to the level of the node. 
IMS is especially noticeable in the fore-wings, where not 
only the costal streak, but also the body of the area, extends 
to the node, the serrated border running from the node and 
bSfSi^ ^ f^. as the apex of the wing, leaving a rather 
broader area of hyahne border than is found in rX. limbata. 
in the hind-wmg, the hyahne border broadens out at the apex 
ol the wmg extending right up to, or even overlapping, the 
outer end of the pterostigma. This latter has, in the hind- 



EHINOCYPHA. 45 

■wing, a narrow bluish centre along its outer half, and that of 
the fore-wing is pale for the same extent. In the outer series 
of vitreous spots the middle spot is 2 cell-rows deep and is 
fused completely with the costal spot, so that in reality there 
are only two spots ia this series. 

Distribution. — ^Assam : ISTaga HUls, from April to June. 

B. p. beatifica differs from B. p. limbata to about the same 
extent as does the latter from typical B. perforata, so that, 
given sufficient material, it might be possible to construct 
a series showing a gradual merging of one into the others. 
For the present it seems better to consider the perforata series 
as one species with a typical form and two subspecies. 

Type in the Fraser collection. 

Bbinoeypha biforata Selys. 

Rhinocypha hiforata Selys, Bull. Acad. Belg. (2) vol. vii, p. 446 

(1859); Kirby, Cat. Odon. p. 113 (1890); Laidlaw, Proc. Zool. 

Soc. Lond. (1) p. 88 (1902); Williamson, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 

vol. xsviii, pp. 173, 179, text-fig. 12 (1905); Laidlaw, Bee. Ind. 

Mus. vol. sdii, pp. 37, 38 (1917); Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. 

Soc. vol. xxix, p. 479 (1923). 
BMnocypha hiforata biforata Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soo. 

vol. xxxii, p. 453 (1928). 

The species is not found in its typical form within Indian 
limits, but is represented by its three subspecies — delimbata 
Selys, beesoni Fraser, and abbreviata Fraser. The typical 
form is characterized by the greater extent of the opaque 
area ia the hind- wings, which extends right up to the node 
or a little beyond it ; the vitreous spots also tend to be 
longer and the reticulation somewhat closer. Of the sub- 
species, B. b. beesoni is closest to the type-form but, curiously 
enough, is separated from it geographically by the inter- 
vention of the other two subspecies. 

Type in the Selysian collection, Brussels Museum. 

185. Rhinoeypha biforata delimbata Selys. (Fig. 15 and PI. U, 
fig. 2.) 

BMnocypha biforata var. delimbata Selys, Bull. Acad. Belg. (2} 
vol. xlvii, p. 392 (1879); Kirby, Cat. Odon. p. 113 (1890). 

BMnocypha biforata delimbata i^ser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 
vol. xxsdi, pp. 453, 454 (1928). 

IfaZe.— Abdomen 19-20 mm. Hiad-wing 23-26 mm. 

Head velvety black, marked with five bright ochreous spots,. 
one rounded or oval on outer side of each posterior oeeUus, 
one round postocular spot on each side, and one medial oval 
occipital spot ; labium white, lobes tipped with black. 
Prothorax black, posterior lobe finely bordered with yeUow, 
and with a large rose-pink spot in its middle ; a large bluish 
spot on each side near trochanters, and a similar subdorsal 



46 



AGBnD^. 



spot on each side of middle lobe. Thorax velvety black, 
marked as follows : — ^Mesothoracic triangle rose-pink or 
lilaceous, extending less than half-way up the dorsum of 
thorax, but continued as a fine hne of the same colour along the 
mid-dorsal carina as far as the antealar sinus. On each side 
of the mesothoracic triangle a large irregularly oval spot 
of the same colour, much larger than the triangle itself, 
a small upper antehumeral spot, a broadish stripe behind the 
upper two-thirds of the humeral suture, the greater part of 
the mesepimeron and metepimeron, azure-blue. Posterior 
lateral suture, lower part of metepimeron, and a quadrate 
area on upper anterior part of mesepimeron all black, the 
latter area bearing a small isolated blue spot. Beneath, 
'6 large yellow spots, separated by black sutures and framed 
narrowly in black. Legs black, the two posterior pairs of 




Fig. 15. — ^Wings o{ Rhynocypha Uforata delimbaia Selys, male. 

tibiae pulverulent white, the two posterior pairs of femora 
pulverulent yeHow on the flexor surfaces. Wings hyaline, 
the greater part enfamed and tinted with yellow, which is 
most intense near the base. Fore-wings with apices tipped 
with blackish-brown, this marking gradually shading off into 
the hyaline area at the outer end of the pterostigma (in 
-B. btforata biforata this area begias well proximal to the 
pterostigma, and covers about the outer fifth of the vrins) ■ 
discoidal ceU traversed 3 times ; 14 to 16 antenodal nervures', 
J7 to 32 postnodals ; petiolation ending at level of second 
antenodal nervure. Hind-wings with about the apical fourth 
blaekish-brown (the a,pical third or more in B. biforata biforata) 
this area xnarked with a series of 4 linear vitreous spots 
very irregular, each varymg in length, and the costal three 
often linked up by one or more connecting cells ; inner level 
of spots formmg a concavity towards apex of ^^g as does 



EHINOCYPHA. 47 

also the inner border of the opaque area, which extends 
slightly nearer the base along the hind border of the -wing. 
Just proximal to the opaque area (projecting into it in B. bifo- 
raia biforata) is a second row of vitreous spots ; the costal 
one of these spots, lying slightly nearer node than pterostigma, 
■composed of one row of ceUs, about 12 in number, lying 
between ISii and Riii ; second spot shorter, l5fing more 
distal, 2 cell-rows deep by 8 or 9 cells long, between Biv-\-v 
and Biii ; posterior spot at same level as costal, 9 cells long 
by 1 row wide, lying between MA and Cuii. In the same 
space as the medial spot of this series, but lying behind level 
■of node, another vitreous spot, 1 row wide by 11 to 18 cells 
long. Pterostigma black ; 15 to 16 antenodal nervures, 
26 postnodals ; discoidal ceU traversed 3 times. Abdomen 
black, marked with azure-blue as follows : — ^A large triangular 
spot on each side of segment 1, a mid- subdorsal and an apico- 
lateral spot on each side of segment 2, as well as a ventro- 
lateral stripe below them ; similar spots and stripes, but 
longer, on segments 3 to 5 ; segments 6 and 7 with the ventro- 
lateral stripe only. Anal appeTtdages black, shaped as for the 
genus. 

Female. — ^Abdomen 15-16 mm. Hind-wing 23 mm. 

Head black, with the same markings as in male, but, in 
addition, bases of mandibles, basal segments of antennae, 
"two large spots on frons, and two minute liaear spots in front 
•and to outer side of anterior ocellus, all yellow. Prothorax 
black, with the following yeUow markings : — Hind border of 
posterior lobe outwardly finely yellow, a narrow longitudinal 
medial line, often broken into minute poiats on dorsum of 
same lobe, a geminate point at the anterior end of this on the 
medial lobe, a largish triangular spot on each side of mid- 
lobe, and a rounded spot on each side of anterior end. Thorax 
black, marked with blue and yeUow as follows : — ^Meso- 
thoraoic triangle finely mapped out in yellow, its centre 
black, a fine antehumeral line incomplete above and strongly 
hooked outwards and backwards ia front, a fine incomplete 
humeral line, all yeUow. Sides similar to those of male, blue. 
Legs black, not pruiaosed, flexor surfaces of posterior pairs 
of femora yellow. Abdomen black, marked exactly as in male. 
Aival appendages and vulvar scale as usual in the genus. 

Distribution. — Bubma and Assam ; common in parts of the 
former but apparently rare or local in the latter. I have 
specimens from Mergui, Lower Burma, collected in November, 
■and from Maymyo, Upper Burma, collected in July, the latter 
specimens by Col. F. Wall. It appears to be the commonest 
species of Bhinocypha in the Maymyo district. 

The measurements differ widely from those given by Selys 
for B. biforaia, but it is obvious that these are incorrect. 



48 AGEHD^. 

at least for the abdomen. The Maymyo specimens are very 
constant in their markings, especially with regard to the 
extent of the opaque areas of the wings, so that I think 
delimbata should at least rank as a subspecies. 
Type in the Selysian collection, Brussels Museum. 

186. Rhlnocypha biforata abbreviata Fraser. 

Rhinoaypha biforata abbremata Fraser, J. Bombay N"at. Hist. Soc- 
vol. xxxii, pp. 454, 455 (1928). 

The single male specimen known to me shows the following 
differences from the other subspecies : — 

The mesothoracic triangle is considerably smaller than in 
a. biforata delimbata, and the carina above it is unmarked ; 
the antehumeral spot is absent ; the fore-wings have only 
the extreme tips opaque, and the nodal index is considerably 
lower (12 antenodal nervures and 21 postnodals) ; the spots 
in the outer series are discrete, and aU are much shorter than 
ia the typical form (12 to 13 cells for costal spot in M. biforata 
biforata, only 6 in JR. b. abbreviata, 18 cells in the second spot, 
only 14 in B. b. abbreviata, etc.). The spots of the middle 
series show the same difference, being only 4 to 5 cells in 
length and falling well short of the opaque area, although in 
the hind- wing this area is as extensive as ini2. biforata biforata. 
FmaUy, the proximal spot is only 8 cells in length. Nodal 
index of hind-wing is lower, II antenodals and 23 postnodals. 
Abdomen with markings present on the first five segments 
only as folows :— A large triangular blue spot on the sides of 
segment I, an apical rounded spot, a short mid-lateral stripe 
and a ventro-lateral stripe on segment 2 ; segments 3 to 5 
similar to 2, but medial stripes absent and other markings 
much reduced. 

Distribution. — Assam. 

The smaU size of this insect, the abbreviated vitreous 
markmgs, and the reduced abdominal markings are, I think 
sufficient to constitute it a weU-defined subspecies, bearing 
the samerelation to typical B. biforata as does B. trirmculato 
to K. ignipenms. 

Type in the Fraser collection. 

187. BMnocypha biforata beesoni Fraser. 

BUnooypha beesoni Praser, Mem. Dept. Agrio. India fEnt 1 » 

'''::ri p^TMimr" ^'""' '■ ^°^''^^ ''"*• ^'^*- ^°<=- 

^aZe.— Abdomen 18 mm. Hind-wing 25 mm 
B. biforata be^oni comhm^s the characters of typical 
B. biforata and the subspecies delimbata, in that the apical 



EHINOCYPHA. 49 

•area of the fore-wings is as extensive as in typical biforata, 
and the same area in the hind- wings is as reduced as in delim- 
hata. In the fore--wing the opaque area extends 2 to 3 cells 
proximal to the inner end of the pterostigma, its inner margin 
being somewhat irregular, bevelled outwardly from the costa 
posteriorwards, and prolonged slightly along the costa as far 
as half-way between the pterostigma and the node between 
the costal and radial nervures. There is also a slight prolonga- 
tion along the hind margin of the wing. In the hind- wing 
iihe opaque area covers nearly the outer third of the wing, 
and the middle series of spots extends right up to it or even 
invades it for a short distance. The length of these spots 
is slightly greater than in subsp. abbreviata, but decidedly 
less than in typical biforata or subsp. delimbata. The vitreous 
spots in aU these subspecies have a metallie green or coppery 
reflex in the opaque areas, violaceous in the hyaline area. The 
discoidal cells are traversed 3 to 4 times respectively, the fore- 
wing has 14 to 15 antenodal nervures and 22 to 25 postnodals. 
The body-markings are similar to those of delimbata. 

Distribution. — The type, in the Forest Research Institute, 
Behra Dun, is from Lachiwala, United Peovhstces, and was 
collected in the month of November. I have also seen two 
pairs in the Pusa collection which are recorded as having been 
coUeoted at Mergui, Lowee Btjema, during June. There 
are no record of specimens having been taken in the vast 
stretch of country separating these two localities, and it is, 
therefore, more than likely that some error in labelling the 
supposed Mergui specimen has crept in, as Mr. C. P. Beeson 
ooUeeted in Lower Burma (as well as round Dehra Dun), and 
might have been expected to find examples, if the species 
occurs there. 

This subspecies is easUy distinguished from the two sub- 
species delimbata and abbreviata by the extent of the apical 
marking of the fore- wing, and from typical biforata by the 
much reduced opaque area in the hind- wing. 

188. Rhinoeypha bisignata Selys. (Pigs. 16 & 17, and PI. I, 

fig. 2.) 

Rhinocypha bisignata Selys, Syn. Cal. p. 62 (1863); id., Mon. Cal. 
p. 214(1855); Kirby, Cat. Odon. p. 113 (1890); Laidlaw, Bee. 
Ittd.Mus. vol. xiii, p. 38 (1917) ; Fraser, Mem. Dept. Agrio. India 
(Ent.), vol. vii, pp. 80, 81, pi. x (1922) (larva) ; id., J. Bombay 
Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. xxix, p. 478 (1923) ; id., Eec. Ind. Mus. 
vol. xxvi, p. 483 (1924) ; id., J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soe. vol.xxxii, 
pp. 455-456 (1928) ; id., Ree. Ind. Mus. vol.xxxiii, p. 448 (1931). 

Male. — ^Abdomen 20 mm. Hind-wing 24^-26 mm. 
Head : eyes brown ; rest of head, including lips, velvety black. 
A small spot external to each posterior ocellus, a similar 
VOL. n. B 



50 AGEHDJE. 

postocular spot on each side, and an occasional occipital spot,, 
all bright ochreous. Prothorax black, with a large yellow- 
spot on each side of middle lobe, a similar spot on outer ends 
of posterior lobe, and a large rose-pink spot covering the greater 
part of dorsum of the same lobe. Thorax black, marked as 
follows :— Mesotlioracic triangle rose-pink, extending for more 
than one-third but for less than half-way up dorsum of thorax ; 
a large spot of the same colour, pointed at both ends, bluntly 
so anteriorly, lying between humeral suture and mesothoracic 
triangle, but well separated from the latter, and of twice 
its length ; a small upper yellow antehumeral spot, a narrow 
yellow stripe bordering the upper half of the humeral suture 
behind ; a broad, very broken stripe on posterior half of mesepi- 
meron and the whole centre of metepimeron, golden-yellow. 
Beneath, three pairs of yellow spots, the posterior the larger, 
the middle pair obscured. Legs black, the two posterior 




Kg. 16. — Wings of BMnoaypha bisignata Selys, male. 

pairs of tibise and femora pruinosed white on flexor surfaces. 
Wings long and narrow as in R. biforata ; hind- wings slightly 
broader than fore-wings, hyaline in basal part, where they are 
tinted with yellow, opaque blackish- brown in apioal area, 
the hind- wing bearing here a large vitreous fuliginous spot. 
Fore-wings with outer fourth or more opaque, this area being 
brilliant coppery or with fiery reflex as in JS. ignipennis, with 
its inner border prolonged slightly basaUy between costa and 
Ri and running obliquely out towards hind border of the wing. 
Hind-wing -with outer third opaque, and marked with two 
series of vitreous spots which glow with a coppery or viola- 
ceous reflex, the inner spot always the latter colour. Outer 
spot produced by a fusion of spots similar to those seen in 
R. biforata t but often completely or partially divided into two 
or more spots, Ij^ing between Bii or MA or Riv-{-v, and its 
outer border on a level with middle of pterostigma. Inner 



EHXITOCYPHA. 



51 



series composed of 3 vitreous spots similar to those seen in 
B. biforata, but the middle one usually prolonged inwards 
to fuse with the nodal spot seen in R. biforata. The first 
spot of this series one row deep by 8 cells long, l5rLng between. 
IRiii and Riv-\-v, the middle spot 20 to 22 cells long when 
fused with the nodal spot, otherwise only 10 cells long, lying 
between IRiii and Riv-\-v, the posterior spot 11 to 12 cells 
long, lying between MA and Cuii. Pterostigma black in all 
wings ; nodal index 12 to 14 antenodals and 28 to 31 post- 
nodals in fore-wings, 12 to 14 antenodals and 22 to 28 post- 
nodals in hind-wings ; disooidal cell traversed 2 to 3 times 
in fore-wings, 3 to 6 in hind-wings ; petiolation begins shghtly 
proximal to the second antenodal. Abdomen black, marked 
with yeUow as follows : — Segment 1 with a subtriangular lateral 
spot on each side ; segment 2 with a mid-lateral stripe, an 




Fig. 17. — Anal appendages ofRMnooypM hisignata Selys, male, 
a, left lateral view ; b, dorsal view. 

apical spot and ventro-lateral stripes ; 3 and 4 similar to 2, 
but the mid-lateral spot obsolete, whilst 5 has the apico- 
lateral spots only. All other segments unmarked. Anal 
appendages as for the genus, the inferiors minutely spined 
above. 

Female. — ^Abdomen 16 mm. Hind- wing 22 mm. 

Head : labium bluish-green, tipped with black ; labrum 
black, with a large oval or triangular yellow spot on each 
side ; cheeks broadly yellow, this colour continued up as 
a narrow bordering to the eyes as far back as the level of the 
posterior ocellus ; basal segments of antennae, a small triangular 
spot low down on sides of epistome, two large triangular spots 
on upper surface of frons, two transversely oval spots just 
behind these, lying in front and to outer side of anterior ocellus,. 
a rounded postocular spot on each side, and a mid-occipital 
spot, triangular in shape, all bright ochreous. Prothorax 
black, with a large yellow spot on each side and borders of 

e2 



52 AGEHD^. 

posterior lobe lateraUy, finely yeUow. Thorax as in male 
but the large antehumeral spot replaced by a fine antehumeral 
line incomplete above, whilst the mesothoracic triangle 
is black finely outlined in yellow, as also the mid-dorsal 
carina. Legs black, not pruinosed. Wings entirely hyaline, 
tinted palely with yeUow, apices narrowly enfumed ; ptero- 
stigma black, with pale creamy centre ; discoidal cell traversed 
twice, or more rarely thrice, in all wings ; 12 to 14 antenodal 
nervures, 21 to 27 postnodals in fore-wings, 19 to 24 in hind- 
wings. Abdomen black, marked with yeUow as in male, 
but rather more extensively, thus segments 3 to 5 are marked 
similarly to 2, and 6 and 7 similar, the remainder unmarked. 
Anal appendages and vulvar scale as usual in the genus. 

Distribution.— T\m species is the sole representative of the 
genus in Southern and Peninsular India. It is a widely 
distributed insect ; thus I have records of its capture in localities 
as wide apart as Cochin (South India) and the Cbntbal 
Pbovincbs. It is common throughout the PaMi, Nilgiri, 
and Shevaroy HiUs in the far south, abundant in Coorg, 
less common at Khandala and Igatpuri (Bombay Pees.) 
on the ghats near Bombay ; lastly, it is widespread throughout 
the Agency Tracts and Jeypore (Madeas Pees.) on the East 
Coast. Its exact limits here are yet to be worked out, but 
it probably stops short of Bengal. It is a submontane insect, 
Mving and breeding between 2,000 and 5,500 feet altitude. 
Its larva was discovered in the Nilgiris, and was one of the 
first of the genus to be described. 

The females congregate on the bare twigs of trees near the 
Tsreeding-plaoes in great numbers, and are very rarely seen 
pairing. Occasionally they may be seen ovipositLag on a piece 
of dead twig floating in mid-stream. The males frequently 
disport in couples before the females, circling and sparring 
with one another, their white pruinosed legs gHstening and 
thrust out like the arms of a wrestler seeking for an opening ; 
meanwhile their wiags flash like living jewels of fire. 

Type in the Selysian collection. 

Genus CALOCYPHA Fraser. 

Calocypha Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. xxxii, p. 185 
(1927) ; id., ibid. vol. xxxii, p. 457, pi. ii, fig. 3 (1928). 

Moderately smaU but robust insects, with characters similar 
to those of Ehinocypha, differing mainly in details of venation 
and the greater petiolation of the wings. Head, thorax, 
abdomen, and legs similar to Ehinocypha. Wings equal in 
length, similar in shape, apices markedly rounded, reticulation 
more open than in Ehinocypha, hyaline, with opaque apices ; 
are very oblique, lyiag almost in line with costal border 



CALOCyPECA. 55 

of the diseoidal cell, latter shorter than in most species of 
Bhinocypha, and acutely pointed outwardly ; petiolation 
beginning at or well distal to inner end of diseoidal cell ; 
nervure ac more basally situated than in Bhinocypha ; anal 
appendages slenderer, superior pair twice the length of seg- 
ment 10, narrow, cylindrical, curving in at apices which are 
bluntly pointed, furnished with a few hairs. Inferior pair 
much shorter, half the length of superior, broad at base, 
backwardly directed and parallel with one another, furnished 
with a few minute spines on upper surface. 

Female with apices of hind- wings partiaUy opaque, venation 
as in the male. Vulvar scale and anal appendages as in the 
genus Bhinocypha. 

Genotype, Bhinocypha laidlawi Fraser. 

189. Calocypha laidlawi (Fraser). (Fig. 18.) 

Bhinocypha laidlawi Fraser, Ree. Ind. Mus. vol. xsvi, pp. 483, 483 

(1924). 
Calocypha laidlawi Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soe. vol. xxxii, 

pp. 457, 458, pi. ii, fig. 3 (1928); id., Beo. Ind. Mus. vol. xxxiii, 

p. 448 (1931). 

Male. — ^Abdomen 17-18 mm. Hind-wing 20 mm. 

Head black, marked with bright vermilion as follows : — 
A large oval spot on dorsum of anterior part of epistome ; 
behind this spot a pair of large subtriangular spots on frons, 
nearly confluent with two large tongue-shaped spots on vertex, 
latter closely apposed to ocelli (which they partially enclose), 
changing from vermilion to pale ochreous at their hinder ends ; 
a postocular spot on each side of occiput of the same colour. 
Eyes dark brown ; labium pale yellow ; labrum glossy black. 
Prothorax black, marked with creamy yellow as foUows : — 
A narrow anterior collar, an oval spot on each side of middle 
lobe, a spot on each side of posterior lobe, and a large spot 
on trochanters. Thorax black, mesothoracic triangle very 
narrow and elongate, extending whole length of dorsal carina, 
expanded in its lower third, with parallel sides in its upper 
two-thirds, bright vermihon-red. Central part of alar sinus 
creamy yellow, lower parts of sides azure-blue save for a 
small triangular area posterior to the humeral suture and 
a small linear spot on upper part of second lateral suture. 
Dark area in front bearing a small upper posthumeral blue 
spot. Six large rounded yellowish spots on underside, 
anterior pair confluent. Wings hyaline, bases tinted with 
yellow, rather less than apical third of each wing opaque 
black with dark violet-metaUic reflections, margin of this 
opaque area straight and sharply defined, without clear spots 
or stripes. Pterostigma black, swollen outwardly, oblique 
at both ends. Legs black, the flexor surfaces of the two hinder 



54 



AGEHDjE. 



pairs of tibise pruinosed white, the same pairs of femora 
very sUghtly so. Abdomen black, marked with bright azm-e- 
Hue on segments 1 to 8, 1 to 3 broadly blue on sides from 
base to apical border, 4 to 8 with a broad wedge-shaped 
spot tapering apically but not reaching apical border of 
segments, gradually diminishing in size on successive segments ; 
2 to 8 with narrow paired basal subdorsal blue lunules. Anal 
■appendages black. 

i?'e»ioZe.— Abdomen 17 mm. Hind-wing 24 mm. 

Differs from the male m having the markings bright pale 
oohreous instead of vermiHon and azure-blue, and its fore-wings 
•entirely hyaline. Head black, marked with pale ochreous 
as follows : — ^Two large oval spots covering greater part of 
labrum ; spots on upper surface of epistome and frons as 
in male ; bases of mandibles and a narrow stripe adjacent to 




Fig. 18. — ^Wings of Oalocypha laidlawi (Fras.), male. 

■each eye, as far as level of ocelli ; basal segments of antennae ; 
a small spot on each side of epistome, and lastly, postocular 
spots as in male. ProtJiorax similar to that of male, but 
mid-dorsum bearing a stripe which runs from posterior lobe 
nearly to anterior end of prothorax. Thorax black, marked 
with greenish-yellow as ■ follows : — Two minute spots on 
antealar sinus ; a fine hue on mid-dorsal carina ; a £ne 
•antehumeral stripe, its anterior end curhng abruptly outward ; 
•a short posthumeral stripe, incomplete below ; a still shorter 
vestigial stripe just posterior to upper part of first lateral 
suture ; a long stripe traversmg whole length of sides, crossing 
both sutures obhquely, its upper and lower borders very 
irregular and serrate. Legs black, femora dirty yellow on 
inner side. Wings hyaline ; hind pair with apices broadly 



CELOEOCYPHA. 55 

brown as far proximal to iimer end of pterostigma as length 
of latter, and of a much deeper tint in the hinder two-thirds 
of wing. Centres of anterior cells hyaline ; brown area at 
apex of wing replaced by a small opaque white area. Ptero- 
stigma with inner half black, outer half whitish, margined 
with black. Antenodal nervures 10 to 11 in fore-wings, 
postnodals 18 to 19 (10 to 11, and 18 to 24 in male) ; disooidal 
cell of fore-wings traversed once only, rarely twice, in both 
sexes, 2 to 3 times in hiad- wings. Petiolation begimiing at 
inner end of discoidal cell in the female. Abdomen black, 
marked with bright ochreous and greenish-yeUow : — Seg- 
ment 1 with a large lateral spot and a minute mid-dorsal linear 
apical spot ; 2 to 8 with the mid-dorsal carina finely yellow ; 
2 to 7 with a long narrow stripe followed by a large apical spot 
on each side, whilst beneath this marking, on all segments, 
is a supraventral stripe ; remaiaing segments unmarked. 
Anal appendages black, long, acuminate. Vulvar scale as 
for the genus. 

Distribution. — Confined in South Kanara District (Bombay 
Pbes.) to the network of rivers about SuUa. A single male, 
however, was taken near Tamaracherri, S. Malabar (Madras 
Pees.), by the author. 

The insect is a shade-lover ; it is found perched on half- 
submerged logs in mid-stream or resting on twigs overhanging 
the river. The red and blue markings are very conspicuous 
when the insect is in flight, whilst the black tips of the wings 
form an almost complete black circle round it as the wings 
whirl with cinema effect. 

Type and allotype in the British Museum ; paratypes 
in the Praser, Ris, Laidlaw, Morton, Pusa, and Darjeeling 
Museum collections. 



Genus CHLOROCYPHA Fraser (1928). 

Libellago (pars) Selys, Mon. Lib. Eur. p. 200 (1840); id., Syn. Cal. 

p. 57 (1853) ; Walker, List Neur. Ins. Brit. Mus. iv, p. 643 ( 1 853) ; 

Selys, Mon. Cal. p. 225 (1854); Kirby,Cat. Odon. p. 112(1890) ; 

Ris, Ent. Mitt, v, nr. 9/12, p. 304 (1916) ; Laidlaw, Kec. Ind. Mus. 

vol. siii, p. 39 (1917); Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soe. 

vol. xxsii, p. 458 (1928). 
Ohloroaypha Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soe. vol. xxsii, p. 684 

(1928). 

Moderately robust dragonflies, very similar to members 
of the genus RhinocypTm. Head, thorax, abdomen, and anal 
appendages as in Rhinocypha, except for the mid-dorsal 
" mesothoracic triangle," which is quite undeveloped in 
GhlorocypTw,. Abdomen almost always brilliantly red, blue, 
yellow, or other colours, marked with black. Wings always 
-entirely hyaline in both sexes, narrow, hind pair not noticeably 



56 AGEHDiE. 

broader than the fore pair, venation close, petiolation variable, 
usually extending close up to the level of Ac, ending a little 
proximal to that nervure, but in the single Indian species 
very short, and ending quite near the base of the wings ; MA 
zigzagged almost, or quite, from or at its origin (not straight 
as in most species oi Rhinocypha), so that the cells bordering 
it are pentagonal in shape. Legs variable, tibiae not dilated in 
C. asiatica, but distinctly so in C. vittata, coloured or not on 
the inner sxirfaces. 

Distribution. — Only two species are found in Asia, the genus 
beiag confined almost entirely to the African continent. 




Fig. 19. — ^Wing of Chloroeypha vittata (Selys), male. 

which is rich in species. It is extremely doubtful if the two 
Asiatic species are congeneric with those of Africa, and they 
are certainly not closely related, as is evidenced by the striking 
differences in the legs and in the petiolation of the wings. 
Of the two Asiatic species, C. asiatica is probably confined to 
the Philippines and C. vittata to the mainland of Asia (Assam, 
Burma, and Indo-China), although forms from the latter 
area may perhaps be subspecies or distinct species. 

Genotype, Agrion dispar Beauv. 

In discussing the genus Libellago (p. 59) I have set forth 
the reasons for introducing the new name Chloroeypha. 

190. Chloroeypha vittata (Selys). 

LibeUago asiatica subsp. vittata Selys, Ann. Mus. Civ. Genova, 
(2) X (xxx), pp.490, 491 (1891); Martin, Mission Pavie, Neurop. 
(Sep.), p. 17 (1904) ; Williamson, Proo. U.S. Nat. Mm. vol. xxviii, 
p. 173 (1905); Laidlaw, Eec. Ind. Mus. vol. xiii, pp. 39, 40 
(1917). '^^ 

JfaZe.— Abdomen 23 mm. Hind- wing 25 mm. 

Head : labium and labrum black ; rest of head black, 
marked with yellow as follows :— Extreme bases of mandible-s ' 
a narrow streak on gense against eyes ; a smaU round spot 
OTi each side of ante-clypeus ; three pairs of spots on frons in 
front of ocellar space ; basal joints of antennae ; a small spot 
m front of each posterior ocellus ; and two large triangular, 
spots on occiput behind ocellar space. Eyes blackish-brown. 
Prothorax black, with three irregular longitudinal stripes, 
a mid-dorsal and two lateral, made up of two or three spots - 



CHLOROCyPHA. 57 

anterior lobe also greenish-yellow on dorsum. Thorax black, 
marked with yellow as follows : — ^A fine line on mid-dorsal 
carina ; a narrow humeral stripe, tapering above and in- 
complete in its upper part ; a small linear upper humeral 
spot ; a narrow stripe on antero-lateral suture, which latter 
bisects it obliquely ; a short, strongly curved, narrow stripe 
on medio-lateral suture, incomplete below ; a broad irregular 
oblique stripe on lower part of mes- and met-epimeron, 
rather broadly interrupted by a black stripe on postero- 
lateral suture. Underside black, with a tiny median yellow 
point. Wings hyaline, pale saffron in basal third ; aU dis- 
coidal ceUs traversed twice ; petiolation of both pairs of 
wings very short, beginning far proximal to level of basal 
antenodal nervure ; MA zigzagged from its origin ; ptero- 
stigma black, covering 2i to 3 cells, but slightly dilated ; 



.... 13-18 
nodal mdex ,.^,^ 



14-19 

• Legs black, the four posterior 
lo— lo 

tibise dilated, their flexor surfaces, as well as opposing 

surfaces of femora, pure white. Abdomen : segment 1 black, 

with a large lateral spot and a tiny dorsal apical triangle 

bluish-green ; 2 black, apical border narrowly and lateral 

border broadly pale blue, dorsum with a large spot shaped 

like an ivy-leaf, with the stalk directed apioally ; 3 blue or 

bluish-green, ventral border broadly black, a broad black 

subdorsal stripe tapering from base to apical border of segment, 

and a pair of small transverse subapical dorsal spots ; 4 to 7 

golden or greenish-yellow, with only the subapical dorsal 

paired spots ; 8 yeUow, with two broad black triangular 

subdorsal stripes confluent at apical border of segment, but 

tapering and diverging to the base ; 9 to 10 black, 9 with a 

small mid-dorsal subapical crescentic yeUow spot, 10 with 

a simitar tiny point. Anal appendages black ; superiors nearly 

twice the length of segment 10, compressed, twisted on the 

long axis so that the apical end, which is slightly broadened, 

comes to look upward, the inner surface becoming the upper ; 

inferiors rather more than half as long as superiors, directed 

straight back, broad at base, tapering to a fine point ; superiors 

slightly curved, apices nearly meeting as viewed from dorsum. 

Female unknown. 

Distribution. — ^JLushai Hills, Assam ; and Bhamo, Btjema ; 
in June and July. C. vittata is easily distioguished from 
G. asiatica of the PMUppine Is. by its smaller size, the very 
short petiolation of its wings, shorter pterostigma, and dilated 
tibisB ; and from Bhinocypha immaculata, which has hyaline 
wings, by the absence of the mesothoracie triangle so con- 
spicuous in the former, by the shorter petiolation of the wings, 
and by the nervure MA zigzagged from its origin. The 
abdominal markings are reminiscent of some species of 



AGE1ID.E. 



Libdlago, but the more numerous antenodal nervures will 
prevent any error here. G. vittata differs from all other species 
of the genus by the extremely short petiole of the wings, 
a character which might justify raising it to generic rant. 
Type in the Genoa Museum. 

Genus LIBELLAGO Selys. (Fig. 20.) 

Libellago (pars) Selys, Mon. Lib. Eur. p. 200 (1840). 

Micromerus Rambur, Ins. Nevrop. p. 238 (1842); Selys, Syn 
Cal. p. 64 (1853); Walker, List Neur. Ins. Brit. Mus. iv, p. 652 
(1853) ; Selys, Mon. Cal. p. 233 (1854); Kirby, Cat. Odon. p. 115 
(1890); Williamson, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xxviii, p. 171 
(1905); Ris, Ent. Mitteil. v, m-. 9/12, p. 304 (1916); Fraser, 
J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soe. vol. xxxii, pp. 683, 684 (1928). 

Characters as for the subfamily ; epistome much more 
projecting than in BMvocypha, so that a deep fissure intervenes 
between the frons and nasus. Fore- and hind-wings similarly 
shaped, very long and narrow, reticulation moderately open ; 
fore-wings of male in most species tipped with black, otherwise 
all wings of both sexes completely hyaline except in L. snelle- 
mani and bisignata (both non-Indian species), in which the 
wings are marked with broad blackish- brown fascise as in 
many species of Minocypha ; antenodal nervures 4 to 7 in 
number ; sectors of arc arising from a common point, where 
the are is strongly angulated at a little above its middle ; 
lA undulated fi'om its origin ; petiolation ends proximal to 
the first antenodal nervmre ; intercalated nervures few in 
number and found only near apices of wings ; Biii arising 
widely distal to node ; pterostigma absent in fore-wings of 
male except in those species where the apices are not tipped 
with black, present and very elongate in hind-wings of male 
and in both pairs of wings of female. 

Mesothoracio triangle absent or reduced, uncoloured • legs 
long and slim, usually aU femora and tibiae pruinosed 'white 
■on flexor surfaces. Abdomen short and stout, much shorter 
than the wings, fusiform, depressed, narrowing very gradually 
towards the tenth segment. Anal appendages very Imilar to 
those of EUnocypha, superiors twice the length of segment 10 
pmcer-hke cylindrical and pointed at apices ; inferiors obtuse 
less than half the length of the superiors. Vulvar scale very 
robust, shaped as m species of RMnocypha. 
Larva very simflar to that of RMnocypha. 

an? "S? n''-~^°''*l'™/r.^°"" ^^^*^™ ^di^ *o Borneo 
Ztr^r^^'^f-,-^"'* ^^^^^ sP^^ies appear to have 
?S J • r ^- r'*^'^' ^^°^ "^^^ Indi^ Kmits is only 
r^..T^^ "^ ^"^^ ^™^' ^'^o^gli occurring also in 
bZT/T ' f7f ^j.subspecies or races occur thfoughoS 
Burma, Continental India, and Ceylon. In the latter island 



LIBELLAGO. 



59 



we find a surprising development of the genus, most species 
found there apparently not being closely related to L. lineata. 

The species of Libellago do not differ in habits from those of 
BhinocypJia, and they are found in similar habitats. 

Genotype, Cahpteryx lineata Burm. 

The first mention of the genus Libellago was made by Selys, 
Mon. Lib. Eur. p. 200 (1840), who gave a short description 
and cited Agrion lineata as the genotype, but also included 
Jenestrata and fulgipennis (now classed as Rhinocypha, but 
at that time as Agrion). Burmeister's lineata had, however, 
been described as a CaZopteryx, and Selys committed an error 
in assigning it to Agrion, as is clear from the fact that he refers 
to the Mon. Lib. Eur. when describing the genus Micromerus 
in the Mon. Cal. p. 233. It seems perfectly clear therefore 
that the A. lineata referred to in the Mon. Lib. Eur. was 




Fig. 20. — Wings oi Libellago lineata indica (Fras.), male. 

Burmeister's Cahpteryx lineata (Micromerus lineatus), and 
equally clear that it was given as the genotype for Libellago. 
This being the case, Micromenis is a mere synonym of Libellago, 
and the latter name has been wrongly used. 

For these reasons I have restored the original name Libellago 
to the genus Micromerus Bamb., 1842, and have introduced 
the new name of ChlorocypJia for the genus Libellago as 
■commonly understood. 

Key to Indian Species of Libellago. 

J Abdomen marked with bright orange or 
brick-red 2. 
Abdomen marked with bright citron- 
yellow or greenish 3. 

Greater part of abdomen bright orange; 
mid-dorsal carina of abdominal seg- [p. 70. 

^ J ments not marked with black awrantiaca (Selys), 

■ J Abdominal segments bearing large spots of 
brick-red; dorsal carina of all segments 
black greeni (Laid.), p. 68. 



60 AaEHDiE. 

{Male with six antenodal nervures to all 
wings 4. [p. 60. 

Male with five antenodal nervures lineata lineata (Bxirm.), 

{Black tip to fore-wings of male 4-5 mm. 
in length 5- 
Black tip to fore-wings of male only 3 mm. 
in length 6. 

'Humeral stripe present at its middle; 

posterior lobe with a large dorsal spot ; [p- 65. 

thoracic markings orange lineata blanda (Selys), 

' ] Himieral stripe absent ; posterior lobe of 

prothorax unmarked; thoracic mark- [p. 66. 

ings citrou-yellow or green andatnanensis (Fras.), 

'Small insects, hind-wing less than 18 mm. 
in length ; linear spot on hinder border 
of occiput with a median anterior pro- 
longation; abdominal markings citron- [p. 63. 

yellow lineata indica (Fras.), 

Larger insects, with hind-wing more than 
20 mm. in length ; linear spot on hinder 
border of occiput without median pro- 
longation; abdominal markings bluish 
or bluish-green finalis (Selys), p. 67. 

191. Libellago lineata lineata (Burmeister). (Mg. 21,f.) 

Galopteryx lineata Burmeister, Handb. Ent. vol. ii, p. 826 (1839). 

Libellago lineata Selys, Mon. Lib. Eur. p. 200 (1840). 

Micromerus Uneattis Bambur, Ins. Nevrop. p. 238 (1842); Selys, 
Syn. Cal. p. 65 (1853) ; id., Mon. Cal. p. 237 (1854) ; id., Bull. 
Acad. Belg. (2) vol. xxvii, p. 666 (1869); Kirby, Cat. Odon. 
p. 115 (1890); Selys, Ann. Mus. Civ. Genova, (2) vol. x (xxx), 
p. 494 (1891) ; Laidlaw, Fascic. Malayenses (Zool.), pt. i, p. 197 
(1903); Williamson, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xxviii, p. 171, 
figs. 5, 6 (1905) ; Laidlaw, Bee. Ind. Mus. vol. xiii, p. 39 (1917) ; 
Fraser, ibid. vol. xxvi, p. 483(1924); id., J. Bombay Nat. Hist. 
Soo. vol. xxxii, pp. 684-686, pi. i, figs. 6-9 (1928). 

Micromerus uxor Bambur, Ins. Nevrop. p. 239 (1842). 

Libellago lineata Walker, List Neur. Ins. Brit. Mus. p. 653 (1853). 

Micromerus dbsourus Kirby, Proc. Zool. Soo. Lond. p. 328, pi. 33, 
fig. 1 (1886); id.. Gat. Odon. p. 115 (1890). 

ifraZe.— Abdomen 15 mm. Hind-wing 17 mm. 

Head : labium dtill brownish-yellow to blackish ; labrum 
blackish-brown, anterior border finely yellow ; epistome black, 
anterior facet blue-black metallic, above velvety black ; 
frons and vertex velvety black, with two transverse oval 
citron-yellow spots on former near middle Une, and a large- 
oval spot on outer side of each posterior ocellus ; occiput 
black, with a large postocular spot, subtriangular in shape, 
on each side separated more or less narrowly from a median 
crown-shaped spot. The latter spot rather variable, in the 
type transversely elongate, with a median spot in front of its 
middle, but in other specimens confluent with tliis spot, and 
with additional triangular points on either side. Prothorax 
black, marked with citron-yellow as follows :— A fine border 
to posterior lobe, expanded below into a pyriform spot- 



LIBELLAGO. 



61 



a large transversely oval spot on dorsum of posterior lobe, 
this part being raised into an oval boss, coated with fine hairs ; 
a narrow anterior coUar and a large subtriangular spot on 
each side of middle lobe. Thorax black, marked with citron- 
or greenish -yellow as follows : — The whole of antealar sinus ; 
mid- dorsal carina finely ; a narrow ragged antehumeral stripe, 
incomplete above ; a small upper antehumeral spot, a narrow 
cm-ved post-humeral stripe, incomplete below ; nearly the 
whole mesepimeron, which shows a narrow wedge of black 
at its middle, and a hook-shaped or triangular invasion of 
black above ; the whole metepimeron except anterior sutural 





a 



e 



Fig. 21. — ^Markings oilAbeUago. 
a, L. greeni (Laidlaw), S; b, i. awantiaca (Selys), <J ; e, i. andaman- 
ensis (Eraser), <j ; i, L. flnalis (Selys), Si e> i- Uneata indica 
(Fraser), Si f, L. Uneata Uneata (Burmeister), (j. 

line and narrow ventral border. Beneath yellow. Legs 
black, flexor surfaces of tibise and of anterior pah- of femora 
pruinosed white. Wings hyaline, the bases of all, nearly to 
level of node, palely tinted with amber ; apices of fore-wings 
(except in teneral examples where no marking is visible) 
tipped with black as far proximal as inner end of pterostigma, 
but falling short of hinder border of wing. Pterostigma 
absent in fore-wing, black, tumid and elongate in hind- wing, 
where it covers from 2 to 21 cells. Costa of fore- wing gradually 
thickened towards the site where pterostigma woxdd ordinarily 
be ; discoidal ceE traversed once ; nodal index, 5 antenodal 



62 AGEnDJB. 

nervures, 8 to 10 postnodals. Abdomen black and bright 
greenish- or golden-yeUow, latter colour prevailing on anterior 
segments, the former on posterior segments. Segment 1 with 
apical border narro-wly and sides broadly yellow ; 2 to 5 
with latere- ventral borders and iatersegmental sutures narrowly 
black, carina also finely black on segments 2 to 4 (or in teneral 
specimens from 2 to 6), but stoppiag short of apical border, 
where the black expands or is connected with two wing-like 
projections, so that this, together with the carinal stripe, 
form inverted capital " T's " {in some specimens the arms 
of the " T " are slightly separated &om the stem, but this is 
rare). Segments 5 and 8 with two large dorsal yellow spots 
tapering apicaUy, enclosed by an expansion and confluence 
of the carinal T-spot, with the apical ring and latere- ventral 
black ; segments 7 and 8 may show smaller similar spots, 
but older specimens have these segments unmarked, as also 9 
and 10. Anal appendages black, superiors twice the length, of 
segment 10, separated widely at base, converging at apices, 
wMcli are turned sUghtly in, cylindrical and very slightly- 
tapered. Inferior appendages only half the length of superiors, 
closely apposed at bases and again at apices so as to enclose 
a minute foramen, blunt, broad at base, narrowed thereafter. 

Female. — ^Abdomen 13 to 16 mm. Hind- wing 18 to 22 mm. 

A stouter, more robust insect than the male, marked very 
similarly, but the yellow more extensive. 

Head with markings as in male, but with the following 
additional spots : — ^Labrum and labium, the former with a 
small basal median tongue of black ; anterior surface of 
epistome (which in. the male is metallic blue) ; bases of 
mandibles ; cheeks ; basal joints of antennse ; a large spot 
on either side of epistome and two large diamond-shaped 
spots on front of frons, narrowly separated from the smaller 
Mnder pair. Prothorax, thorax, and legs as in male. Abdomen 
black, marked with yeUow as follows : — ^Apical border and 
sides of segment 1 ; dorsal carina on 2 to 7 ; a longitudinal 
stripe on dorsum of 8 and 9 (that of 10 unmarked). Laterally 
the segments are yellow, with a large apical spot, notched 
in front, on 2 to 7, bifid on 8, and present only as a small 
yellow spot on sides of 9 and 10. (Briefly the abdomen may 
be said to be yellow, with two longitudinal bands of black 
and black articular rings at the intersegmental nodes.) AtioC 
appendages black, twice as long as segment 10, pointed, 
widely separated throughout. Le^gs black, flexor surfaces of 
femora and tibise yellow. Wings entirely hyaline, basal area, 
especially along costa, sKghtly tinted with amber ; ptero- 
stigma present in all wings, elongate, black, or yellow framed 
in black (according to age of individual), covering 2 or 3 cells ;, 
6 antenodal nervures, 9 to 10 postnodals. 



LIBBLIiAGO. 63- 

Distribution. — Throughout the Sundaic Archipelago and 
the adjacent mainland, including Java, Sumatra, Siam, 
Annam, BtrsMA, and Noeth India. Earby's M. obscurus, 
described from a teneral specimen from northern India, is 
identical with specimens which I have received from United 
Peovincbs (Dehra Dun), Assam (Cachar), and Upper BtOBMA. 
It differs only in the limitation of black markings due 
to immaturity, and is undoubtedly L. lineata. 

In Peninsular and Southern India a distinct subspecies, 
which I have named i. lineata indica, replaces tjrpical L. lineata. 
The two Ceylon forms show sufficient differences to deserve 
specific rank. 

Type of L. lineata in the Halle Museum, from Java ; of 
M. uxor and M. lineafus in the Paris Museum ; of 31. obscurus 
in the British Museum. 

192. Libellago lineata indica (Eraser). (Figs. 20 & 21, e.) 

Miaromerus lineatus Fraser, Bee. Ind. Mus. vol. xvi, pp. 197, 198, 

pi. xxiii (1919) (larva) ; Laidlaw, Spolia Zeylanica, vol. xii, 

pp. 354, 355 (1924). 
Micromerus lineatus indica Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 

vol. xsxii, pp. 686, 687, pi. i, fig. 5, and pi. iii, fig. 2 (1928) ; 

id., Eeo. Ind. Mus. vol. xxxiii, pp. 448, 463 (1931). 

Male. — ^Abdomen 14 to 16 mm. Hind-wing 15 to 18 mm. 

Head very similar to that of L. I. lineata, labium ochreous, 
labrum dark brownish-yellow, black at base ; a more or less 
obscure spot on either side of epistome, the anterior facet of 
which is metallic blue as in L. I. lineata ; eyes brown, but with 
a bliiish metaUic lustre in certain lights ; bases of mandibles 
and cheeks narrowly yeUow ; oval spots on frons reniform 
in shape and often a second pair of smaller rounded spots 
behind them ; a crown-shaped mark on occiput with an 
elongate median point, but no lateral points, or, if present, 
then very short, usually connected to the postoeular spots. 
Prothorax, thorax, and legs as in typical L. lineata ; femora 
pulverulent white on basal halves only. Wings as in typical 
L. lineata, but apical black spot of fore- wings distinctly 
longer (absent in teneral specimens) ; nodal index differing 
sKghtly, in Kanara specimens 6 antenodals in the fore- wings, 
7, less commonly 5 to 6 in the hind- wings ; in specimens 
from the Deccan almost always 6 in both wings and 10 to 14 
postnodals. The amber tinting at base usually very marked, 
up to or even beyond node ; discoidal triangles traversed 
once ; pterostigma as in L. I. lineata. Abdomen : as in 
Ghlorocypka, so in Libellago speciaHzation seems to be confined 
almost entirely to the colouriag and markings of the abdomen. 
Segment 1 bright golden-yellow with the base narrowly black 
and a small quadrate black spot ; 2 to 6 bright citron-yellow,. 



64 AGEHD-E. 



dorsum goldea-green, often very green, 2 with a thick mid- 
dorsal dumTDljeU-shaped black marking confluent with a 
narro-w basal xing, the ends of which are prolonged along 
sides nearly to apical border and separated very narrowly 
from the ventral border ; 3 to 5 with broad mid-dorsal stripes 
confluent with narrow basal rings and somewhat expanded 
apically, wtdlst aear the apical border is a small ventro- 
lateral black spot ; 6 and 7 with basal subdorsal wedge- 
shaped yellow spots enclosed by a fusion of the mid-dorsal 
black with an elongated lateral spot ; 8 to 10 black. In 
some specimens the mid-dorsal marking of segment 2 is 
narrowly bisected ¥ith yeUow, and there is nearly always an 
indication of the beginning of such a line apically. Anal 
appendages not differing from those of L. I. lineata. 

Female. — ^Abdomen 13-17 mna. Hind-wing 17-20 mm. 

Head : lalbium yellow ; labrum yellow with a small 
median basal point or tongue of black ; epistome entirely 
yellow in front, similarly coloured above but here edged with 
black anteriorly and laterally, its dorsum clouded with light 
brown and its base aarrowly dark brown, with a tongue of the 
same colour ranning obliquely forwards and outwards ; frons 
with two large quadrate citron-yellow spots, separated 
narrowly by a black median stripe which is confluent anteriorly 
and posteriorly witi an equally narrow black stripe, the 
whole thus forming a black anchor-like mark, accentuated 
by the outer comers of the hinder portion angulated forwards 
like the flukes of an anchor ; markings of rest of head similar 
to those of male but an additional pair of spots situated 
between ocelli. Eyes brown. Prothorax entirely similar to 
that of the male, Thorax similar, but lateral markings 
rather more exteasive. Legs yellow, femora lined externally 
with dark brown. Abdomen largely yellow, with black 
markings as follows :— Segment 1 with a large quadrate spot 
on dorsum, base narrowly and apical border laterally black ; 
2 to 8 with the dorsum very broadly black, but bisected by a 
narrow mid-dorsal earinal yellow line which runs as far as 
segment 9, but on the last two segments is fusiform, tapering 
apically and lasaUy ; laterally a stripe, more or less defined, 
broadening altruptly subapicaUy and not quite reaching the 
base of segments ; on segment 9 this hne expands basally 
and becomes confluent with the dorsal black marking, so as to 
enclose a la,rge loimded subdorsal yellow spot ; segment 10 
black, with two traasversely elongate subdorsal yellow spots 
Wings hyaline, pale with amber tint ; pterostigma present 
m aU wmgs, creamy white in a black frame which expands 
somewhat proximaUy over 2 cells; nodal mdex, 6 to 7 
antenodals, 9 to 10 jostnodals ; discoidal cell traversed once 
m all wings. Ami appmdages blackish-brown, pointed. 



MBBlXiAGO. 65- 

tapered, widely divaricate, rather longer than segment 10. 
Vulvar seale robust, with a large spot of yeUow laterally. 

Distribution. — ^A very common insect throughout Sor'TH 
India, especially in the Western Ghats and Deeean. It is 
eommon on the river banks at Poona and Khandala, less 
common in Coorg, Kanara, and Malabar. 

Laidlaw reports it from CiYLOir (Haragama, July), and 
remarks on its difference from the form occurring in Burma 
and Siam. 

It appears to be double- brooded, as it may be found almost 
throughout the year. The abdominal markings will easily 
distinguish it from typical Z. lineata. 

Type and allotype in British Museum from Poona. 

193. Libellago liaeata blanda (Selys). 

Micromems blandus Selys, Syn. Cal. p. 64 (1853); id., Mon. CaU 
p. 234 (1854); Kirby, Cat. Odon. p. IIS (1890); Laidlaw, 
Keo. Ind. Mus. vol. xiii, p. 39 (1917); Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. 
Hiet. Soo. vol. xxix, p. 479 (1923). 

Libellago blandus Walker, List. Nevir, Ins. Brit. Mus. iv, p. 65^ 
(1853). 

Micromeru» Kneatus blandus Fiaser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soo- 
vol. xcsciii, p. 687 (1928). 

Mah. — ^Abdomen 17-18 mm. Hiad-wing 20-21 mm. 

Female. — Abdomen 12-16 mm. Hiad-wing 19-21 mm. 

I have not seen this form, which is said to resemble closely 
L. I. lineMa, a fact which leads me to treat it as a subspecies. 

It is a more robust insect and differs from L. I. linexsta as 
foUcws : — YeUov stripe on cheeks bordering eyes absent ; 
prothoras black, its middle lobe unmarked, but the large 
dorsal tumid spot on posterior lobe extending forwards as 
a point ; thoracic markings more orange than yellow ; humeral 
stripe incomplete above and below, present in its middle 
third only ; the anterior of the two broad lateral fasciae broken 
up into three large spots, the upper very minute ; dorsal 
markings of abdomen broader ; apical black spot of fore- 
wings longer than broad, about 4 mm. in length ; pterostigma 
longer, covers about 5 cells in the hind- wings ; 6 antenodal 
nervnres in all wings. 

FemjoZe. — ^Very similar to that of Z. I. lineata ; yellow markings 
more restricted, humeral stripe absent, the anterior of the 
two lateral fascia divided up into two spots ; dorsal black 
markings of segments 3 to 6 narrower, nearly interrupted in 
some, gromid- colour orange ; nodal index higher, 14 post- 
nodals in hitid-wings, 12 in fore-wiags ; pterostigma yellow, 
black proximally, broader, over 3 to 5 cells. 

Distribiitim. — Confined to the Nicobaes. 

Type in the Selysian collection. 
VOL. n. F 



^6 AGEHDJE. 

194. Libellago andamanensis (Fraser). (Fig. 21, c.) 

Micrormrm andamanensis Fraser, Eec. Ind. Mus. vol. xxvi, p. 410 
(1924); id., J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. xxxii, pp. 687, 688, 
pi. i, fig. 3 (1928). 
Male.— Abdomen 16 mm. Hind-wing 20 mm. 
Head : eyes bluish-grey ; labium and labrum black ; rest 
of tead jet-black, -mth the following citron-yellow markings :— 
Two narrow oval spots at base of epistome above, a large 
oval spot on outer side of each posterior ocellus, a similar 
postocular spot on each side, and a linear spot on posterior 
border of occiput. Prothorax black, with a large yeUow spot 
on each side. Thorax black, marked with golden greenish- 
yellow as follows : — ^Two small spots on antealar sinus ; a fine 
carinal dorsal line ; two fine antehumeral stripes, incomplete 
above ; an oblique linear spot on each side of the antealar 
sinus ; two kregular spots lying between the lateral sutures, 
the anterior golden-yeUow, the posterior distinctly greenish ; 
and a broad stripe occupying upper anterior three-fourths 
of metepimeron. Legs black, hind tibiae pulverulent white 
on the flexor surface. Wings hyahne, faintly amber-tinted 
at bases, fore-wings broadly tipped with black to 4 mm. in 
extent, this area metalKc blue by reflected light ; Mnd- wings 
enfumed at apices ; pterostigma black, only present in hind- 
wings ; 5 to 6 antenodal nervures in all wings. Abdomen 
golden-yellow, marked with black as foUows : — Segment 1 
narrowly black at base, more broadly at sides ; 2 with a broad 
dorsal stripe expanded at basal and apical ends, also a broad 
black stripe low down on sides not extending as far as apical 
border of segment ; 3 to 6 with broad mid-dorsal stripe 
•expanded only at apical border of segments, where it forms 
a narrow ring ; 7 similar, but apical black area extending 
forwards on sides nearly as far as base of segment ; 8 to 10 
■entirely black. Ancd appendages black, similar to those of 
Jj. lineaia. 

Female. — ^Unknown. 

Distributiom.. — ^Andamans. The type, a male, is in the 
Indian Museum, and was taken by the late Dr. Annandale 
•on the Western slopes of Mt. Harriet, November 30, 1923 
(fluttering over the surface of a pool below a waterfall) ; 
.altitude 500 feet. 

This very beautiful insect is easily distinguished by the 
broad metallic blue tip to its wings as well as the extreme 
■degree of melanism as compared with other species of the 
.genus. The female is probably very similar to L. I. lineaia 
■and without a black tip to her wings. 



LIBELLAGO. 67 

195. Libellago flnalis (Selys). (Fig. 21, d.) 

Micromerus flnalis Selys, Btill. Aoad. Belg. (2) vol. xxvii, p. 665 
(1869); id., ibid. vol. xxxvi, p. 616 (1873); Kirby, Cat. Odon. 
p. 115 (1890); id., J. Linn. Soe. (Zool.), vol. xxiv, p. 556 (1894); 
Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soe. vol. xxix, p. 479 (1923) ; Laid- 
law,SpoliaZeylaniea,vol.xii, pp. 351,352(1924); Fraser, J. Bom- 
bay Nat. Hist. Soe. vol. xxxii, pp. 688, 689, pi. i, fig. 4 (1928). 

. Male. — ^Abdomen 16 mm. Hind-mng 21 mm. 

' Head : labium yellow, lobes tipped with black ; labrum 
glossy black, unmarked ; epistome metaUic blue or violet- 
blue ; cheeks with a narrow yellow stripe against the eyes ; 
irons black with a pair of large rectangular spots of citron- 
yellow ; vertex black, with an oval citron-yellow spot on 
outer side of each posterior ocellus ; occiput black, with a 
rounded postocular spot on each side, and a linear spot along 
posterior border, narrowly separated from the former. Thorax 
^nd proihorax black, marked exactly as in L. I. lineata^ but 
the anterior of the two lateral fascise with a large black 
spot below. Underside black, marked obscurely with dark 
yellow areas. Legs black, aU tibiae pulverulent white on 
flexor surfaces and aU femora pulverulent on same surfaces 
•except for a short distance at the distal extremities. Wings 
hyaline, pale amber-tinted, especially the hind pair ; fore- 
wings tipped with black for about 3 nam., pterostigma absent ; 
iind-wing with well-formed elongate pterostigma, covering 
3 cells ; 6 antenodal nervures in all wings, 10 postnodals in 
hind-wings ; discoidal cell traversed once in aU wings. Abdo- 
men black, marked with bright citron-yellow laterally, changing 
to green or bluish-green on dorsum. Segment 1 with base 
narrowly and sides broadly black ; 2 with a large angulated 
subdorsal spot on either side, the black forming a large T-shaped 
mark on dorsum, base, and sides where the arms of the T turn 
back ; 3 to 4 very similar, but the head of the T-shaped mark 
very narrow, as also its lateral prolongations backward j on 
.sides of segment 4, the beginnings of a narrow lateral stripe 
apicaUy ; 5 to 7 with subdorsal elongated spots, divided, 
•except on segment 5, by a narrow lateral black stripe ; 8 to 10 
unmarked. Anal a%ipendages black, similar in structure to 
those of L. I. lineata. 

Female. — ^Abdomen 16 mm. Hind-wing 25 mm. 

Head black, marked with bright yellow-ochre as follows : — 
Labium except tips of lobes ; labrum except base, which is 
narrowly black, and sides, which are broadly black, and also 
a triangular prolongation from the middle of the basal black 
£irea, which may be confluent with that of the fore-border 
(in very mature specimens the yellow area reduced to two 
minute points) ; a pyriform spot on dorsum of epistome, 
reduced in mature specimens to a tiny linear mark ; anterior 

E'2 



facet of epistome metallic blue, but more dully so than ia 
male ; bases of mandibles broadly yellow ; basal segments 
of antennse, cheeks, two pairs of spots on irons in front of^ 
ocelli, an oval spot on outer side of each hinder ocellus and 
spots on occiput as ia male (in very mature specimens these 
spots reduced to mere points, and the median linear spot on 
hinder border of occiput entirely absent.) Prothorax black 
with a linear or top-shaped spot on mid-dorsum of posterior 
lobe, and a large spot on the sides of mid-lobe. Thorax black, 
marijed very much as in the male, but the markings more 
restricted. The antealar sinus with two small yellow spots, 
the mid-dorsal carina very finely yellow, humeral stripe either 
absent or represented by a chain of small spots or a tiny 
linear upper spot ; lateral fasciae similar or the anterior one 
bisected below, and completely out in two at its middle, the 
upper portion more or less obsolete. Beneath brownish- 
yellow, sutures diffusely black. Legs yellowish, black externally, 
hind femora bright yellow except at distal ends. Wings 
palely tinted and enfumed, hind pair occasionally tipped 
narrowly and diffusely with blackish-brown ; pterostigma 
creamy white, framed in black and clouded with black 
prosimally ; discoidal cells traversed once or twice ; 7 ante- 
nodal nervTires to all wings, 11 to 13 postnodals. Abdomen 
black, marked with bright citron-yellow or greenish-yeUow 
as follows : — ^Mid-dorsal carina narrowly from segment 2 to 8 ; 
segment 1 as in male ; 2 to 8 with broad lateral stripes con- 
stricted subapicaUy, markedly so on segments 2 and 3, less 
so on 4 to 6, tapered apicaUy on 7, and broadening apically 
on 8 ; a large round spot replacing this stripe on segment 9; 
and a smaller spot on 10, absent in very mature specimens. 
A chain of broad yellow spots on venter. Vulvar scale robust, 
shaped as for L. I. lineata. Anal appeTidages black, conical,, 
pointed at apices, twice the length of segment 10. 

Distribution. — ^Confined to the montane and submontane 
districts of Cbyxok. Col. F. Wall took a fine series at 
Banderawela and Nalande, the former 5,000 ft., during October, 
but it probably has a succession of broods throughout the 
monsoons. I took this species in August at Dyatalava, and 
Col. WaU and Mr. E. Green at Kandy, 2,000 ft., October- 
November. 

Type in the Selysian collection. 

196. LibeUago greeni (Laidlaw). (Fig. 21, a.) 

Miaromerus greeni Laidlaw, Spolia Zeylanica, vol. xii, pp. 352— 
354(1924); Fraser, J.BomT>ayNat.Hist.Soo. vol.xxxii, pp. 689, 
690, pi. i. fig. 1 (1928). 

Male. — ^Abdomen 14 mm. Hind-wing 17-19 mm. 

Head black, including entire labium and labrum. Epistome 



ULBBLLAGO. €9 

with its anterior facet metallic bluish-violet. Bright ochre 
markings present as follows : — ^Frons with a single pair of 
spots, less commonly a second pair of very mimite points 
behind anterior pair ; an oval spot on outer side of each 
hinder ocellus, a rounded postocular spot on each side of 
occiput and a linear spot along its posterior border, which 
in some specimens has a tiny medial point anteriorly ; cheeks 
with a narrow yellow bordering against eyes. Prothorax black, 
marked with citron-yellow as follows : — ^A narrow anterior 
collar, followed laterally by a small spot and then a large 
medio-lateral subtriangular spot. A large spot on dorsum 
of posterior lobe shaped like the ace of clubs, and two smaller 
spots low down on its sides. Thorax black, marked as in 
L. 1. Uneata, but markings more reduced as follows : — 
Humeral stripe present only as a tiny upper linear spot ; 
antealar sinus with two small rounded spots ; upper part 
of anterior lateral fascia tapered away above, and shaped 
like a sickle, the second or hinder fascia framed heavily in 
black. Beneath black. Legs black, all tibiae pulverulent 
white on flexor surfaces, all femora pulverulent creamy yellow 
on distal halves of flexor surface. WingshyaJine, tinted with 
pale yellow, hind pair slightly enfumed, apices of fore- wings 
tipped with black for about 3 mm., and with a more or less 
marked metallic lustre at this part ; apices of hind-wings 
clouded with black at extreme border. Pterostigma present 
only in hind-wings, covering 3 to 3J cells, black. Costa 
proximal to node, and the nervures behind it, bright blood-red, 
i;liis colour less marked in hind- wing and darkening proximally. 
Discoidal cells with one traversing nervure ; 6 antenodal 
nervures in all wings, 10 to 12 postnodals in hind-wings. 
Abdomen black, marked with bright citron- yellow and blood- 
red as follows : — Segment 1 with an apical ring of citron- 
yellow broadening laterally ; 2 with a large subdorsal 
citron-yellow spot, not reaching basal extremity and eon- 
.stricted near its apical end ; 3 with a broader spot citron-yellow 
tinged with reddish, extending from base to apex of segment, 
Abruptly narrowed subapieaUy and partially divided by a 
narrow longitudinal black stripe running from its apical end ; 
4 to 10 with the markings blood- or brick-red, broad paired 
spots separated by the black dorsal carina, constricted at 
apical end and not quite reaching apex of segments, thus 
forming rather narrow inverted black capital T-like markings 
on each segment ; 9 and 10 with only a smaU round apical 
spot on each side. Anal appendages black, rather slenderer 
than in other species, twice as long as segment 10. 

Female. — ^Abdomen 12-13 mm. Hind-wing 19-20 nam. 

Head marked very similarly to the male, differing as follows : — . 
Labnim with a pair of large triangular yellow spots ; epistome 



70 AGEIIDJE. 

with metallic colouring poorly developed ; two small linear 
spots on dorsum of epistome, obsolete in fully mature specimens-; 
bordering medial spot on occiput absent. Protharax black, 
with, a narrow linear medial stripe on dorsum of posterior 
lobe, a large spot low down on its sides, a large spot on each 
side of medial lobe, and, rarely, a fine anterior collar. Thorax 
black, marked exactly as in male, but in fully mature specimens 
with the antero-lateral fascia cut into two spots at its raiddle. 
Legs black, some slight pruineseence on flexor surface of femora, 
and the same surface on anterior pair of tibiae pulverulent 
creamy white except at distal ends. Abdomen black, marked 
with citron-yellow, with a greenish tinge on the anterior 
segments as follows : — Segment 1 with a lateral quadrate 
spot ; 2 to 8 with the mid-dorsal carina finely yellow and with 
lateral stripes, constricted apically on 2 to 5, tapered on 
6 and 7, reduced to a spot on the others, or in fully mature 
specimens absent on segments 9 and 10, less often on segment 8 
and rarely present on segment 10. Anal appendages and 
vulvar scale as in L. I. lineata. Wings hyaline, not enfumed 
or tinted ; 5 to 6 antenodal nervures, 10 to 12 postnodals 
in all wings ; discoidal cell traversed once ; pterostigma 
white, framed in black and clouded at its proximal end. ; 

Distribution. — Col. F. Wall took a number of these insects 
at Nalande, Ceyloit, during September and October, whilst 
Mr. E. Green took specimens at Haragama, Peradeniya, and 
Kandy from June to December, so that it appears to have 
a long season, like most species of the genus. i 

It closely resembles L. aurantiaca, but the black markings, 
are more extensive ; it is easily distinguished from all other 
species of the genus by its red abdomen, strongly reminiscent 
of the African species of CalocypTia. \ 

Type in the British Museum. , 

197. Libellago aurantiaca (Selys). (Fig. 21, b.) 

Micromerus aurantiacus Seljrs, Bull. Acad. Belg. (2) vol vii 
p. 448 (1859) ; id., ibid. (2) vol. xlvii, p. 398 (1879) ; Kirby, C&L 
Odon. p. 115 (1890); WiUiamson, Proe. U.S. Nat. Mus. 
VOL xsvui, p. 172, text-fig. 7 (1905); Laidlaw, Proo. Zool. Soc. 
Lond. p. 331, (1920); Praser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc> 
vol. xxxii, pp. 690, 691 (1928). 

if afe.— Abdomen 12-15 mm. Hind- wing 15-16 mm. ' -. 

Head black, spotted with citron-yellow as follows :— 
A lateral spot on each side of epistome, which latter is metallic 
blue at its anterior extremity; two pairs of squarish spots 
on fi-ons, a rounded spot on outer side of each hinder ocellus, 
a postocular rounded spot on each side of occiput and a linear 
spot ,on its hinder border. In fully mature specimens the 
latter spot and the hinder pair of frontal spots absent. 
Prothorax black, with a small geminate spot on mid-dorsum of 



EPAIiAGIKJS. 71 

posterior lobe and a large spot on each side of mid-lobe yellow. 
Thorax black, marked with citron-yeUow as follows : — ^A fine 
mid- dorsal carinal line ; an antehumeral stripe broadening 
below ; a fine humeral stripe incomplete below or almost 
obsolete ; two small spots on antealar sinus ; and two broad 
fasciae on the sides of thorax, the anterior of which is bifid 
below and narrowed and sickle-shaped above. Wings hyaUne, 
tiated with pale amber at bases ; fore- wings tipped with 
black for about 3 mm. and without pterostigma. Costa 
reddish immediately proximal to node ; hind- wing with well- 
formed pterostigma, black, covering 2 to 3 cells ; discoidal 
cell traversed once in all wings ; 5 antenodal, 10 postnodal 
nervures in aU wings. Abdomen bright orange, articulations 
narrowly black, also ventral border of segments. Segment 2 
with an irregular black apical marking, not meeting over 
dorsum but prolonged obliquely forwards on sides to fuse 
with black of ventral border ; 3 to 8 with a pair of minute 
black dorsal subapical points ; 9 with the latero-ventral border 
extending on to dorsum, especially apically, where it indents 
the orange ground-colour ; 10 with its sides and apical border 
black. Ancd appendages black, shaped as in L. greeni, twice 
the length of segment 10. Inferiors only half the length of 
superiors. 

Female unknown. 

Distribution. — ^A male from Mergui, Lowbb BuEiaA, taken 
by Mr. Elton Bott, and now in the Pusa Museum, is the only 
specimen of L. aurantiaca known to have occurred in India. 
The species, however, is not uncommon in Malaysia and thence 
throughout Southern Asia. WilHamson reports it from Trong, 
Lower Siam, Martin from Tonkin, Laidlaw from Borneo. 

The markings of the abdomen are much reduced in the 
Burmese example. The Siamese example has the base and 
sides of segment 1 black, as also a lateral black stripe on 
segments 3 to 8, enclosing a basal spot of the ground-colour 
on segments 3 to 5 and incomplete basally on segments 
6 to 8. There is also an interrupted black stripe on the sides 
of segments 2 to 8 in the type from Singapore. 

Type in the Selysian collection. 



Subfamily EPALLAGIN^. (Fig. 22.) 

EpaUaginos Eraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soo. vol. xxxiii, pp. 47-49 
(1928). 

Head robust, transversely elongate ; eyes globular, large, 
much more widely separated than in the LiBELLAGm.aE ; 
labium with mid-lobe cleft nearly to its middle, apices of 
lobes subacute ; labrum oval, very broadly and very shallowly 
notched ; occiput rounded at the middle, tumid behind eyes, 



72 AGRIID.^E. 

broad ; frons depressed ; epistome ridged, not projecting 
markedly. 

Prothorax with a large rounded boss on each side of the 
middle lobe, posterior lobe moderately large, transversely 
elongate, simple, rounded. 

Thorax robust, short, shoulders broadly rounded, nearly 
always bearing t-5ro pairs of stripes (except in adult males 
where these are obscured by melanism), one pair of stripes 
formed by confluence of antehumeral and humeral above and 
below, the other by a similar confluence of a post-humeral 
and a lateral. 

Legs short, hind femora extending to middle of second 
abdominal segment, furnished with very fine spines ; tibial 
spines shghtly more robust ; claw-hooks inconspicuous, 
situated near apex of claws. 

Wings hyaline or enfumed in female, hyaline or with one 
•or both pairs coloured in male, hind pair often bearing large 
metallic spots or areas ; fore-wings long and narrow ; hind- 
wings similar or more or less dilated in male, shorter than 
abdomen in male, as long as or slightly longer than abdomen 
in female, shortly or not at all petiolated ; reticulation very 
close, cells mainly tetragonal ; Bii at its origin not in contact 
with B-\-M ; node nearer base of wing than apex or situate 
at its centre ; Riv-\-v arising from Rii at about the level 
of outer end of disooidal cell ; IRiii separating from Rii at 
about half-way from arc to node ; basal space entire, about 
twice the length of disooidal cell, which is very short, straight, 
narrow, squared at the ends, with parallel sides, longer in 
hind-wing than in fore-wing, entire or traversed by one or 
more nervures ; arc slightly angulated ; sectors arising 
from about middle of arc ; I A strongly curved especially at 
origin, several rows of ceUs between it and posterior border 
■of wing ; Guii straight ; many supplementary nervures 
between all main sectors ; antenodal and postnodal nervures 
very numerous ; primary antenodal nervures entirely absent ; 
no incomplete basal antenodal nervures ; first and second 
series of antenodal nervures coinciding, as in LibelluUncs, 
with occasional exceptions. Pterostigma present in all wings 
of both sexes, very long and narrow, tapering at both ends 
which are oblique. 

Abdomen long, narrow, cylindrical, longer than wings in 
male, of the same length or shorter in female, tenth segment 
flat on dorsum or with a robust oarinal spine or two spines. 

Anal appendages very similar in all members of the sub- 
family, superiors forcipate, spatulate, large, at least as long 
as tenth abdominal segment ; inferiors sometimes very smaU 
and inconspicuous, sometimes moderately large, but always 
shorter than superiors. 



BPALLAGINiE. 



73 



Females remarkably homogeneous in size, colouring, and 
■general facies, so that where several genera or species exist 
together it is difficult to determine which are the respective 
pairs. Abdomen in all species marked laterally with a yellow 
or pale blue stripe which broadens at the base of each segment 
■and tapers apically, becoming gradually lost as traced towards 
the anal end of abdomen. Anal appendages as long as seg- 
ment 10, tapered, very acute. Vulvar scale robust, made 
up of a laminated sheath with two small stylet-like organs 
which act as tactile organs at end of ovipositor. 

Larooi. — ^We know little about the life-histories of the 
Epallagin.^ with the exception of Anisofleura and the 
Psevdophaea, group, described and figured in J. Bombay Nat. 
Hist. Soe. vol. xxxiii, pi. ii, p. 56 (1928), and pi. iv, p. 300 (1929). 




Fig. 22. — ^Wings oi EpaUage fatima Charp., male. 

There is a striking difference between these two groups, 
abdominal gUls being totally absent in Anisopleura (and 
probably also in Bayadera and EpaUage), while seven pairs 
of these organs are present in Psevdophcea and Indophcea. 
Possibly undue importance has been placed on these structures, 
which have been said to function as respiratory organs. My 
■own observations have led me to the conclusion that their 
real function is that of anchoring organs, for the larvae, are 
invariably found clinging to the flat surfaces of stones in the 
.swiftest parts of streams, seemingly by the aid of these seven 
pairs of grappling hooks, the so-oaUed abdominal gills. Were 
it not for these organs they would be instantly swept down 
stream by the rush of waters, as may easily be demonstrated 



74 AGBIID^. 

by removing the gills and replacing the dismembered insect 
on a stone in a swift part of the cm-rent. The true legs of 
course are used for ordinary locomotive purposes, the pseudo- 
legs or gills having no powers in this respect. 

The larvae of Pseudophcea splevdens, Indophoea dispar, and 
Indophcea fraseri are all very similar, the two latter being^ 
indistinguishable except by the locality which they inhabit ; 
the former possesses a lateral beard-like group of robust 
spines external to and beneath the eyes. The abdominal gills 
are found on the first seven segments and are all S-shaped, 
except the distal pair, which are more or less weakly developed. 

The caudal gills, as in Anisopleura, are triplicate bladder- 
like structures, thickly coated with coarse hairs, one situated 
medially and dorsally, the others lying on each side of it, 
the apposed surfaces being flattened, the under sinrfaces also 
flattened so as to lie flush with the surface on which the larva 
is resting. The mask is simple and without setae. 

Distribution. — Southern Asia from Western India and Ceylon 
to China and the Phihppines and southwards to Borneo, 
Java, etc. One genus has spread westwards into Europe 
via Kashmir and Persia. 

The subfamily is represented by nine genera, all of which 
save Anisophcea (Mesophcea) and Pmaphcea have representa- 
tives within Indian limits. 

Owing to the similarity of the known females of these genera 
our genera are founded solely on male characters ; it would 
indeed be quite impossible to spht up the subfamily effectively 
otherwise. The old genus Pseudophcea is here split up into 
four genera, as the difierenees in colouring, petiolation, and 
shape of wings are so great. Selys, in his classification, split 
up the genus into groups, and these again into subgroups ; 
it is to the original groups that generic rank has been given. 

In determining the precedence of these new as well as old 
genera the closeness of the similarity of the male to the female 
has been taken as the measure of archaism ; thus, it is evident 
that a species like P. ochracm, in which the fore- and hind- 
wings are sunilarly shaped and of similar shape to those of 
the female, is much nearer the ancestor of the subfamily 
than one like P. variegcda, where specialization in the male 
has led to such divergence from the female that an ento- 
mologist ignorant of the order might well be excused for 
determining them as diEferent species. 

Out of the twenty-four known species of the old genus. 
Pseudophma 1 have been able to study sixteen, viz. -.—dispar, 
cardvnalis, fraseri, impar, incequipar, tricolor, subnodcdis, 
subcostahs, ornata, decorata, ochracm, brunrtea, splendens, 
refulgens, vanegafa, and masoni, which, together with authors' 
descriptions, have formed the basis of the following key to- 
the subfamily. 



BPALLAGE. 75 

Key to Genera of Subfamily Epallaginae . 

J /Diseoidal cell entire 2. 

■ \ Diseoidal cell traversed 4. 

{Costa of hind-wing of male running straight 
from base to node 3. 
Costa of hind- wing of male with, an obtuse [p. 84. 

projecting angle between base and node. . Amsopleixra Selys, 
f Abdomen of male longer than wings; node 
I situated slightly proximal to centre of 

1 wing; wings petiolated to level of first [p- 78. 

o J antenodal nervure Bayadera. Selys, 

■ ] Abdomen of male shorter than wings ; node 
situated at centre of wings; petiolation 

almost absent, ending well proximal to [p. 75. 

first antenodal nervure Ep.4Xlagb Charp., 

("Tenth abdominal segment without a carinal [p. 91. 

J spine Dysph^a Selys, 

*• 1 Tenth segment with two dorsal spines Pabaph^a Mart., 

(_Tenth segment with one dorsal spine 5. [(not Indian). 

Pore- and hind-wings of male similarly 

shaped, safironated in part, but without [p. 93. 

any opaque areas AliOPHJE-i Eraser, 

Foie- and hind-wings of male differently 
shaped, hind pair at least with some 

opaque markings 6. 

r Beth fore- and hind-wings of male more or 
I less opaque black, hind pair markedly 
„ J broader than fore pair and usually bearing [p. 99. 

■ a large basal metallic blue or green area . . Psettdoph^ea Kirby , 
Only hind-wings of male partly opaque 

black 7. 

Hind-wings of male with the middle part 
abruptly broadened, the apical portion 
thereafter narrowing rapidly to a falcate 
apex; the broadened portion bearing an [(not Indian) *. 

opaque band MESopKi^gA Fraser 

7. ■{ Hind- wings of male usually much shorter 
than fore-wings and markedly rounded at 
apex, the apical half or less opaque black 
and sometimes bearing a brilliant metallic 

blue spot; abdomen in some species [p. 104. 

bright red, otherwise black IsdophjEA Fraser, 

Genus EPALLAGE Charp. 

Epallage Charpentier, Lib. Eur. p. 16 (1840); Selys, Rev. Odon. 
p. 143 (1850) ; Walker, List Neur. Ins. Brit. Mus. iv, p. 636 
(1853); Selvs,Syn.Cal.p.49(1853); id.,Mon. Cal. p. 162 (1854); 
Kirby, Gat. Odon. p. 108 (1890); Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. 
Soo. vol. xxxiii, p. 49 (1928). 

Wings of both sexes hyaUne or enfumed at apices, narrow, 
petiolation almost absent, ceasing well proximal to the first 
antenodal nervure ; hind- wing not broader than fore-wiag, 
and of similar breadth in the two sexes ; Bii not in contact 

* The name Mesophasa being preoccupied in Coleoptera, I propose- 
Anisophsea, nom. nov., as a substitute. 



76 AGRITD^. 

with. H+M at its origin ; node situated at centre of wing ; 
■discoidal cell entire, short, less than half the length of median 
space ; arc only slightly angulated ; only 1 cubital nervure 
in all wings (rarely 2) ; not more than 4 long intercalated 
nervures posterior to I A in the hind-wing, and only 2 between 
Cuii and lA ; Riii in continuation with the subnode or a 
shade distal ; outermost antenodal nerviu'e in all wings often 
incomplete ; no basal incomplete antenodal nervures in sub- 
costal space ; pterostigma long and narrow. 

Thorax very robust : abdomen not or only just extending 
beyond tips of wings ; anal appendages longer than segment 10, 
inferiors only slightly shorter than superiors and minutely 
bifid at apex, superiors strongly hooked or angulated down- 
wards at apex. 

Genotype, Spoilage fatima Charp. 

Distribution. — Greece, Turkey in Europe, Asia Minor, 
Persia, N.W. India, and Kashmir. E. alma Selys, from Persia, 
is probably not more than a local race or variety, so that the 
genus contains but a single species. 

Unfortunately nothing has been recorded about its habits, 
and noting how widely those of the alhed genera Bayadem 
and Anisopleura differ, it is idle to speculate by comparisons. 
All we know is that it breeds in streams. 

198. Epallage fatima Charpentier. (Figs. 22 & 23.) 

Agrionfatima Charpentier, Lib. Eur. p. 132, t. 45, fig. 2 (1840). 
Spoilage faiime Sohneid. Stett. Ent. Zeit. vol. vi, p. 116 (1845); 

Selys, Syn. Cal. p. 50 (1853); id., Mon. Cal. p. 165 (1854); 

id., Bull. Acad. Belg. (2) vol. xxvii, p. 659 (1869). 
Supheea fatime Selys, Rev. Odon. p. 143 (1850); Walker, List 

Neur. Ins. Brit. Mus. iv, p. 637 (1853). 
BpaUage alma Selys, Bull. Acad. Belg. (2) vol. xlvii, p. 372 (1879); 

Kirby, Cat. Odon. p. 108 (1890); Morton, Trans. Ent. See. 

Lond. p. 305 (1907). 
Bpallagefaivma Kirby, Cat. Odon. p. 108 (1890); Morton, Trans. 

Ent. See. Lond. p. 305 (1907); Laidlaw, Rec. Ind. Mus. vol. xiii, 

p. 40 (1917) ; Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soe. vol. xxxiii, 

pp. 49, 50 (1928). 

Jfafe.— Abdomen 28-32 mm. Hind-wing 32 mm. 

Head: labium yellow, base and apex black; labrum 
■olivaceous, with a median basal black impression ; cheeks, 
bases of mandibles, anteclypeus, and sides and fore-border 
■of postclypeus pale olivaceous, rest of head black. Two 
rounded bosses on frons ; occiput coated with rather long 
coarse yellow hairs. Eyes brown. Prothorax black, a thin 
pulverulent covering making it to appear dark violet, especially 
the smaU posterior lobe ; laterally and subdorsally coated 
with long white hairs. Thorax black, sides and under surface 
niarkedly pulverulent, especially the latter, which may be 
■chalky white from pruinescence. Legs short, hind femora not 



EPALLAGE. 77 

reaching middle of second abdominal segment when extended, 
whole leg falling short of distal end of third segment ; black, 
femora pulverulent, the two posterior femora with a dorsal 
and a lateral yellow stripe throughout their length, with a 
row of short, widely spaced black spines on the lateral stripe ; 
anterior pair of femora with only the dorsal stripe. Wings 
hyaline, apices narrowly bordered or tipped with dark brown ; 
pterostigma black ; 12 to 14 antenodals, 15 to 16 postnodals. 
Abdomen black, basal segments often pulverulent white. 
Anal appendages black. Superiors one -and -a -half times the 
length of segment 10, seen from above widely separated at 
bases and strongly divaricate, thick, tumid, with subacute 
apices, seen from the side very robust, stout at base with the 
true apex turned strongly downwards and inwards, like the- 
grappling flukes of an anchor ; on outer side, at point where 
apex is bent, a short stout hook directed downwards and 
outwards. Inferiors about two-thirds the length of superiors^ 




Fig. 23. — ^Anal appendages oi EpaUage fatima Charp., male. 
a, dorsal view ; b, dorso-lateral view from the left iside. 

conical, broad at base, apex black and nipple-like, basal' 
portion hght brown ; a smaU spine on upper side near the apex.. 

Juvenile males closely resemble the females in colouring. 
Frons yellow, black in middle, with a rounded yellow spot on 
each side ; a small oval yellow spot on each side of anterior 
ocellus ; occiput with a transverse yeUow band. Thorax 
with the mid-dorsal crest, a curved humeral stripe, foiu" oblique 
stripes on sides (the third broadest and the fourth shortest), 
some spots at roots of wings, and two small spots on antealar 
sinus all yellow. Abdomen with a vestigial mid-dorsal and 
a similar but better defined lateral stripe, both tending to 
become obliterated towards apical segments. 

Female. — ^Abdomen 28-32 mm. Hind-wing 28-32 mm. 

Similar to the juvenile male, but with rather more yellow 
markings ; thoracic markings especially clearly defined and 
bright yellow. Hind pair of femora dark reddish-brown 



78 AGEHDyB. 

with the yellow stripe broadening proximally. Lateral 
abdominal stripe very broad, almost confluent with a narrow 
basal annule on each segment ; segment 1 entirely yellow 
save for a small linear spot on each side running obliquely 
upwards and forwards. Wings with apices much more 
broadly tipped with brown ; bases pale saffron, especially 
along costal region as far as node. Nodal index slightly 
higher than in the male. 

Distribution. — As for genus. I possess a female from the 
Amanus Mts. in Asia Minor and a couple of males from the 
Wadi Kelt, Palestine. Mr. Bainbrigge Fletcher, after exten- 
sive coUeettng in Kashmir, never came across this insect, 
although he took all other known Kashmir species. There 
is a male in the Paris Museum from Baghdad and two 
females from Macedonia in the British Museum. Lastly, the 
species was taken by Col. Nurse at Quetta, BALirOHiSTAisr 
(two males in June). 

Type : present location unknown ; I was unable to find it 
in the Paris Museum. 



Genus BAYADERA Selys (18531. (Fig. 24.) 

EpaUage, group Bayadera, Selys, Sjm. Cal. p. 49 (1853). 

Bayadera Selys, Mon. Cal. p. 162 (1854); id.. Bull. Aoad. Belg. (2) 

vol. xlvii, p. 373 (1879),- Kirby, Cat. Odon. p. 108 (1890); 

WilKamson, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xxviii, p. 169 (1905); 

Eis, Suppl. Ent. no. 1, pp. 48, 49 (1912); Laidlaw, Rec. Ind. 

Mus. vol. xiii, p. 24 (1917); Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 

vol. xxix, p. 477 (1923); id., ibid. vol. xxxiii, pp. 50, 51 (1928). 
Euphcea Walker, List Naur. Ins. Brit. Mus. iv, p. 636 (1853). 

Wings of both sexes narrow, hyaline, apices (in two species) 
tipped with black ; hind-wing not broader than fore-wing, 
and of similar breadth in both sexes ; petiolation extending 
from about half way from base to arc and to level of first ante- 
nodal nervure ; Bii in contact with R+M at its origin and 
for some distance ; node situated at centre of wings ; discoidal 
cell entire, short, less than half the length of median space ; 
arc more angulated than in Epallage ; only 1 cubital nervure 
in all wings (the nervure AC) ; not more than 4 long 
intercalated nervures between lA and posterior border of 
wing and only 2 long ones between I A and Cuii ; Riii not 
in line with the subnode, either a little proximal or widely 
distal to it (in B. indica and B. hyalina respectively) ; outer- 
most nervure in aU wings complete ; no basal incomplete 
antenodal nervures in subcostal space ; pterostigma long 
and narrow. 

Thorax very robust ; abdomen longer, often much longer 
than wings ; anal appendages considerably longer than seg- 
ment 10, superiors forcipate, subcylindrical, apices obtuse or 



BAYADEEA. 79 

depressed, curling in and converging on one another, with or 
■without a ventral basal spine : inferiors conical, tapering to 
a fine point, much less robust than superiors. 

Genotype, EpaUage indica Selys. 

Distribution. — N.E. India, Upper Burma, S. China, and 
Pormosa. Only five species of this genus are known at 
present, three of which are from within Indian limits, the 
other two (B. melanopteryx and B. brevicattda) from S. China 
and Formosa respectively. 

But little is known of their habits and the larva is unknown. 
B. indica is in habits strikingly similar to Dysphcea ; the 
males perch on prominent rocks or twigs projecting from 
the water in mid-stream, and, being very shy and wary, are 
not easy to capture or even approach in such spots. This 




Fig. 24. — ^Wing of Bayadera indica (Selys), male. 

particular species looks remarkably like Vestalis apicalis, 
which, however, is never seen in such spots. It also perches 
with its abdomen slanting up at a sharp angle, as does 
Dysplicea. When disturbed it moves down stream with a 
markedly flitting flight, soon coming to rest again. If re- 
peatedly stalked it makes a wide circle round its pursuer 
and returns upstream. Many pairs may be seen in copula, 
a very unusual circimastance in the larger Zygoptera, and 
these pairs take long flights down stream seemingly looking 
for a suitable spot to deposit their eggs, though oviposition is 
rarely seen. From a study of the habits I am inclined to 
think this genus is closely related to Dysphoea. 

199. Bayadera indica (Selys). (Fig. 25, a.) 

EpaUage indica Selys, Syn. Cal. p. 49 (1853). 

Ev;phcea indica Walker, List Neur. Ins. Brit. Mus. iv, p. 636 (1853). 

Bayadera indica Kirby, Cat. Odon. p. 108 (1890) ; Martin, Mission 
Pavie, 3, Neurop, p. 15(1904); Ris, Suppl. Ent. no. 1, pp. 48, 49 
(1912); Laidlaw, Ree.Ind. Mus. vol. xiii,p. 31 (1917); Fraser, 
J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. xxxiii, pp. 51, 52 (1928). 

Male. — Abdomen 38—40 mm. Hind-wing 34 mm. 

Head : labium with middle lobe and base black, lateral 
lobes greenish-yeUow ; labrum, bases of mandibles, and cheeks 
as far up as beyond the antennae turquoise-blue, edges of 
bases of mandibles and labrum finely black, as also a small 



80 AGEHD-^;. 

median basal virgule on labrum ; rest of head mat black ; 
eyes dark brown above, olivaceous below. Prothorax black, 
with a very large rounded spot on each side of mid-lobe and 
a smaller spot low down on each side of posterior lobe greenish- 
yellow ; posterior lobe large, with rounded border, lappet- 
shaped. Thorax black, marked with bright greenish-yellow 
as follows :— A fine antehumeral stripe curviag out above 
and below, confluent below with a broad humeral stripe which 
covers the suture, and nearly confluent with it again above, 
so as nearly to shut in a broad oval black spot of the ground- 
colour ; laterally three broad irregular stripes, one on each 
sutxu-e, the third covering greater part of metepimeron, all 
three broadly confluent above, but the first and second partially 
separated by a short tongue of black on upper part of second 
lateral suture. Beneath, prothorax and thorax, as alsO' 
middle lobe of labrum and basal segments of abdomen,. 





Fig. 23. — Anal appendages of (a) Bayadera indica (Selys), male ; 
(i) Bayadera hyalina Selys, male. 

pulverulent white. Wings hyaliae, apices of all blackish- 
brown to about middle of pterostigma, which is black ; 
extreme base saffronated ; 23 to 24 antenodal nervures in 
fore-wings, 21 to 22 postnodals ; 18 to 19 antenodal nervures 
in hind-wings, 19 to 21 postnodals ; Riii arises slightly 
proximal to subnode. Abdomen black, mid-dorsal carina 
finely yellow from segment 1 to 8 ; a narrow lateral stripe 
greenish-yellow, broad on sides of segments 1 and 2, narrow 
from 3 to 5, but broadening and confluent with an incomplete 
basal annule at base of each segment ; on segments 6 and 7 
this line present as a mere basal vestige ; 8 to 10 unmarked. 
Anal appendages black. Superiors broad at base, narrowiag 
slightly at middle, broadening and depressed at apices into 
a triangular plate which is hollowed out below; a robust 
ventral spine near base, directed somewhat inwards so as to be 



BAYABEEA. 81 

visible from above ; a small tubercle (almost a spine, but blunt 
at apex) slightly basal to middle on inner side. Inferiors 
slightly more than half the length of superiors, broad at base, 
tapering rapidly to a fine acute apex. Both pairs separated 
at base, inferiors divaricate, superiors parallel, but apices curling 
in and actually overlapping. Genitalia very similar to those 
of Epallage fatima. 

Female. — ^Abdomen 36 mm. Hind-wing 37 mm. 

Much more robust than the male, with shorter stouter 
abdomen and relatively longer wings ; latter without black 
apices, but bases pale saffron ; nodal index rather higher, 
24 to 25 ante- and postnodal nervures to fore-wings, 22 of each 
to hind ; pterostigma very long, black. 

Body-markings exactly as in the male, but the lateral stripe 
extends to apical end of segment 7 on abdomen. Legs black, 
hind femora with proximal ends and a broad stripe on sides 
greenish-yellow. Vulvar scale robust, extending to end of 
abdomen. Anal appeTidages nearly twice the length of 
segment 10, tapering to a very fine point. 

Distribution. — N.E. India, IST. Bengal in the rivers about 
Darjeeling District. Dr. Eis stated that he had a series from 
Shi] long, Khasi Hills, Assam, but I cannot help thinking that 
this was an error and that B. hyaiina was meant. Mr. Bain- 
brigge Fletcher, who has collected almost exhaustively in 
this area, has taken B. hyaiina, but never indica ; the type 
of B. hyaiina in the Selysian collection also comes from 
ShiUong, whereas B. indica comes from Bengal. 

B. indica is distinguished iroraB. hyaiina by its much larger 
size and by the apices of aU wings in the male being tipped 
with black. From B. melanopteryx it is easily distinguished 
by the much smaller extent of black on the wings, extending 
in the case of the latter as far as 2 to 3 ceUs distal to the 
node, whilst fiom.B.brevicauda &nd hngicaudait is distinguished 
by having the apices of aU wings black. Its habits have 
abeady been commented on above. 

Type in the Selys colleotion, Brussels Museum. 

200. Bayadera hyaiina Selys. (Fig. 25, b.) 

Bayadera hyaiina Selys, Bull. Aead. Belg. (2) vol. xlvii, p. 373 
(1879); Kirby, Cat. Odon. p. 108 (1890); Kis, Suppl. Ent. 
no. 1, pp. 49-52(1912); id., Suppl. Ent. no. v, p. 3 (1916); 
Laidlaw, Bee. Ind. Mas. vol. siii, p. 31 (1917); Fraser, 
J, Bombay Nat. Hist. Soo. vol. xsix, p. 477 (1923) ; id., ibid, 
vol. xxxiii, pp. 52, 53 (1928). 

Male. — ^Abdomen 34 mm. Hind-wing 29 mm. 

Head : labium black, lateral lobes greenish-yellow at their 
bases only ; labrum, bases of mandibles, and cheeks turquoise- 
blue, former barely margined with black and without the 

VOL. n. a 



82 AGEIID^. 

median virgule present in B. indica ; rest of head mat black. 
ProtJiorax black, with a very large greenish-yellow spot on 
each side of mid-lobe and a tiny spot on outer ends of posterior 
lobe, which is similarly shaped to that of B. indica. Thorax 
black, marked with bright citron-yellow as follows : — A iine 
antehumeral line not reachiag upper end of dorsum and not 
confluent with humeral stripe either above or below, humeral 
stripe much narrower than in B. indica ; three narrow stripes 
on sides, of which the two latter only are confluent above 
and that by a mere point. A hroad bar of yellow beneath 
thorax of which the hinder area is broadly black. Legs 
black, unmarked. Wings entirely hyaline ; pterostigma 
dark brown, covering 5 to 7 cells ; 21 to 23 antenodal nervures 
in fore-wings, 20 to 21 postnodals ; 17 antenodal nervures in 
hind- wings, 20 to 21 postnodals. Riii begins 1 to 2 cells 
distal to the subnode. Abdomen glossy black ; triangular 
spot of citron-yellow on sides of segment 1, remaining segments 
unmarked. Anal appendages black. Superiors ajbout twice 
the length of segment 10, moderately broad at base, tapering 
shghtly to beyond the middle and then dilated slightly at 
apices but not nearly to the same extent as in indica ; apices 
twisted and flattened, not hollowed out below, curled in towards 
each other ; a robust subventral spine near base, not quite 
as long as in B. indica- ; no medial tubercle on inner side. 
Inferiors broad at base, tapering rapidly to an acute point, not 
quite half the length of superiors. 

Female. — ^Abdomen and hind- wing 33 mm. 

Differing very slightly from the male, but more robust in 
build and the abdomen of similar length to hind-wings ; 
antehmneral stripe well defined and reaching upper end of 
dorsum, but not confluent at either end with humeral stripe. 
Stripe at extreme end of metepimeron confluent at a point 
with second lateral stripe to form a hook-shaped marking. 
Beneath, black with a mere suggestion of yellow at centre ; 
this surface largely pruiaosed white. Abdomen with a lateral 
stripe on segments 1 to 4, broad at base of 3 and 4, and tapering 
to a fine point which falls shghtly short of apical ends of seg- 
ments ; in addition a small round well-defined spot on each 
side of segment 10. Anal appendages conical, acutely pointed, 
shghtly longer than segment 10. Wings similar to male, 
nodal index similar. 

Distribution.— Assam. The type, in the Selys collection, 
Brussels Museum, is from Shillong, Khasi Hills ; I have seen 
several examples from this locality. 

B. hyalina .differs from B. indica and mdanopteryx in the 
Tvings being entirely hyaline, and from B. brevicauda and 
hngicauda in having a well-developed ventral spine to superior 
ajial appendages, absent in the former, vestigial in the latter. 



BAYADEEA. 83 

The species described by Dr. Eis from Formosa as B. hyalina 
is certainly not that species, of which I possess examples from 
the type-locality. The figure of the appendages given by 
Dr. Ris shows the superiors to be equal in length to segment 10 
and without any sign of a ventral spine. In true B. hyalina 
there is a well-marked spine and the appendages are much 
longer than segment 10, about twice the length in fact. I have 
therefore renamed the Pormosan species as B. brevkaKda. 

201. Bayadera longieauda Eraser. (Fig. 26, a.) 

Bayadera longieauda Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soe. vol. xxxiii, 
p. 53 (1928). 

Male. — ^Abdomen 38 mm. Hind-wing 34 mm. 

Very closely allied to B. hyalina, but labium entirely black ; 
labrum not margined with black ; cheeks and labrum greenish- 
yellow, this colour passing inwards above epistome to form 
an incomplete band across front of frons. Prothomx : posterior 
lobe entirely yellow save for a small crenulate black mark 
at base. Thorax : antehumeral stripes complete, curving out 
at upper ends, remaining stripes narrow, but the two lateral 
■ones broadly confluent at their upper ends ; antealar sinus 





Fig. 26. — Anal appendages of (a) Bayadera longieauda Fraser, male ; 
(b) Anisopleura lestoides Selys, male. 

with two large greenish-yellow spots. Abdomen almost un- 
marked, a small lateral spot on segment 1, a tiny vestige 
at the base on sides of 2, and a small triangular lateral basal 
spot on 3-5. Wings with 19 to 21 antenodal nervures in 
fore-wings and 24 to 25 postnodals, 15 to 16 antenodals in 
hind-wings, 20 to 25 postnodals. Pterostigma black, covering 
5 to' 6 cells ; Riii begins well distal to the subnode ; all wings 
palely enftuned, especially the apices of hind pair. Anal 
<tppendages very similar to those of B. hyalina, but ventral 

g2 



84 AGEHDiE. 

spine of superiors vestigial, amounting to no more than a 
pointed tubercle, and, in addition, a robust obtuse tubercle 
at middle of upper and inner border. Inferiors very broad 
at base, shorter than in B. hyalina. 

Female unknown. 

Distribution. — Gangtok, 5,000 to 6,000 ft. alt., DAEjEBLnsro- 
DiSTEiCT. A few specimens collected by Mr. Chas. Inglis, 
May 29, 1924. The shape of the appendages will readily 
distinguish this species from any others, as well as the 
relative lengths of abdomen and wing. A further striking 
feature is the bright yellow posterior lobe of prothorax, which 
offers a very useful identification mark. 

Type in the Darjeeling Museum. 

Genus ANISOPLEURA Selys. (Fig. 27.) 

Anisopleura Selys, Syn. Cal. p. 48 (1853); Walker, List Neur. 
Ins. Brit. Mus. iv, p. 635 (1853); Selys, Mon. Cal. p. 1S8 (1854); 
Kirby, Cat. Odon. p. 108 (1890); Williamson, Proo. U.S. Nat. 
Mus. vol. xxviii, p. 169 (1905) ; Laidlaw, Kec. Ind. Mus. vol. xiii, 
pp. 24, 25 (1917); Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. xxxiii, 
pp. 53, 54 (1928). 

Wings of both sexes hyaline, or, at most, with apices tipped 
with black in the male ; petiolation as in Bayadera, or extending 
a little distal to basal antenodal nervure, especially in hind- 
wing ; all wings in both sexes narrow and of equal breadth ; 
costal border of hind-wing in male with an abrupt angulation 
outwards at a point about one-third the distance from base 
to node, resultiug widening of costal space gradually decreasing 
from angulation outwards ; Rii not in contact with R-\~M at 
its origin ; node situated at about middle of wing ; discoidal 
cell entire, equal to about one-third or a little less than half 
the length of median space in fore-wing, a little more than 
half as long in hind- wing ; arc markedly angulated ; sectors 
of arc widely separated at origui, far more so than in Bayadera 
or EpalJage ; from 1 to 5 cubital nervures in all wings (usually 
only one in A. lestoides, several in other species) ; I A distinctly 
forked, or, if not, then with 3 to 4 moderately long inter- 
calated sectors between itself and hinder margin of wing ; 
only 2 long intercalated sectors between I A and Cuii'; 
Riii widely distal to the subnode, about 1 cell more so than in 
Bayadera ; outermost antenodal complete but normally not 
in alignment; no basal incomplete antenodal nervure in 
subcostal space ; pterostigma long and narrow. 

Thorax robust ; abdomen always longer than wings, long 
and cylindrical ; anal appendages variable, inferiors always 
more or less aborted, superiors subcylindrical or markedly 
spatulate, with or without a robust latero-ventral spine. 



ANISOPIETTEA. 85 

Genotype, Anisopleura lestoides Selys. 

Distribution. — Bengal, Siekim, Assam, and Upper Bxtrma. 

The species of Anisopleura breed in montane and sub- 
montane streams, and I have foimd them breeding in irrigation 
channels rmming through tea-plantations in Bengal. Unlike 
the species of Bayadera, those of Anisopleura keep to trees or 




Fig. 27. — ^Wings of Anisopleura comes Selys, male. 

liushes bordering streams, the female retiring farther into the 
jungle and only visiting the stream when ovipositing, at which 
time it may be taken in copula with the male. Only occasion- 
ally do these insects descend to the river-bed, but iromediately 
retreat to vegetation on being disturbed ; their flight is 
short and flitting. 

Key to Indian Species of Anisopleura. 

{Usually only one cubital nervure in all wings ; 
no humeral stripe 2. 
Several cubital nervuies; humeral stripe 
present 3. 

{Superior anal appendages with short spine 
at middle lestoides Selys, p. 86. 
Superior anal appendages forked furcaia Selys, p. 89» 

{Superior anal appendages without spine. . . . comes Selys, p. 87. 
Superior anal appendages with short spine fp. 89. 

near base subplatystyla Eraser, 



86 AGEHD^. 

202. Anisopleura lestoides Selys. (Fig. 26, b.) 

AnisopUura lestoides Selys, Syn. Cal. p. 48 (1853); id., Mon. CaL 
p. 159 (1854); Kirby, Cat. Odon. p. 108 (1890); Selys, Ann. 
Mus. Civ. Geneva, (2) vol. x (xxx), p. 489 (1891); Laidlaw, 
Bee. Ind. Mus. vol. xiii, p. 31 (1917); Praser, J. Bombay Nat. 
Hist. See. vol. xxix, p. 477 (1923) ; id., ibid. vol. xxxiii, pp. 54, 
55 (1928). 

Euphcea lestoides Walker, List Neur. Brit. Mus. iv, p. 635 (1853). 

JffflZe.— Abdomen 36-38 mm. Hind-wing 28-30 mm. 

Head : labium black, pulverulent wMte at base ; labrum 
greenish-yellow, narrowly bordered with black ; bases of 
mandibles, cheeks broadly up to level of lateral ocelli, and 
postclypeus greenish-yellow ; anteclj^eus black ; vertex and 
occiput black, with a large rounded spot of greenish-yellow 
on outer side of each lateral ocellus ; eyes blaokish-brown 
above; olivaceous green below. Dorsum of head sometimes 
pulverulent white. Prothorax black ; outer ends of posterior 
lobe' and a very large lateral spot on middle lobe greenish- 
yellpw. Thorax black, marked with an antehumeral stripe, 
broad below, taperiag above where it turns out as a short 
point; laterally, the whole central part of metepimeron and 
a broad irregular stripe centred over the first lateral suture 
greenish-j'ellow, dorsal black area extending well beyorid 
humeral suture and a small tongue of black descending on 
upper part of first lateral suture. Legs short, but robust, 
spines fine, black, a greenish stripe on outer sides of two 
posterior pairs of femora, tapering towards but not extending 
as far. as distal ends. Wings hyaline, fore-wings of male 
with extreme apes dark brown, bases pale saffron ; only one 
cubital nervure in all wings ; lA not clearly forked ; 15 to 19 
antenodal nervures ia fore-wings, 13 to 16 in the hiad ; 20 to 22 
postnodal nervures ia fore-wings, 17 to 18 in the hitid ; ptero- 
stigma black, over 3^- to 4J cells ; petiolation shorter than in 
other species, often arrested short of the first or basal antenodal 
nervure. Abdomen black, marked with greenish-yellow as 
follows : — Sides of segment 1 broadly, a broad lateral stripe 
on 2, a basal ring broadly interrupted on the mid-dorSum, 
and a narrow lateral stripe on 3 to 6, the stripes becoming 
shorter and confined to middle portions of 5 and 6 ; mid-dorsal 
carina finely yeUow on 3 to 6. Anal appendages bkck. 
• Superiors subeyluidrical at base, broadened and depressed near 
apices, which curve ia towards each other and even overlap ; 
seen from above, the upper border distiaetly sinuous and curving 
down slightly at apex ; a robust spine at about middle on 
ventro-lateral face, directed analwards and visible both from 
above and from the side. Inferiors rudimentary, not visible 
in profile. 



AITIS0PLE1JEA. 87 

Pully mature specimens show a marked pruinescence, 
especially beneath, on the coloured part of prothorax and 
thorax, the temples, and dorsum of last two abdominal 
segments. 

Female. — Abdomen 30 mm. Hind- wing 29 mm. 

Very similar to the male in markings, but these rather more 
extensive, especially on the abdomen, which is short and very 
robust. 

The lateral abdominal markings consist of a long stripe 
and basal spot narrowly separated, and extending the whole 
length of segments 2 to 7, the spots being confluent on 2, where 
the stripe is very broad ; segment 8 has a small round apico- 
lateral spot and 9 a very large irregular lateral spot extending 
over more than half the segment ; segment 10 unmarked, 
very short, notched on dorsum. Anal appendages half as 
long again as segment 10, tapering to an acute point. Vulvar 
scale robust, not quite reaching end of abdomen. 

Distribution. — Bengal, Assam, and Sikkim, at altitudes of 
about 3,000 to 5,000 ft. On the wing from May to September. 

Type in the Selys collection, Brussels Museum. 

203. Anisopleura comes Selys. (Figs. 27 & 28, a.) 

AniaopUura comes Selys, C.R. Soc. Ent. Belg. xxiii, p. Ixiii 
(1880) ; Kirby, Cat. Odon. p. 108 (1890) ; Selys, Am. Mus. Civ. 
Geneva, (2) vol. x (xxx), p. 489 (1891); Laidlaw, Bee. Ind. 
Mus. vol. xUi, p. 31 (1917); Eraser, J. Bombay Nat. Blst. See. 
vol. xxsiii, p. 55 (1928). 

JIfaZe.— Abdomen 36^0 mm. Hind-wing 29-34 mm. 

Head : labium black, pruinosed at base or on whole of 
middle lobe ; labrum citron-yeUow, finely margined vsdth 
black ; anteclypeus black ; postclypeus, bases of mandibles, 
cheeks as far up as antennae, and a broad band across frons 
citron-yellow ; rest of head mat black, with a small oval 
spot of greenish-yellow on outer side of each lateral ocellus ; 
eyes black above, dark oHvaceous beneath. Prothorax black, 
outer ends of posterior lobe and a very large triangular spot 
on each side of middle lobe citron-yellow, these marks in adult 
specimens pruinosed white. Thorax black, with a very fine, 
often interrupted antehumeral hne more or less confluent 
with a broad humeral fascia, which extends up dorsum for 
about the lower two-thirds and broadens out markedly 
below ; the greater part of sides and the postero-lateral suture 
marked out in black ; metepimeron narrowly framed in black. 
On sides and beneath pruinosed white. Legs black, hind 
femora yellow on inner sides distaUy and often pruinosed 
white. Wings hyaline, extreme apices of fore-wings of male 
dark brown ; pte'rostigma black, covering 3^ to 4 cells ; 3 to 4 



«» AGEHDJE. 

cubital nervures in fore-wings, 4 to 5 in hind-wings ; lA 
often forked ; petiolation begins at level of or distal to level 
of the basal antenodal nervure. Abdomen black, marked 
similarly to A. lestoides ; segment 7 usually with a small 
latero-basal spot ; 9 and 10 chalky white, with pruiaescence. 
Arml appendages black. Superiors seen from above narrow 
at base, very broad and cupped above thereafter, usually over- 
lapping so that the two appendages viewed from above form 
a triangle with a small window at the base. Seen from the 
side conical, tapering gradually to a subacute apex ; no latero- 
ventral spine. Inferior appendages even more aborted than in 
A. lestoides. 

Female.— Abdomen 32-33 mm. Hind-wing 33 mm. 

Stouter and more robust than the male, but marked very 
similarly ; base of labrum often narrowly black ; ends of 
posterior lobe of prothorax more broadly yeUow ; antehumeral 





Fig. 28. — ^Anal appendages of (a) Anisopleum comes Selys, male ; 
(b) Anisopleura svhplatystyla Praser, male. 

stripe rarely interrupted, and usually expanded in its upper 
portion; abdominal markings extending on to segments 
8 and 9 and exactly similar to A. lestoides ; nodal index 
higher, 17 to 19 antenodal nervures in fore-wings, 20 to 23 
postnodals ; 17 antenodals in the hind-wings, 19 postnodals ; 
3 to 6 cubital nervures in fore-wings, 3 to 7 in hind- wings • 
pterostigma dark yellowish-brown between black nervures! 
Vulvar scale very robust, not extending quite to end of 
abdomen. 



I.— Bengal, Sikkim, Assam, and the Punjab 
iiills. It IS moderately common around .Darjeeling at the 
lower levels from about 3,000 to 4,000 ft. from AprU to June 
1 foxmd it breeding in irrigation channels in cinchona- 
plantations at Mungpoo, Darjeeling District. The imago was 
•qmte numerous on herbage beside such courses, but rose high 
mto trees unless stalked warily. 



iNISOPLBTJBA. 89 

This species is easily distinguished from the last by the 
characters noted in the key and by its much greater size. 
Type in the Selys collection, Brussels Museum. 

204. Anisopleura fureata Selys. 

Anisopleura jurcata Selys, Ann. Mus. Civ. Geneva, (2) vol. x (xxx), 
pp. 488, 489 (1891); Wimamson,Proc.U.S.]Srat.Mus. vol.xxviii, 
p. 181, fig. 13 (1905) ; Fraser, J. Bombay IS'at. Hist. Soe. vol. 
xxxiii,p. 56(1928). 

Male. — ^Abdomen 32 mm. Hind-^^ing 27 mm. 

Head : labium black ; labrum, postclypeus, and corners 
of mandibles pale blue or greenish-yellow ; rest of head black 
save for a small rounded greenish-yellow spot on each side 
of ocellar space. Prothorax black, with a large rounded spot 
greenish-yellow occupying sides and subdorsum of middle lobe. 
Thorax black, marked with a greenish-yellow antehumeral 
stripe broad below, tapering above ; laterally greenish- 
yellow, metepimeron finely framed in black and hmder lateral 
suture mapped out in black ; beneath black. Wings hyaline, 
extreme bases pale saffron ; extreme apices of fore-wings 
tipped with brownish -black ; pterostigma brownish-black, 
covering about 4 cells ; 15 to 17 antenodal nervures in fore- 
wings, 21 to 22 postnodals ; 14 to 15 antenodals in hind-wings, 
18 to 19 postnodals. Legs black, inner sides of hind pair 
of femora distally yellowish. Abdomen black, marked with 
citron-yeUow exactly as in J[ . lestoides, dorsum of segments 9 
and 10 pruinosed white. Anal appendages black. Superiors 
sUghtly longer than segment 10, suboyhndrical, apices broadly 
obtuse and curving in slightly ; on the outer side a very rohust 
«piiie equal in size to apex of appendages, so that the latter 
appears to be forked from its middle, and seen in profile 
resembles a crab's claw. Inferiors rudimentary. 

Female imknown. 

Distribution. — Upper Btjema. The type (which is in the 
■Genoa Museum collection) is from Puepoli, taken in June. 

This species closely resembles A. lestoides in many respects, 
but may be distinguished by the greater size of the spine 
of superior anal appendages, which gives a bifid or branched 
appearance to those structures. 

205. Anisopleura subplatystyla i'raser. (Fig. 28,1).) 

Anisopleura svhplatystyla Fraser, Eeo. Ind. Mus. vol. xxix, 
p. 81 (1927); id., J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. xxxiii, pp. 56, 
57 (1928). 

ilfaZe. — ^Abdomen 34 mm. Hind- wing 28 mm. 
Head : labium black, middle lobe pridnosed white ; 
labrum bright greenish-yellow finely margined with black ; 



90 AGEHD^. 

cheeks, postclypeus, and a stripe across lower part of frons 
and bases of mandibles greenish-yellow; rest of head mat 
black, with a large reniform spot on the outer side of each 
lateral ocellus ; eyes dark brown. Prothorax black, outer 
ends of posterior lobe and a very large OTal spot on each side 
of mid-lobe greenish-yellow. TJim-ax black, marked with 
citron-yellow as follows : — ^Narrow antehumeral stripes running 
close to and parallel with the mid-dorsal carina, upper end 
of stripes curved outward ; a narrow humeral stripe running 
parallel to the former and broadly confluent with it below 
but not above, although the two approximate ; a small upper 
spot Ijong close to outer side of humeral stripe ; laterally 
broadly yellow, metepimeron narrowly framed in black, 
second' lateral suture mapped out in black. Beneath, and 
lower parts of sides, pruinosed white. Legs black, outer and 
proximal portions of femora yellow, these parts pruinosed. 
Wings hyaline, apices of fore- wings tipped with dark brown as 
in other species ; pterostigma dark blackish-brown, covering 
4 cells ; 17 antenodal nervures in fore-wings, 22 postnodals ; 
14 antenodals in hind-wings, 20 postnodals ; 3 to 4 cubital 
nervures in fore-wings, 4 to 5 in the hind ; Riii well distal to 
subnode ; lA usually forked. Abdomen black, segments 
9 and 10 pruinosed white on dorsum, other segments marked 
as in A. lestoides as far as segment 6. Aiml appendages black. 
Superiors very similar to those of A. lestoides, but the spine 
replaced by a much smaller one not visible from above, and 
situated nearer base of appendage. Inferior appendages 
rudimentary. 

Female. — ^Abdomen and hind- wing 30 mm. 

Closely similar to the male but more heavily built ; markings 
differ as follows : — Labrum with anterior border more broadly 
black, and with its base broadly black ; yellow band across 
frons nearly cut into two at the middle ; posterior lobe more 
broadly yellow and an additional band of yellow forming a 
coUar to prothorax : antehumeral and humeral bands con- 
fluent above as well as below ; upper humeral spot triangular 
instead of linear ; trefoil-like spots on coxse and six small 
spots on under surface of thorax ; abdomen marked similarly to 
the female of A. lestoides ; wiags saffronated at bases, and in 
subjuvenile examples brightly so as far as node in costal 
area, subeosta and radius also yellow for the same distance 
and often all nervures at base of wing to outer end of discoidal 
cell ; nodal index slightly higher ; cubital nervures 3 to 5 in 
all wings. Vulvar scale as in ^. lestoides. 

Distribution. — ^Assam. A number taken in Shillong by 
Mr. T. Bainbrigge Fletcher, who has kindly sent them to me 
for examination. 

The species, by its interesting combination of the characters 



DYSPHiEA. 



91 



of A. comes and lestoides, is easily distinguished from all 
others ; thus it has the combined ante-humeral and humeral 
stripes and numerous cubital nervures seen in A. comes, 
whilst its appendages are more similar to those of A . lestoides. 
T^pe in the British Museum ; paratypes in my own collection. 



Genus DYSPHiEA Selys. (Fig. 29.) 

Dysphcea Selys, Syn. Cal. p. 53 (1853); Walker, List Neur. Ins. Brit. 
Mus. iv, p. 641 (1853); Selys, Mon. Cal. p. 185 (1854); Kirby, Cat. 
Odon. p. 110 (1890) ; Williamson, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xxviii, 
p. 169 (1905); Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. See. vol. xssiii, 
p. 57 (1928). 

Wings of male usually marked with opaque black (except 
in D. ethela), hyaline in the female, apices rather pointed, 
narrow ; hind- wing not noticeably broader than fore -wing 
and of equal breadth in the two sexes ; petiolation entirely 
absent ; Rii not in contact with S+3I ; node situated at or 
slightly distal to middle of wing ; discoidal cell traversed 
at least once, short, about half or one-third as long again as 




Pig. 29. — ^Wings of Dysplwsa walli 'Bias., male. 

the median space ; arc almost straight ; sectors of arc arising 
from middle of arc and well separated at origin ; usually 
3 cubital nervures to all wings, occasionally more in hind- 
wings ; 4 or more intercalated nervures between I A and 
posterior border of wing, I A very occasionally forked ; only 
2 intercalated sectors between Cuii and I A, rarely more ; 
origin of Riii variable even in the same species, nearly always 
more distal in hind-wings, usually in continuation with or 
proximal to subnode in fore-wing, and in continuation with 



92 AGEnD,^. 

or distal to subnode in Mnd-wing ; outermost antenodal 
nervure complete but often not coincidiag witb subcostal 
half; no basal incomplete antenodal nervnre in subcostal 
space ; pterostigma present in all wings of both sexes, narrow, 
long. 

Thorax robust ; abdomen always extending to beyond 
tips of wings, often markedly so ; anal appendages very 
homogeneous, simple, longer than segment 10, forcipate ; 
segment 10 notched at its apical border, its dorsum flat, not 
raised into a keel-like spine as in all the following genera ; 
vulvar scale robust, short, not reaching end of abdomen. 

Genotype, Dysphcea dimidiafa Selys. 

Distribution. — From Westben India and Uppbe Btjema to 
Malacca, Java, Sumatra, Borneo, and New Guinea. 

Species of this genus breed in swift montane and submontane 
streams, from 1,000 to 4,000 ft. ; their habits, so far as known, 
are exactly similar to those of Bayaiera. Shy, retiring insects, 
the females are rarely seen, spending their time feeding in the 
jungles not far from their parent streams, often perched high 
up in trees. The males will also take to such lofty roosting 
places during dull weather and at night — I have seen them 
perched on twigs at a height of 40 feet from the ground, 
from which vantage-point they would flit out and back 
again, preying on passing flies. More often the males are found 
in the bed of the stream resting on rocks or twigs surrounded 
by the boiling waters, and taking short flights, flitting in nature, 
out and back to the same resting place. Females have no 
generic characters separating them from those of the rest 
of the group, Psevdophcea, Indophcea, etc. 

Key to Indian Species of Dysphsea. 

Wings of male palely and evenly enfiimed with 

brown throughout ethela Fras., p. 92. 

Wings of male with bases blaokish-brown wcdli Fras., p. 94. 



206. Dysphsea ethela Fraser. 



cea e&ela Fraser, Bee. Ind. Mus. vol. xxvi, pp. 480-482 
(1924) ; id., J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soo. vol. xxxiii, pp. 57-59 
(1928); id., Keo. Ind. Mus. vol. xxxiii, p. 448 (1931). 

Mak. — ^Abdomen 38 mm. Hind-wing 33 mm. 

Head : velvety black, unmarked save for two triangular 
yellow marks below and hidden behind occiput ; eyes dark 
brown above, pearly grey beneath. ProtJiorax black, with 
a dark ochreous rounded spot on each side of middle lobe. 
Thorax velvety black, marked (often rather obscurely) with 
fine antehumeral and humeral greenish-yellow stripes, con- 
fluent above, separated below, but obscured or absent in fully 



DYSPH^A. 9S 

matured specimens. Laterally greenish-yellow shaded with 
olivaceous and clouded with brown, an irregular posthumeral 
stripe, a broad stripe on upper part of mesepimeron and the 
greater part of metepimeron. Legs black, eoxee with a spot, 
and femora, in subadult specimens, with a proximal inner 
stripe of yellow. Armature as for subfamily. Wirigs evenly 
enfumed with pale greenish-brown or darker brown, this 
varying widely according to age of specimen, whilst in some 
the tint is a rich golden brown throughout the whole breadth 
and length of wings ; pterostigma very long, covering 7 to 8 
cells, black. Abdomen black, marked with greenish-yeUow 
as follows : — Segment 1 with a narrow apical annule and its 
ventral border ; 2 with a broad lateral stripe constricted at its 
middle and then dilated at apical border, and the ventral 
border narrowly ; 3 to 6 with baso-lateral half-rings confluent 
with a lateral stripe, which on 3 and 4 runs the whole length 
of segment, on o for the basal half, and on 6 for the basal third 
only ; on 7 and 8 only the basal ring, and a ventral stripe 
on apical two-thirds of latter. (These markings may be largely 
obscured in fully matiured specimens, especially on the posterior 
segments.) Aval appendages hhudk. Superiors subeylindrical, 
flattened, and partially dilated towards the apical end of middle 
third, widely separated at base, apices curling gently in and 
meeting or overlapping one another, and hollowed out on 
their outer side. Inferiors very short, thick, closely apposed, 
aborted and not visible in profile. 
Fernale. — ^Abdomen 32 mm. Hind-wing 33 mm. 
Head : eyes dark olivaceous-brown, bluish-grey beneath ; 
rest of head black, with a vertical stripe on cheeks borderiag 
eyes, a transverse stripe on lower part of frons, sHghtly inter- 
rupted by a triangular wedge of black below, bases of mandibles 
and two long oblor^ spots on labrum creamy to citron-yellow. 
P)-othorax black, with a large oval spot on each side of middle 
lobe, and a small spot on outer side of posterior lobe citron- 
yellow. Thorax black, marked with bright citron-yellow as 
follows : — Antehumeral and humeral narrow stripes, squarely 
confluent above and meeting at a point below, the humeral 
often interrupted at its middle ; laterally three stripes, 
posterior very broad and covering whole of metepimeron 
except for a small elongate black area anteriorly and below, 
the two anterior stripes separated from each other and from 
the posterior yellow stripe by narrow black stripes which 
map out the lateral sutures. A small spot of yellow beneath, 
partially obscured by pruinescence. Legs as in male, but more 
yellow within. Wings hyaline, more or less enfumed according 
to age ; pterostigma 4-5 mm. in length, black, covering 7 to 8 
cells ; venational details as in male ; 30 to 36 antenodal 
nervures in fore-wings, 19 to 20 postnodals ; 25 to 26 antenodals 



94 AGEHDiE. 

in hind-wing, 19 to 21 postnodals ; discoidal cell traversed 
once or twice, usually twice in the female, once in the male ; 
3 cubital nervures in all wings in both sexes ; lA not 
usually forked. Abdomen black, with markings similar to 
those of the male, but very vividly defined and ventral stripes 
continued to seventh segment. Segment 9 with a very large 
triangular spot on each side covering its apical half. Anal 
appendages sHghtly longer than segment 10, acutely pointed, 
black. 

Distribution. — ^Madras Pees. : Coorg; Malabar; S.Kanara; 
Agency tracts, Jeypore. The exact distribution of this 
insect has yet to be worked out. In Coorg it is taken all 
along the course of the Cauvery and many of its tributaries, 
being less common on the Hatti and Harrangay Rivers. The 
type female was taken a quarter of a mile from the river. 

Type ia British Museum ; paratypes in Morton, Praser, and 
Laidlaw collections, etc. 



207. Dysphsea walli Eraser. 

Dysphcea walli Fraser, Beo. Ind. Mus. vol. xxix, pp. 82-83 (1927); 
id., J". Bombay Nat. Hist. Soo. vol. xxxiii, p. 59 (1928). 

Male. — Abdomen 35 mm. Hiad-wing 31 mm. 

Head glossy black, with a small yeUow spot on upper part 
of each cheek ; bases of mandibles obscurely ochreous ; rest 
of head unmarked ; eyes black above, dove-grey beneath. 
Proihorax black, with a large oval eitron-yeUow spot on each 
side of middle lobe. Thorax black, marked with citron-yellow 
as follows : — ^Narrow antehumera] and humeral stripes 
confluent above by a connecting bar which runs parallel 
with the alar sinus, converging and confluent below ; four 
stripes on sides and an upper vestige of a posthumeral. Of the 
four lateral stripes the most anterior hes on the first lateral 
suture, the second covers the posterior half of the mesepimeron, 
the third borders the metepimeron anteriorly and above, 
whilst the fourth covers the posterior half of that structure. 
Beneath black. Legs black, posterior pair of femora broadly 
yellow or obscurely so on outer side. Wings very palely 
and evenly enfumed, bases of all four blackish-brown for nearly 
two-thirds the distance from base to node in fore-wings, 
and fully three-fourths of that distance in hind-wings, outer 
margin of fascia slightly convex ; 27 to 28 antenodal nervures 
in fore- wings, about 20 postnodals; 19 to 23 antenodals 
in hind- wings, 18 to 21 postnodals ; discoidal cell traversed 
once or twice in all wings, more usually twice ; 3 cubital 
nervxures in all wings ; pterostigma black, long, narrow, 
covering 6 to 8 cells. Abdomen black, marked with blue or 
citron-yellow as follows : — Segment I with a large triangular 



ALLOPHiEA. 05 

yellow spot on each side ; 2 to 5 with a lateral stripe azure- 
Hue, broad at base where it ascends somewhat on basal 
margin of dorsum, tapering to a fine point at the end of each 
segment. Remaining segments unmarked. Ancd appendages 
black. Inferiors closely apposed, vestigial and not visible 
in profile. Superiors nearly twice the length of segment 10 ; 
seen laterally, broad at base, tapering to a subacute apex 
which is bevelled downwards ; seen from above, narrow at 
base, broadening apicaUy and then slightly narrowed again, 
markedly compressed in their apical halves ; apices curling 
strongly in to meet or actually overlap. 

Female unknown. 

Distribution. — ^Maymyo, N. Shan States, Upper Buejia. 
Four males collected by Col. F. WaD, I.M.S., May 30, 1924. 

Type in British Museum, paratypes in author's collection. 



Genus ALLOPHiEA Fraser (1929). (jBlg. 30.) 

Euphosa Rambur (pars), Ins. Nevrop. p. 228 (1842) ; Selys, Syn. Cal. 

p. 50 (1853) ; Walker, List Neur. Ins. Brit. Mus. iv, p. 637 (1853) ; 

Selys, Mon. Cal. p. 167 (1854); Williamson, Proc. U.S. Nat. 

Mus. vol. xxviii, p. 169 (1905). 
Psevd.ophcea Kirby (pars). Cat. Odon. p. 109 (1890). 
AUophcBa Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soe. vol. xxsiii, p. 288 

(1929). 

Wings hyaline, broadly saf&onated in male, colourless in 
female ; apices rather pointed ; hind- wings in male not 
markedly broader than fore- wings, and not broader than hind- 
wings of female ; petiolation very short, almost absent ; Eii not 
itt contact with B4-M ; node situated nearer base of wing than 
apex, about midway between base and pterostigma ; discoidal 




Fig. 30. — ^Wing of Allophcea bncnnea (Selys). 

cell traversed once or twice, short, about one-third the length 
of median space ; arc slightly bent ; sectors of are arising 
from middle of arc and slightly separated at origin ; usually 
3 cubital nervures to all wings ; about 4 intercalated 
sectors between lA and hinder border of wing, lA never 
forked ; 4 or more sectors between I A and Cuii ; origin 
oiBiii usually very shghtly distal to subnode or in continuation 



96 AGEHD^. 

■vdtli it ; no basal incomplete antenodal nervure in subcostal 
space ; pterostigma present in all wings of both, sexes, long, 
narrow. 

Thorax robust but short ; abdomen extending beyond 
tips of wings in male, sometimes markedly so, but of the same 
length as wings in female ; superior anal appendages homo- 
geneous, simple, forcipate, longer than segment 10 ; the latter 
rounded or arched apieally and with a prominent keel or 
carinal spiae on its mid-dorsum ; vulvar scale robust, short, 
not extending to end of abdomen. 

Genotype, Ewphaea ochracea Selys. 

Distribution. — Indo-Malay and Indo-China, Assam, and 

BUEMA. 

208. Allophsea ochracea (Selys). 

Euphcea ochracea Selys, Bull. Acad. Belg. (2), vol. vii, p. 443 (1859) ; 

id., Ann. Mus. Civ. Genova, (2) vol. x (xxx), pp. 489-490 (1891) ; 

Laidlaw, Proe. Zool. Soc. Lend, (i) p. 87 (1902) ; Martin, 

Mission Pavie, Neiirop. (sep.), p. 15 (1904) ; Williamson, Proe. 

U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xxviji, pp. 181-182 (1905). 
Pseudophoea ochracea Kirby, Cat. Odon. p. 109 (1890); Laidlaw, 

Kec. lad. M\is. vol. xiii, pp. 32-33 (1917); Fraser, J. Bombay 

Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. xxix, p. 477 (1923). 
Allophcea ochracea Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soe. vol. xxxiii, 

pp. 288, 289 (1929). 

Male. — ^Abdomen 33-35 mm. Fore-wing 33-35 mm. Hind- 
wing 30-33 mm. 

Head black, unmarked ; gense, bases of mandibles, and 
labrum glossy black ; the rest mat black. Prothorax mat 
black, posterior border of posterior lobe narrowly, a small 
spot below it on each side, and a large semilxmar lateral spot 
bright ochreous. Thorax mat black, marked with a series 
of four pairs of stripes on each side bright ochreous, first pair 
antehumeral, confluent above and nearly so below ; second 
lying between humeral and first lateral sutures, confluent 
above, posterior member of the pair confluent with anterior 
member of third pair ; third and fourth pairs lying between 
lateral sutures and on metepimeron respectively, much broader 
and more diEEuse than the two anterior pairs, and covering 
greater part of mesepimeron and metepimeron ; trochanters 
and a small spot on each side in antealar sinus ochreous. 
Legs black, unmarked. Wings hyaline, broadly saifron or 
amber-tinted, fore pair for rather more than their basal 
halves, hind pair as far as pterostigma, which is black, a 
little oblique at its proximal end and covering about 6 cells ; 
discoidal eeU of fore- wing traversed once, that of hind- wing 
onee or twice ; 3 cubital nervures in all wings ; nodal index — 
about 30 antenodal nervures and 35 postnodals in fore-wings, 
about 26 antenodals and 35 postnodals in hind-wings. Hind- 



AliOPEUEA. 97 

■wing slightly broader and shorter than fore-wing ; reticulation 
at apices very fine. Abdomen black, marked with ochreous 
as follows : — ^A"~Qi.*fuse lateral stripe extending from segment 1, 
where it is very bi.:^ad, to 5 or 6, brighter basal rings on 3 to 5 
or 6, and an apical ring on 1 ; dorsal carina finely ochreous 
from 2 to 4 or 6. In subadults the general colouring of 
abdomen dark ochreous clouded with black ; in adults, 
segments 6 or 7 to the end black, unmarked. Anal appendages 
black. Superiors slightly longer than segment 10, separated 
at base, parallel, compressed laterally ; apices blunt, as seen 
from above, curling slightly in towards one another. Inferiors 
very short, conical, pointed. Genitalia : hamules projecting 
as two robust conical sharp teeth ; lobe black, large, scrotal- 
shaped. 

Female. — ^Abdomen 29-30 mm. Hind-wing 28-29 mm. 

Differs from the male by the much broader and more 
extensive yellow markings, more robust build, shorter abdo- 
men, and wings only palely and diffusely saffronated at base, 
the colouring fading out near the node in both fore- and hind- 
wings. Head black, marked with yellow as follows : — ^Labium 
except extreme tips of lobes ; labrum except anterior border 
finely and a small median virgule springing from base ; 
mandibles ; cheeks broadly ; a broad stripe across frons and 
a small oblique oval spot on each side of vertex with inner 
ends resting on posterior ocelli. Prothorax and thorax as in 
male, but markings more extensive and covering mesepimeron 
and metepimeron except their centres, which are clouded 
with black. Legs brown, femora obscurely yellow on outer 
side and thinly pidverulent (as is also the underside of thorax 
and first two segments of abdomen). Wings hyaline, coloured 
as detailed above ; pterostigma bright ochreous between 
black nervures, pointed inwardly, covering 7 to 8 nervures ; 
nodal index lower than in male — only about 20 antenodal 
nervures and 28 postnodals in fore-wings, about 20 antenodals 
and 25 postnodals in hind- wings ; discoidal cell as in male ; 
3 or 4 cubital nervures in hind- wings ; Riii arising a little 
distal to subnode in all wings. Abdomen black, marked with 
yeUow as follows : — ^A broad lateral stripe extending from 
segment 1 to 7, constricted subapically and finely divided by 
the jugal suture near base of segments ; mid-dorsal carina 
finely from segment 1 to 5, obscurely so on 6 and 7 and often 
on 8, conspicuously so on 9 and less so on 10 ; a small rounded 
lateral spot on 8, a subquadrate one on each side of the apical 
two-thirds of 9, and apical border of 10 narrowly. Anal 
■affendages black, smaU, conical, pointed acutely. Vulvar 
scale extending to end of segment 9, spotted with yellow. 

Distribution. — ^Assam, Bttrma, Malacca, Siam, and Annam. 
The type in the Selys collection comes froni Mt. Ophir, 

VOL. n. H 



98 AGEHD^. 

Malacca; other examples, Khow Sai Dow Mt., 1,000 ft., 
Trong, Siam, Jan.-Feb. {Williamson) ; Gokteik, Upper Burma, 
June (F. Wall) ; Shillong, Assam, June {T. Bainbrigge Fletcher)^ 
and Caohar Assam, August {Antram). 

There is no difficulty in distinguishing this species, except 
from A. brunnea, by its hyaline wings, safironated but without 
opaque areas. It has a wide distribution, extending from 
Assam to furthest French Indo-China, at altitudes from 1,000 
to 5,000 ft. Larva unknown. 

209. AllophSBE brunnea (Selys). 

Euphcea brimnea Selys, BiUl. Acad. Belg. (2) vol. xlvii, p. 374 

(1879) ; id., Ann. Mus. Civ. Geneva, (2) vol. x (xxx), p. 490 

(1891). 
Psevdophcea hrunnea Kirby, Cat. Odon. p. 109 (1890) ; Martin, 

Mission Pavie, Neurop. (sep.), p. 15 (1904); Laidlaw, Reo. Ind. 

Mus. vol. xiii, p. 33 (1917); Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 

vol. xxix, p. 477 (1923). 
Alloplum brunnea Praser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. xxxiii, 

p. 290 (1929). 

' ilf«?e.— Abdomen 32-38 mm. Fore-wing 30-32 mm. Hind- 
wing 28-31 mm. 

It is extremely doubtful whether this species is distinct 
from A. ochracea ; Selys himself expresses such a doubt. 
Markings identical with those of A. ochracea, which is also 
taken in the same hills. 

I have not seen the type of ochracea, but I have specimens 
of what probably is that insect from Siam, Burma, and Assam, 
and apart from size, which varies considerably even in the 
same locality, I can find no differences to separate them into 
two distinct species. In addition to indicating a larger size 
for A. brunnea, Selys states that the wings are of a darker 
brown. Here again we find variabiUty. 

In a single specimen which I have from Shillong, Assam, 
collected by Mr. Bainbrigge Fletcher, the size is greater than 
in other specimens that I have seen from the same and other 
localities — abdomen 38 mm. and hind-wing 30 mm., and the 
saffronated parts of the wings are clouded with dark brown 
along the costa in the fore- wing and in the outer and posterior 
part in the hind-wing. Another specimen from Kalaw, 
Burma, has the same dark colouring, but its size is remarkably 
small. It must be noted that, at the time the two species 
were described, they had been reported from Malacca and Assam 
only, two widely separated areas, but since then A. ochracea 
has been found in Burma. For the present and until more 
material is available this question must remain open. 

Female unknown. 
• Distribution. — ^Khasi HiUs, Assam. 

Type in the Selys collection, Brussels Museum. 



PSEUDOPH^A. 99' 



Genus PSEUDOPH^A Kirby. 

Euphcsa Bambur, Ins. Nevrop. p. 228 (1842) ; Selys, Syn. Cal. p. 50 

(1853); Walker, List Neur. Ins. Brit. Mus. iv, p. 637 (1853); 

Selvs, Mon. Cal. p. 167 (1854); Williamson, Proe. U.S. Nat. 

U-aa. vol. ssviii, p. 169 (1905). 
Pseudophcea Elirby, Cat. Odon. p. 109 (1890); Laidlaw, Rec. Ind, 

Mus. vol. siii, p. 32 (1917); Eraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soe. 

vol. sssiii, p. 290 (1929). 

Wings of male marked with opaque black, often metallic 
blue, green, or purple ; hyaline in female ; apex of fore- 
wing pointed, that of hind- wing inoKning to be rounded ; 
hind-wing markedly broader than fore-wing in male and 
considerably broader than hind-wing of female ; petiolation 
absent or nearly so ; Rii not in contact with R-\-M ; node 
situated nearer base of wing than apex and sUghtly nearer 
base than pterostigma ; discoidal cell traversed once only,, 
short, about one-third as long as median space ; arc nearly 
straight ; sectors of arc separated at origin and arising from 
centre of arc ; usually only 2 cubital nervures in all wings ; 
4 long and numerous short intercalated sectors between 
I A and posterior border of wing ; 2 long and 2 short inter- 
calated sectors between I A and Guii ; origin of Riii proximal 
to subnode in all wings ; no basal incomplete antenodal 
nervures in subcostal space ; pterostigma present in all wings 
of both sexes, long and narrow. 

Thorax robust, rather short. Abdomen extending well 
beyond apices of hind-wings in male, of the same length in 
female ; anal appendages very homogeneous, simple, foreipate, 
longer than segment 10, latter with a marked mid-dorsal 
keel or spine, its posterior border arched or ending in the 
dorsal spine ; vulvar scale robust, short, not extending beyond 
end of abdomen. 

Genotype, Euphoea variegata Ramb. 

Distribution. — Ceylon, Western Ghats, Bttrma, Malaya, 
Indo-China, Java, Sumatra, Borneo, Amboina, and PhiUppines. 
(I have cited Western India, as splendens has been doubtfully 
reported from there, although this is most certainly an error.) 

Key to Indian Species of Pseudophsea. 

Hind-wings of male for basal three-fourths [p. 100. 

brilliant metallic green or blue splendens (Selys), 

Hind-wings of male opaque blaokish-brown, [p. 102. 

non-metallic masoni (Selys), 



k2 



100 AGRHDiE. 

■210. Pseudophsea splendens (Selys). 

Euphcea splendens Selys, Syn. Cal. p. 52 (1853); Walker, List 
Neur. Ins. Brit. Mus. iv, p. 638 (1853); Selys, Mon. Cal. p. 178 
(1854) ; id., Bull. Aead. Belg. (2) vol. xxxv, p. 485 (1873). 

Pseudophcea splendens Kirby, Cat. Odon. p. 110 (1890); id., Joum. 
Linn. Soe. Lond., Zool. vol. xxiv, p. 559 (1893); Laidlaw, Reo. 
Ind. Mus. vol. xiii, p. 32 (1917) ; id., SpoUa Zeylanioa, vol. xii, 
pp. 356-357 (1924); Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. See. 
vol. xxxiii, pp. 291, 292 (1929). 

Pseudophma carissima Kirby, 1. c. pi. xlii, fig. 4 (1893). 

Male. — ^Abdomen 35-41 mm. Fore-wing 31-36 mm. Hind- 
wing 28-33 mm.. 

Head : labium blackish-brown ; labrum, cheeks, and 
clypeus glossy black ; rest of head deep velvety mat black. 
Prothorax and ihorax matt black, the latter with first lateral 
suture and anterior border of metepimeron obscurely ochreous. 
In teneral specimens thoracic markings similar to those of 
female. Legs black, femora dark reddish-brown internally. 
Wings opaque black, fore-wings with base as far as midway to 
node hyahne, but tinted with brown, and with nervures in 
the outer part of this area bordered and clouded with opaque 
brownish-black ; apices paler from level of proximal end of 
pterostigma ; hind-wings, except for a small basal area 
anterior to I A, opaque to extreme apices and darker than 
fore-wings on upper surface, an area from base as far distal 
as half-way between node and apex of wings brilliant metallic 
green or peacock-blue according to angle at which viewed, 
outer border of this area running straight from costal to 
posterior border of wing, but the basal limit not including 
that hyaline area already mentioned above ; pterostigma 
black, very long, acutely pointed at its proximal end, a little 
broadened at its centre, covering about 12-14 cells ; beneath 
hind- wing the metallic area has a deep glossy steely blue 
reflex. Membrane of wings markedly pleated ; about 30 
antenodal nervures in fore-wings and about 40 postnodals, 
about 22 antenodals and 30 postnodals in the hind- wings ; 
only 2 cubital nervures in all wings ; discoidal cell traversed 
but once in all wings. Abdomen black, with an obscure 
ochreous lateral stripe on segments 1 and 2. Anal appendages 
black, spatulate, blunt at apex, hollowed out within, parallel, 
but apices curled very sHghtly in. Seen from above triangular 
in outhne, with broad base and pointed apex. Inferiors 
very short, conical, pointed. Genitalia very similar to that 
of AUophcea ochracea, but hamules a little less prominent 
and lobe smaller and flatter. 

Femcde.— Abdomen 31-38 mm. Hind-wing 29-37 mm. 

Head : labium yellow, with tips and central portion of 
middle lobe black, latter area pulverulent white ; rest of 
head black as for male, but with bases of mandibles, cheeks. 



PSBUDOPHJSA. 101 

a small subrotundate spot just in front of each lateral ocellus, 
and labrum citron-yellow, latter with its anterior border, 
base, and a median basal triangular tongue black. Proihorax 
with a large lateral boss on each side of middle lobe citron- 
yellow. Thorax with an antehimieral stripe not quite ex- 
tending up to antealar sinus citron-yellow, a small spot of the 
same colour on each half of alar sinus. Laterally a thick 
stripe of yellow on first lateral suture and upper and anterior 
half of metepimeron. In old specimens these lateral yellow 
markings and underside of thorax pulverulent white. Legs 
black, flexor surface of femora yeUow and often pulverulent. 
Wings hyaline, palely and evenly enfumed, brownish with 
a greenish tint ; in old specimens fore-wings clear and hind- 
wings only enfumed brown, with the apices for a short distance 
proximal to inner end of pterostigma dark brown. Extreme 
apices of fore-wings occasionally also enfumed. Neuration 
similar to that of male, but occasionally only a single cubital 
nervure present ; nodal index — about 26-30 antenodal 
nervures and about 30 postnodals ; 20-26 antenodals and 
25 to 30 postnodals to hind-wings ; pterostigma dark brown 
between black nervures, covering about 10 cells. Abdomen 
black, marked with citron- yellow as follows : — Segment 1 
broadly on the sides, segment 2 with a broadish lateral stripe 
sinuous in its apical half and dilated abruptly at apex, seg- 
ments 2 to 4 with a narrow lateral stripe which is interrupted 
at base so as to leave an isolated spot, segment 5 with only the 
basal spot. Arud appendages half as long again as segment 10, 
conical and very acutely pointed at apex ; vulvar scale robust, 
extending nearly to end of abdomen. (The male with a peculiar 
tiift of black stifif hairs springing from a smaU tubercle on 
each side of the ventral basal end of segment 9, the nature of 
which is unknown.) 

Distribution. — Confined to Cetlon, although Selys gives 
" India " as one of its localities. I have specimens from 
Diyatalawa, 5,000 ft., August; Hatton, 4,000-5,000 ft., 
May ; Nalande, September, and Dyraaba, September. 

P. splendens, one of the most beautiful dragonflies found 
in Asia, is common on most of the montane streams of 
Ceylon, and is to be found flitting slowly up and down stream 
or perching upon overhanging ferns above the water. When in 
flight the male keeps the hind- wings fully outspread, using 
them as planes and the fore-wings as propellers, so that the 
full beauty of the hind-wing is displayed. The females are 
to be found in the neighbouring jimgle, perched on prominent 
twigs, from which they launch themselves on passing prey ; 
rarely are they seen over their parent streams, and I have 
never seen them in copula or ovipositing. 

Type ia the Selys collection; specimens in most European 



102 AGRnD-3E. 

collections and also in the Pusa, Calcutta, and Bombay 
Museums. Kirby's type of P. carrissima, which is in the 
British Museum, is only a teneral example of P. spletidens. 

211. Pseudophsea masoni (Selys). 

Euphcea masoni Selys, Bull. Acad. Belg. (2) vol. slvii, p. 377 (1879) ; 
Laidlaw, Faseio. Malayenses (Zool.), pt. i, p. 194 (1903) ; Martin, 
Mission Pavie, Neurop. (sep.), p. 15 (1904); Williamson, 
Proo. VS. Nat. Mus. vol. xxviii, p. 182 (1905). 

Psevdophtea masoni Kirby, Cat. Odon. p. 110 (1890); id., Ann. 
Mag. Nat. Hist. (6) vol. sdv, p. 113 (1894); Fraser, J. Bombay 
STat. Hist. Soc. vol. xxxiii, pp. 292, 293 (1929). 

if aZe.— Abdomen 28-35 mm. Hind- wing 24-30 mm . Fore- 
wing 26-31 mm. 

Head : labium dark brown ; labrum, cheeks, bases of 
mandibles, and anteclypeus glossy black ; rest of head mat 
velvety black and, in most specimens, an obscure reniform 
yellowish spot nimiiag obliquely out from each posterior 
■ocellus. Prothorax and thorax velvety black, former unmarked, 
latter, except in mature specimens (from Upper Burma)^ 
with the following yeUowish-brown markings more or less 
obscure : — ^A narrow antehumeral line, a small spot on each 
half of alar sinus, a narrow humeral stripe, an equally narrow 
posthumeral complete in its upper half only ; four parallel 
stripes on the sides, in two pairs, one on mesepimeron and the 
other on metepimeron. Legs black. Wings opaque blackish- 
brown ; hind- wing with extreme apex hyaline or occasionally 
hyaline as far as distal end of pterostigma and with median 
^space and base of subcostal space paler ; fore-wings with apex 
hyaline for a variable distance, as far as inner end of pterostigma 
•or for 5 or more cells proximal to proximal end of pterostigma, 
base also hyaline but enfumed for rather more than half-way 
from base to node, rarely nearly as far as node, and in all cases 
subcostal space opaque as far as base, so that the hyaline area 
IS traversed by a prominent black streak ; pterostigma long 
narrow, black, covering 8 to 11 ceUs ; discoidal cells traversed 
■once (entire in one wing of a Burmese specimen) ; normally 
2 cubital nervures, but occasionally 3 ; 25 to 30 antenodal 
nervures and 30 to 35 postnodals in fore-wing, 20 to 23 ante- 
nodals and 24 to 32 postnodals in hind-wing ; opaque areas 
•of wmgs beneath steely metaUic blue or bronzed. Abdomen 
black, unmarked. Segment 10 with a very prominent carinal 
spme. Anal appendages black, superiors very similar to 
those of Pspkndens, but more constricted at base and more 
expanded thereafter and with some minute spines at apex 
winch is craved in sUghtly. Inferiors very smaU, conical! 
•ending m a fine pomt. Genitalia very similar to P. splendens. 

Female.— Abdomen 33 mm. Hind-wing 31 mm 



PSEUDOPH^A. 103 

Differing entirely, as usual, from male and very similar to 
female of P. splendens. 

Head : labium dirty brown tipped with black ; labrum 
citron-yellow narrowly encircled with, black, and with a 
promiaent black median basal tongue which nearly meets 
the anterior black border ; ante- and postclypeus black ; 
cheeks, bases of mandibles, a very broad band traversing frons, 
and an elongate spot running obliquely outward from between 
the ocelli citron-yellow. Prothorax black, marked with yellow 
as follows : — A small subdorsal spot on each side of anterior 
lobe, a large lateral boss on each side of middle lobe, posterior 
margin of posterior lobe narrowly and a small longitudinal 
median spot above this lobe, and a large boss on each side 
of posterior lobe. Thorax black, marked with moderately 
narrow antehumeral and humeral stripes, a fine posthumeral 
stripe broadly broken at middle, and lastly the whole of the 
sides and under surface, except for narrow black stripes 
outlining the lateral sutures. Legs black, proximal two-thirds 
of posterior femora and inner sides of middle femora yellow. 
Wings long and narrow, uniformly enfumed greenish-brown ; 
pterostigma brown or dark oehreous finely framed in black, 
long and narrow ; Riii arising shghtly proximal to subnode, 
other details of venation as given for the male. Abdomen 
black, marked with greenish-yeUow as follows : — Segment 1 
largely yellow, with a basal dorsal patch and a lateral spot 
black, segment 2 with its mid-dorsal carina narrowly yellow 
and with a broad longitudinal lateral stripe expanded apically ; 
segment 3 similar but with dorsal stripe tailing off and finally 
disappearing before apex, and with lateral stripes expanded 
at both ends, segments 4 to 7 similar but without dorsal 
marking, and with the lateral gradually narrowing, segment 8 
■with a round spot on each side, 9 with a large subquadrate 
spot on each side, 10 has a vestigial rounded spot only. AtmI 
appendages small, pointed, conical, black. Vulvar scale 
yellow, not quite extending to end of abdomen. 

Distribution. — Naga Hills, Assam, April ; Gokteik, Upper 
Btjrjia, May, also below Maymyo, 2,500 ft., June ; Tavoy 
Dist., Lower Burma, in April ; Daban, Annam, 600 ft., May ; 
Hoa Minh, Tonkin, and near Bangkok, Siam. 

P. masoni is subject to great variation in size Uke most other 
species of PseudopJicea, but to a less extent in its markings. 
It is one of the blackest dragonflies known, and must be very 
conspicuous on the wing. The wing-markings serve to dis- 
tinguish it from others. 

Pseudophcea bocki has been mentioned as occurring in 
Burma by the late Rene Martin, but this is almost certainly 
an error. 

Type in the Selys collection from Tenasserim, Lower Burma. 



104 



AGEHDiE. 



Genus INDOPHffiA Fraser (1929). (Fig. 31.) 

Euphcea (partim) Bambur, Ins. Nevrop. p. 228 (1842); Selys, Syn. 

Cal. p. 50 (1853) ; id., Mon. Cal. p. 167 (1854). 
Pseudophcea (partim) Kirby, Cat. Odon. p. 109 (1890); Laidlaw, 

Rec. Ind. Mus. vol. xiii, p. 32 (1917); Fraser, ibid. vol. xxiv, 

p. 9 (1922). 
Indophcea Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soo. vol. xxxiii, pp. 293, 

294 (1929). 

Hind- wings of male with apices more or less broadly opaque 
black, nearly up to the node in one species ; fore-wings hyaline 
as also all wings of female ; fore-wings with apices pointed, 
hind-wings rounded, markedly so in some species and con- 
siderably shorter than fore-wings ; fore- and hind- wings 
of equal breadth, and wings of equal breadth in the sexes ; 
petiolation distinct, especially in the hind-wings ; Eii not in 
contact with B-\-M ; node situated much nearer base of wing 




Fig. 31. — ^Wings of Indophcsa fraseri (Laid.), male. 

than apex, especially in fore- wings ; discoidal cell traversed, 
iisually once, but occasionally entire and occasionally three 
times ; 2 to 5 cubital nervures, usually 3 ; Riii arising at, 
or slightly, or very widely distal to subnode ; discoidal cell 
of fore-wing much shorter than that of hind- wing and less 
than half the length of median space ; arc almost straight ; 
sectors of arc arising from middle of arc and widely separated 
at origin ; 3 or 4 intercalated sectors between I A and posterior 
margin of wing; 7.4 never forked ; several short intercalated 
sectors between I A and Guii ; no basal incomplete antenodal 
nervures in subcostal space ; pterostigma present in all wings, 
very long and very narrow. Thorax robust. Abdomen 
cylindrical, very long and attenuated, usually much longer 
than hind-wings (markedly so in /. fraseri, but of nearly the 



INDOPHJEA. 105 

same length in I. cardinalis), but of the same length or shorter 
in the female. Anal appendages very homogeneous, simple, 
forcipate ; segment 10 pointed apically and with a very robust 
dorsal keel ; vulvar scale robust, not extending to end of 
abdomen. 

Genotype, Ewphcea dispar Ramb. 

Distribution. — ^Wbsteen Ghats ; Malaya and Borneo. 

Key to Indian Species of Indoph^a. 

Hind- wing conspicuously shorter than fore - 

wing ; antehumeral stripes on thorax 

bright azure-blue fraseri (Laid.), p. 110. 

Hind- wing only slightly shorter than fore- 

wing ; antehumeral stripes on thorax 

oohreous 2. 

Labrum bright oohreous ; legs dull reddish 

throughout ; nearly the apical half of [p. 108. 

hind- wing black cardinalis (Fras.), 

Labrum bright azure-blue ; legs bright 

yellow ; only the apical third of hind- 
wing black dispar (Ramb.), p. 105. 

212. Indophsea dispar (Rambur). 



hcea dispar Rambur, Ins. N^vrop. p. 230 (1842); Selys, Syn. 
Cal. p. 51 (1853) ; Walker, List Neur. Ins. Brit. Mus. iv, p. 640 
(1853); Selys, Mon. Cal. p. 169 (1854); id.. Bull. Acad. Belg. (2) 
vol. xxscvi, p. 614 (1873). 
Pseudophcea dispar Kirby, Cat. Odon. p. 109 (1890); Laidlaw, Rec. 
Ind. Mus. vol. siii, p. 32 (1917); id., ibid. vol. six, pp. 25-27 
(1920); Fraser, ibid. vol. xxiv, p. 9 (1922); id., ibid. vol. xxvi, 
pp. 479-480 (1924). 
Indophma dispar Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soe. vol. xxxiii, 
pp. 294, 295 (1929); id., Rec. Ind. Mus. vol. xxxiii, pp. 448, 
463 (1931). 

Male. — ^Abdomen 39-47 mm. Hind-wing 32-40 mm. Fore- 
wing 35-42 mm. 

Head : labium dark reddish-brown, paler at the borders 
of lateral lobes ; labrum tiurquoise-blue, finely bordered with 
black and with a black medio- basal tongue ; bases of mandibles 
with a spot of turquoise-blue ; cheeks and epistome glossy 
black, rest of head mat black, unmarked. Prothorax black, 
with a large boss on each side of middle lobe, a smaller reniform 
spot below it and posterior border of posterior lobe reddish- 
oehreous. Thorax black, marked with bright reddish-oehreous 
as follows : — ^Antehumeral and humeral stripes confluent 
as a broad loop above and narrowly separated below so as 
nearly to enclose a long oval spot of the ground-colour, the 
rest, posterior to the humeral suture, which is finely black, 
bright reddish-oehreous except for an oval spot of black 
between the humeral and first lateral sutures, and a small 



106 AGEIIDJE. 

spot or beginnings of a stripe on the upper parts of the two 
lateral sutures. An elongate spot on each half of antealar 
sinus and the whole of under side of thorax bright ochreous. 
Legs bright yellow except the extensor surface of femora and 
tibiffl, which are dark reddish. Wings hyalme, palely enfumed 
with greenish-brown; apices of fore-wings merely tipped 
with blackish-brown ; apices of huid- wings broadly black to 
as far proximal to pterostigma as nearly half-way from apex 
to node ; apex of this wing rounded and only about 3 mm. 
shorter than fore- wing, but about 7 mm. shorter than abdomen ; 
pterostigma black, covering about 12 cells ; 3 cubital 
nervures to all wings ; diseoidal cell normally traversed once ; 
Biii arising 1 to 2 cells distal to the subnode ; about 24 ante- 
nodal nervures and about 40 postnodals to fore-wings, about 
20 antenodals and about 38 postnodals to hind- wings (number 
differs widely according to size of insect). (Diseoidal cell 
may also be traversed twice or entire ; thus in one specimen the 
cells of the hiad- wings are traversed twice, whUst that of the 
right fore-wing is entire and that of the left traversed once. 
Occasionally a specimen will be taken with the black apex of 
hmd-wing marked by a large hyaline window.) Abdomen bright 
vermihon-red, segmental joiats and entire abdomen from the 
apical third of segment 6 to the end black. Apex of segment 8 
with a tuft of short black hairs on its ventral surface and about 
8 long stiff black hairs beneath the base of segment 9 ; seg- 
ment 10 with a very prominent dorsal keel. Anal appendages 
very similar to those of P. masoni, black, ungulate, laterally 
■compressed and hoUowed out within, apices blunt and 
furnished with a few inconspicuous spines above. Inferiors 
very small, conical, pointed. Genitalia very similar to 
P. masoni, bright ochreous, hamules finely bordered with 
black, lobe large, scrotal shaped, black. 

Female. — ^Abdomen 35-38 mm. Hind-wing 34-39 mm. 

Bears a remarkable likeness to females of P. splend&ns, 
P. masoni, etc. 

Head : labium dirty yellow ; labrum and bases of mandibles 
turquoise-blue, former finely bordered with black and with 
a medio-basal black tongue as in male ; anteelypeus black ; 
postclypeus and a broad transverse band across frons, as well 
as cheeks broadly, bright ochre. A rounded spot of the 
same colour on outer side of each posterior ocellus. Prothoraz 
and thorax marked similarly to male, but yellow instead of 
bright reddish-ochreous. ' Dorsal stripes narrower, black 
posthumeral spot confluent with the black below, not entirely 
surrounded by brighter colour, lateral vestigial black sutural 
lines complete, although that on the first lateral suture is 
rather diffuse and often incomplete below. Legs as in male 



ISDOPH^A. 107 

but more black. Wings hyaline, uniformly enfumed with 

greenish-brown, and hind-wing in old specimens with a 

moderately well-marked brownish-black apex extending 

proximally slightly beyond inner end of pterostigma : vena- 

tional details and pterostigma similar to male ; Miii not quite 

one cell distal to subnode ; cubital nervures sometimes 

irregular, 2 to 4 in number, and discoidal cells sometimes 

traversed twice ; pterostigma black, over about 12 cells ; 

32—18 17—34 
nodal index „^--Tr- To ~qi ■ -Abdomen black, marked -uath 

bright yellow or ochreous as foUows : — Segment 1 almost 
•entirely greenish-yellow, 2 to 7 with a longitudinal stripe on 
either side, broad on 2, narrower on the rest and becoming 
interrupted on 6 and 7, base expanded and cut off from the 
rest by jugal suture ; segment 8 with a small quadrate apical 
lateral spot, 9 with a larger similar spot, 10 unmarked. Anal 
■appmdages small, conical, pointed, black. Vulvar scale 
robust, marked with yellowish, not extending to end of abdo- 
men. 

Variatimi. — In a specimen from South Kanara the markings 
are largely obsolete, especially on the abdomen, whilst those 
on the thorax are cut up into parallel hnes of yellow by the 
black, even on the sides. In other specimens there is an 
additional small round spot on the inner side of each posterior 
ocellxis, and the posterior border of the posterior lobe of pro- 
thorax is bright yellow as in the male. Unlike P. masoni and 
P. splendens, there is no dorsal yellow marking on any of the 
abdominal segments. As in all species of Pseudophcea there 
is a great disparity in size of specimens from various localities, 
those from lower altitudes usually being of smaller size than 
those from higher. 

Distribution. — Confined to the Western Ghats from South 
Kanara and Coorg to the Nilgiris (Malabar Wynaad) from 
3,500 to 6,000 ft., from May to September. 

Easily distinguished from other species by the extent of 
black on apices of hind- wings, and by its turquoise-blue labrum 
and mandibles. The black area of wings has steely-blue 
reflections in some lights, dull coppery-bronze in others. The 
female is distinguished from other species by its turquoise- 
blue labrum. Usually the males will be found perched on 
twigs some feet above the water, often at a great height, 
•especially towards nightfall, when they rise to the tops of 
neighbouring trees. . 

Females are not uncommon but must be sought for in the 
neighbouring jungle or ridings some short distance from the 
streams. They are very pugnacious, and I have found them 
devouring newly-hatched specimens of their own species ! 



108 AGEHDiE. 

Rarely are they found in copula, but I have a pair which not 
even death ia the cyanide bottle was able to part. 

Type now, I believe, in the Selys collection. Specimens 
in the British Museum, Pusa, and Indian Museums, and in 
most private collections, to which I have been able to present 
specimens. 

213. Indophaea cardinalis (Eraser). (Fig. 32.) 

Pseudophcea cardinalis Eraser, Beo. Ind. Mus. vol. xxvi, pp. 512— 

513 (1924). 
Indophcea cardinalis Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. xxxiii, 

pp. 295, 296 (1929); id., Bee. Ind. Mus. vol. xxxiii, pp. 448, 

463 (1931). 

Male. — ^Abdomen 41-45 mm. Fore- wing 39-42 mm. Hind- 
wing 36-40 mm. 

Head : labium dirty yellow, brown at its middle ; labrum 
bright oehreous, narrowly bordered with reddish-brown, and 
an obscure mediobasal tongne of dark brown ; anteclypeus 
dark blackish-brown ; postoljrpeus, bases of mandibles, and 
cheeks bright oehreous ; frons broadly reddish-ochreous, 
clouded with reddish-brown at its middle and with a crenulate 
black basal line from which spring medial and lateral short 
black points ; four small black points also projecting into 
base of postclypeus ; rest of head black save for basal joints 
of antennae, and a small round point lying slightly to outer 
and fore side of posterior ocellus on each side bright oehreous. 
Eyes dark reddish-brown ; frons coated with long black hairs. 
Prothorax black, with a large boss on each side of middle lobe, 
posterior border of posterior lobe save at its middle, and the 
sides broadly bright oehreous. Thorax bright reddish- 
ochreous and black, markings very similar to those of I. dispar, 
thus — antehumeral and humeral narrow oehreous stripes 
confluent as a loop above and nearly confluent below ; humeral 
suture narrowly outlined in black ; laterally entirely oehreous 
save for a long black oval spot between humeral and first 
lateral sutures and the beginnings of narrow black lines on 
upper parts of lateral sutures ; beneath oehreous. Legs 
entirely reddish, tarsi dark reddish-brown, spines black. 
Wings relatively broader than in I. dispar and marked very 
similarly. Fore-wings hyaline, faintly enfumed and with 
a greenish tinge, tinted with yellow at extreme base ; hind- 
wings with apices black as far proximally as 4 to 8 mm. from 
node, and in some quite the outer half of wing opaque black, 
this part dull coppery above, dull or steely bluish-black below ; 
pterostigma long, covers 10-12 cells, black ; Biii arising from 
half to one and a half cells distal to subnode or even in 
continuation of subnode ; discoidal cell entire in all wings of 
some specimens, or traversed once in fore-wings or twice or 



ETDOPHiEA. 



109 



thrice in hind-wings, very variable ; 2 cubital nervures in 
fore--wingSj 2 to 4 in hind-wings ; 20 to 24 antenodal nervures 
and 38 to 47 postnodals in fore-wing, about 18 to 20 ante- 
nodals and 38 to 40 postnodals in hind-wing. Hind-wing 
2 to 3 mm. shorter than fore-wing and markedly rounded. 
Abdomen bright vermilion-red as far as the basal two-thirds 
of segment 6, from which point it is black. Segment 10 with 
a very pronounced carina! spttie ; 8 and 9 with tufts of long 
ventral hairs. Anal appendages similar to those of /. dispar, 
as also genitalia. 

Female. — ^Abdomen 36 mm. Hind-wing 37 mm. 

Head : labium black ; labrum coloured similarly to male ; 
cheeks, bases of mandibles, a broad fascia traversiag frons 
but sUghtly interrupted at its middle, and a small oval spot 
on outer fore side of posterior ocellus bright ochreous ; rest 
of head black. Proihorax and thorax bright yellow, marked 




Fig. 32. — Anal appendages of Indophcea cardinalis (Fras.), male. 
OS, left lateral view ; 6, dorsal view. 



with black as in male, but lateral stripes on sutures complete. 
Legs blackish-brown, flexor surfaces of femora obscurely 
yellow. Wings hyaline, uniformly enfumed with pale greenish- 
brown, hind-wings more deeply than fore-wings and apices 
slightly clouded with darker brown ; pterostigma black, 
narrow ; 21 to 24 antenodal nervures and 31 to 33 postnodals 
in fore-wings, 18 antenodals and about 26 postnodals in 
hind- wings ; discoidal cell traversed once in all wings ; other 
venational points as in male. Abdomen black, marked with 
yeUow, sides of segments 1 to 3 broadly yellow ; segments 
4 to 7 with a longitudinal lateral stripe expanding basally 
and extending up towards dorsum so as to form incomplete 
basal rings ; 8 and 9 with subquadrate apieo-lateral spots, 
10 unmarked. Anul appendages short, conical, black. Vulvar 
scale very robust, yellowish, not extending to end of abdomen. 



110 AGEnD^. 

Distribution. — Confined, so far as known, to the Westben 
Ghats, Soutli India, and to south of the Palghat Gap. Found 
in numerous sholas, frequenting montane streams of the Pahii, 
Anaimalai and Mudis Hills and Travancore from April to 
October. 

The much greater extent of the opaque area of the hind- 
witig, the ochreous labrum and cheeks (turquoise -blue and 
glossy black respectively in dispar), the close approximation 
of the length of wings to the abdomen, and the all-red legs 
are some of the characters distinguishing /. cardinalis from 
/. dispar. In addition to these, I. cardinalis has a large 
triangular tongue-like process springing from the apieo- 
ventral border of the second abdominal segment, which is 
quite absent in I. dispar. The female is easily distinguished 
by its ochreous labrum. 

Type m the British Museum ; paratypes in the Pusa, Ris, 
Morton, and Fraser collections. 

214. Indophsea fraseri (Laidlaw). 

Psevdophcea fraseri Laidlaw, Rec. Ind. Mus. vol. xxi, pp. 23-27 

(1920); Fraser, ibid. vol. xxiv, pp. 8, 9 (1922); id., ibid. 

vol. xxvi, p. 480 (1924). 
Indophcea fraseri Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soe. vol. xxxiii 

pp. 296-298, pi. i, figs, c & e (1929); id., Rec. Ind. Mus. 

vol. xxxiii, pp. 448, 463 (1931). 

IffflZe.— Abdomen 36-41 mm. Fore- wing 34-38 mm. Hind- 
wing 29-35 mm. 

Head : labium pale yellow ; labrum pale azure-blue, 
with its anterior border broadly black, no medio-basal black 
tongue ; bases of mandibles azure-blue, cheeks yellowish- 
white ; epistome glossy black ; rest of head mat black, with 
occasionally an obscure oval yellow spot on outer side of each 
posterior oeeUus ; eyes dark brown. Prothorax black, with 
a large pale blue spot on each side of middle lobe. Thorax 
black ; antehumeral and humeral stripes on dorsum, former 
pale sky-blue, in fine contrast to the black ground-colour 
narrow in its upper half, broadening rapidly in its lower ' 
humeral stripe yellow, turning to reddish-ochre below, very 
fine throughout and occasionally broken mto several sections 
Laterally bright ochreous with reddish tmge posteriorly and 
marked with a large oval black spot between humeral and 
first lateral suture, and with the beginning of fine lateral 
stripes on upper parts of the two lateral sutures ; beneath 
bright reddish-ochreous. Legs as in I. cardinalis, but brighter 
red, anterior pair dark reddish-brown or almost black. Wings 
very smailar to /. dispar, but hind- wing very markedly shorter 
than fore- wing and with evenly rounded apex; fore-wing 
hyahne, extreme apex tipped with brown ; hind-wing with 



INBOPHJSA. Ill 

outer part opaque black, -Ritli coppery reflection above and 
bluish-violet beloiv, this area slightly variable, usually 
extending from apex to about half-waj* to node, less extensive 
in specimens taken at a lo^pr altitude, more extensive in those 
from a higher ; discoidal cell traversed once in fore-wing, twice 
or thrice in hind- wing ; 6 cubital nervures in all wings ; Siii 
arising 4 to 5 cells distal to subnode ; pterostigma black, long 
and narrow, covers S to 12 cells : 18 to 20 antenodal nervures in 
fore-wing and 32 to 36 postnodals, 15 to 18 antenodals and 27 to 
30 postnodals in hind-wing. Abdomen bright vermilion-red 
to apex of segment 6, which is clouded with black ; segment 7 
dark reddish-brown to black at apex ; rest of abdomen black, 
segment 10 with a prominent carinal spine. AnaJ appendages 
black, very similar to those of I. diapar, but with a distinct 
bend at about their middle : inferiors as in I. diapar. Genitalia 
similar to /. dispar, but lobe smaller and bright red instead 
of mat black. 

Female.— Abdomen 33-34 mm. Hind-wing 31-33 mm. 

Head : labium, labrum, mandibles, and cheeks as for male : 
ante- and post-clypeus glossy black, latter with a transversely 
oval blue spot at its centre ; frons black, the creamy white 
of cheeks extending on to it on either side ; rest of head black, 
with a small oval greenish-j-ellow spot on outer side of each 
posterior ocellus. ProtJiorax black, with a large oval spot on 
each side of middle lobe and posterior border of posterior lobe 
finely greenish-yeUow. Thorax black on dorsum, bright yellow 
on the sides, marked as in male but the line on posterior 
suture rather better defined. In some specimens the ante- 
humeral and humeral stripes are confluent above as a broad 
loop, as in other species of the genus. Legs yellow, femora 
blackish on extensor surface, tibiae reddish. Wings hyaline, 
palely enfumed, apices iu many specimens broadly dark brown 
to slightly proximal to outer end of pterostigma in fore-wings 
and for a short distance proximal to inner end in hind-wings ; 
venational detaOs as for male ; discoidal cell traversed once 
in fore- wings, twice in hind- wings or less commonly once ; 
3 cubital nervures in all wings ; pterostigma black, long, 
and narrow, covering 9 to 12 cells ; 17 to IS antenodal nervures 
and 29 to 33 postnodals in fore-wings, 15 to 16 antenodals- 
and 25 to 27 postnodals in hind-wings. Abdomen black, 
marked with bright greenish-yeUow as follows : — Segment 1 
broadly so on sides, dorsal carina throughout except on seg- 
ment 1 narrowly, but broadening out on 8 to 10, on 10 forming 
a well-defined spot ; sides of 2 broadly ; a longitudinal stripe 
on sides of 3 to 6, broad on 3, progressively finer on 4 and 5, 
nearly lost or interrupted on 6, apical and basal spots on sides 
of 7, a small apical lateral spot on 8, a very large lateral spot 
on 9 ; sides of 10 entirely. Anal appendages rather longer 



112 AGEnDJE. 

than segment 10, black, fine, tapering to a fine point. Vulvar 
scale robust, yeUow, not extending to end of abdomen. 

Distribution. — S. India : North and South Kanara, Malabar, 
Coorg, the Nilgiris Wynaad, and Anaimalai Hills. Found on 
the same rivers as I. dispar, but at a lower elevation ; thus in 
Malabar it occurs sparingly near sea-level. In Coorg and the 
Nilgiris and Malabar Wynaad it occurs up to 3,500 ft. from 
May to August. 

The males are not uncommonly seen resting with their wings 
well open as in genus Lestes, and are usually found on low 
herbage along the banks of their parent streams. Females 
are not uncommon in the neighbouring jungle, settled on 
twigs at about 8 to 12 feet from the ground. 

Type in the Indian Museum ; other specimens in Pusa and 
British Museums and in several private collections. 



Subfamily PHILOGANGIN.^ Kennedy (1920). (Fig. 33.) 

PMlogangince Kennedy, Ohio Joum. Soi. vol. xxi, no. 1, p. 22, 
figs. 38-39 (1920) ; Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soo. vol. xxxiii, 
pp. 298, 299, pi. i, figs, a&d (1929). 

Robust insects with general facies of both sexes resembling 
somewhat that of Epallagine females, but details of venation 
etc. differing widely from that subfamily. 

Fore- and hind- wings of similar shape and similar in both 
sexes, very long and very narrow, petiolated to nearly as far 
as the level of arc ; node at about two-fifths of the wing- 
length from base ; discoidal cell entire, short, about one-fifth 
to one-sixth the length of the median space, its costal side 
slightly shorter than the posterior, its distal end oblique ; 
Ri not in contact with Eii ; Itiii arising at or 1 to 2 cells 
distal to subnode ; arc shghtly bent, situated at and in line 
with the distal primary antenodal nervure ; antenodal 
nervures moderately numerous, those in the subcostal space 
more numerous than those in the costal and, except for the 
two primary antenodals, not coinciding with them ; 1 to 4 
basal incomplete or subcostal antenodals, usually 2 or 3, 
and always a single subcostal antenodal between the two 
primaries ; no cubital nervures beyond the nervure ac in all 
wings, ac lying much nearer the distal primary antenodal or 
midway between the primaries ; petiolation marked, ending 
at a point opposite to or slightly proximal to ac ; I A straight, 
sMghtly concave or markedly convex, 1 to 2 rows of cells 
between it and posterior margin of wing, ending on wing- 
margia opposite to or widely distal to node ; 1 to 2 weU- 
defined obKque nervures between Mii and IBii ; intercalated 
nervures between Biv+v and IBiii, IRiii and Riii, Riii and 



PHILOGAlfGIN^. lis 

Bii ; pterostigma present in all wings of both sexes, long and 
narrow. 

Head robust, Gompbine-shaped ; eyes rounded, tumid 
behind, rather widely separated from one another ; labium 
with middle lobe deeply cleft, ends of lobes acute ; labrum 
arched at free border. 

Thorax very robust, short ; legs long and slim ; femora with 
two rows of very short, very closely set, evenly sized spines, 
with more robust ones set at longer but even intervals ; tibial 
spines moderately numerous but rather short ; claw-hooks 
situated near ends of claws. (Tibise in one species with a fringe 
of hairs in addition to the spines.) 

Abdomen robust, cylindneal, slightly dilated at anal end, 
especially in the female, shorter than wings ; segment !(>• 
flat on dorsum. 

Superior anal appendages of male considerably longer than 
segment 10, subcyhndrical, widely separated at base, apices 
curving in toward one another, blunt, minutely spined at 
outer border ; inferior appendages rudimentary. Superior 
anal appendages of female long and fine. Grenitalia bearing 




Fig. 33. — ^Hind-wing of PMloganga montana (Selys), male. 



a close resemblance to that of the Epallaginje, especially 
the anterior hamules and lobe of penis, the former being 
foliate flattened quadrate processes inclined toward one 
another, the latter scrotal-shaped and rather longer than in the 
Epallagines ; penis closely resembling that of Amphipteryx, 
its tentacles furnished with a fringe of spines at their apex, 
which is blunt. Vulvar scales very robust, extending well 
beyond end of abdomen and with the under border of scales 
coarsely serrate and evidently functioning as a saw for 
the insertion of ova into plant-stems. 

Distribution. — ^Assam, Bengai,, Bubma, Indo-China, and 
South China. 

I have included the three known species of Philoganga under 
a separate monogeneric subfamily as their true position is 
still doubtful and must remain so until the larva is discovered. 
Prom the venation, the extremely long petiolation, and the 
fact that they rest with the wings extended flat as in the 
Antsopteea, it is clear that they are archaic insects, probably 
even more so than Epiophlebia. I place them for convenience 

VOL. n. I 



114 AGEHDJE. 

after the EpaUjAGIN^ because there is a strong resemblance 
in the genitaKa and the abdominal markings are typical 
of that subfamily. There, however, the resemblance ends, 
as the thoracic pattern, so characteristic of the Epailagin^, 
is quite different from that of Philoganga, whilst the coinciding 
costal and subcostal antenodals and the short petiolation 
of the wings of the Epallagin^ is quite different from what 
is found in Philoganga. The long petiolation of the wings, 
the long legs, and the shape of the penis seems to show a 
relationship to AmpMpteryx, an American genus. 

Mr. Bainbrigge Fletcher has taken a number of P. montana 
along the baiiks of a montane stream in the Khasi HiUs, so 
that it is evident that they breed in such spots. He has 
taken at least one teneral specimen here, but unfortunately 
failed to find its exuvia. 



Genus PHILOGANGA Kirby (1890). 

Anisoneura Selys, Bull. Aoad. Belg. (2) vol. vii, p. 444 (1859); 

id., ibid. (2) vol. xlvii, p. 379 (1879). 
Philoganga Kirby, Cat. Odon. p. Ill (1890) ; Needham, Proo. U.S. 

Nat. Mus. vol. xxvi, p. 755, fig. 44 (1903); Kis, Suppl. Ent. 

no. 1, pp. 44r-47 (1912); Laidlaw, Reo. Ind. Mus. vol. xiii, p. 33 

(1917); Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soo. vol. xxxiii, p. 299 

(1929). 

Characters and distribution as for the subfamily. Of the 
three known species, two occur within Indian hmits. 
Genotype, Anisoneura montana Selys. 

Key to Indian Species of Philoganga. 

Labrum glossy black ; hind-wing not less than 

46 mm. in length montana {Selys),p. 114. 

Lafarum greenish-yeUow ; hind-wiag less than 

40 nun. in length loringse Fras., p. 116. 

215. Philoganga montana (Selys). (Figs. 33 & 34.) 

Anisoneura montana Selys, Bull. Acad. Belg. (2) vol. vii, p. 445 
(1859); id., ibid. (2) vol. xlvii, p. 379 (1879); Kirby, Cat. Odon. 
p. Ill (1890). 

Philoganga montana Karby, 1. c. p. Ill (1890) ; Laidlaw, Reo. Ind. 
Mus. vol. xiii, p. 33 (1917); Fraser, Mem. Dept. Agric. India 
(Ent.),vol.viii,no.8,p. 87, pi. ix, figs. 2-4 (1924); id., J.Bombay 
Nat. Hist. Soo. vol. xxxiii, pp. 299, 300, pi. i, figs, a&d (1929). 

Male. — ^Abdomen 48 mm. Hind-wing 45 mm. 

Head : labium yeUow, lobes tipped with black, bases of 
mandibles citron-yellow ; labrum glossy black ; rest of head 
mat black, with two transverse narrow citron-yellow stripes, 
one traversing cheeks and fpons, the other running from eye 
to eye across occiput ; behind eyes yellow ; eyes brown. 



PHILOGANGA. 



115 



ProtJhorax black, with a longitudinal mid-dorsal stripe bisected 
narrowly in the middle line of middle lobe and iinely interrupted 
between middle and posterior lobes. Thorax black with some 
pruinescence beneath in adults, marked with greenish and 
•citron-yellow as foUows :— A narrow mid-dorsal carinal stripe 
finely bisected by the mid-dorsal black carina, a small spot 
on each half of antealar sinus, a narrow complete humeral 
stripe, and laterally two broad oblique stripes, the anterior 
borders of which are greenish, the first stripe on mesepimeron, 
the second covering entire metepimeron. Legs black, femora 
broadly yellow on outer aspect, trochanters each with a large 
yellow spot : tibias of male with a fringe of fine short hairs in 
addition to the spines. Wi-ngs hyaline ; pterostigma blackish- 
brown or paler brown, surmounts 2|- to 4| cells ; 2 rows of 




Fig. 34- 




-a. Anal appendages otPhiloganga montana Selys, male. 
b. The same and genitalia of the female. 



cells posterior to I A, this nervure being flat or slightly convex ; 
petiola,tion ends at ac or a little prosimal to it in fore- wings ; 
2 to 4 incomplete basal antenodals in fore-wings, usually 2, 2 to 



3 m 



. ^^— *w*w ,,«...^u, U.O. 

hind-wing ; nodal index variable, ^^^18 14/17-26 . 
^, ,^, , 24-11/17 14/17-24' 

21-10/ 15 10/17-19 ,, , ^, , , ' ' 

17-10/17 l07i'ftll7' ■^""'^^^^'"' black, marked with greenish- 
yellow as follows :— Segment 1 broadly yellow on sides 
and with an apical band broadly interrupted on dorsum ; 
2 with a lateral and ventral longitudinal stripe ; 3 to 7 each 
with a latero-basal transverse spot and a lateral stripe, latter 
on 3 and 4 with the apical end expanded, but on 5 to 7 tapering 
gradually away until much shortened on segment 7 ; 8 with 
a large triangular latero-apioal spot, 9 with a similar but 

I2 



116 AGEnU^. 

rounded spot, 10 with apical half yeUow. Anal appendages- 
black. Superiors nearly twice as long as segment 10, sub- 
cylindrical, slender, curving gradually and evenly towards 
one another, apex obtuse, the outer border near apex coarsely 
sptned. Inferiors rudimentary, scarcely visible. 

Female. — ^Abdomen 47 mm. Hind-wing 52 mm. 

Differs only from male in size and robust build. Wings 
occasionally pale yellow towards base ; nodal index similar 
but very variable ; only 1 or 2 incomplete basal antenodal 
nervures to aU wings ; pterostigma as in male. AtioI append- 
ages long, tapering to a fine point, black. Segments 8 and 9 
distinctly broadened, almost foliate laterally, 9 rather depressed . 
Vulvar scale very robust, prolonged well beyond end of 
abdomen, coarsely serrate beneath. 

Distribution. — ^Assam and Bengal. Mr. T. Bainbrigge 
Fletcher has taken this species in moderate numbers during 
May and Jvaxe in two restricted localities bordering montane 
streams at Shillong. These were resting on bushes with 
their wings spread horizontally, in which position, from their 
shape and colouring, they looked very like Gomphines. 
Mr. Chas. Inglis has taken a male on the banks of a stream 
below Darjeeling. One male in the author's collection from 
Nowgong, Assam. 

Type id the McLachlan collection from Assam, probably 
collected by Mr. Atkinson in the same localities at Shillong. 

216. PMoganga loringse Fraser. 

PhUoganga loringcB Fraser, Rec. Ind. Mus. vol. xxix, pp. 79-81 
(1927) ; id., J. Bombay Nat. Hist. See. vol. xxxiii, pp. 300, 301 
(1929). 

Male. — ^Abdomen 41 mm. Hind-wing 39 mm. 

Head : labium dirty yeUow ; labrum greenish-yellow with 
a small medio-basal black tongue ; bases of mandibles and 
cheeks citron-yeUow as far up as level of anteimae ; rest of 
head mat black, pruinescent in parts ; eyes dark brown. 
Prothorax black, with a mid-dorsal citron-yellow stripe 
broadening anteriorly and on posterior lobe. Thorax black, 
marked with citron-yellow as follows : — ^A moderately broad 
mid-dorsal stripe finely bisected by the black mid-dorsal 
carina, a narrow slightly sinuous antehumeral stripe ; laterally 
entirely yellow save for the second lateral suture, which is 
broadly mapped out in black. Legs long and shm, hind 
femora extending to middle of segment 2 ; anterior pair of 
femora black, other two pairs dark ochreous; tibiae and 
tarsi black ; tibise not fringed with fine hairs as in P. numtana. 
Wings hyaline, petiolated to level of ac or slightly proximal 
in fore- wing; palely and evenly enfumed ; pterostigma 



PHILOGAisGA. 117 

blackish-brown, covering 3| cells ; only a single row of cells 
posterior to I A : only 1 cubital nervure to aU wings ; Cuii 
slightly convex ; /^ a little concave ; other details of venation 
as in P. montana except that the primary antenodals are not 
as distinct from the others and Biii is more distal in its origin, 
arising from 1 to 2| cells distal to the subnode ; nodal index 

90 1^/17 n/is TiQ ' ■^^^^^'"' dark reddish- brown; segment I 

greenish-yellow ; 2 with a broad lateral bright yellow stripe 
narrowly bordered above with black ; 3 with the black stripe 
continued but more diffuse and blotting out the ground- 
colour on dorsum of segment, ventral border dark ochreous ; 
4 to 10 similar but dorsum entirely black, 9 with a dupUcate 
mid-dorsal bright ochreous spot and 10 with two similar but 
rounded spots on dorsum. Anal appendages black. Superiors 
nearly twice the length of segment 10, curling gradually in 
almost to meet at tips, which are slightly dilated and end 
in obtuse points ; on outer side a few fine spines, much smaller 
than those seen in P. montaim ; in profile projecting straight 
back, but the apices are slightly upturned. Inferiors rudi- 
mentary, as in P. montana. Genitalia very similar to those 
of P. montana. Lobe depressed, moderately long, glossy 
black, resembling the flattened tumid body of a tick. 

Female. — ^Abdomen 42 mm. Hind-wing 37 mm. 

Very similar in markings to male, but a more robust insect. 
Wings petiolated distinctly proximal to ac ; 2 basal incomplete 
antenodals in all virings, or occasionally only 1 (2 to 3 in the 
male) ; a weU-defined oblique nervure between Bii and IBii, 
sometimes two such (usually not very evident in the male) ; 
pterostigma rather longer, covering 4| cells ; nodal index 

-^^ — ' — - ' ""^ . Abdomen similar to male, but sides of 



19-12/16 11/15-18" 
segments 9 and 10 broadly ochreous and dorsal spots 
replaced by diffuse dark ochreous. Anal appendages black 
at tips, brownish-yeUow from base, short, tapering to a point. 
Vulvar scale exactly similar to P. montana. 

Distribution. — ^Maymyo, Uppee Burma. Four specimens, 
three males and a single female, the latter in copula, July 1925, 
collected by Col. F. WaU, I.M.S. 

This very rare insect differs from P. montava in its much 
smaller size, in having the labrum yellow instead of glossy 
black, in the markings of abdomen, and in the point of 
origin of Riii. It and P. montana are at once distinguished 
from P. vetusta in having only a single row of cells posterior 
to I A. The female has the abdomen rather longer than the 
wings, the opposite condition being found in P. mmiiana. 

Type in the British Museum. 



118 AGEIID.^. 

Subfamily AGRIINiE. 
Agri(y>iinse (pars) Kirby, Cat. Odon. p. 96 (1890). 
Head very broad ; eyes globular, subpetiolate in some 
species, and widely separated from one another ; frons sloping, 
broader than long, or quadrate ; occiput broad, depressed ; 
ante- and postclypeus not elevated or projecting ; antennae 
four-joiated, segment 1 rudimentary or hidden beneath 2, 
which is the most robust and longest of all and usually applied 
flat to head, 3 and 4 much more slender and usually shorter ; 
labium deeply fissured for its distal third or half. Prothorax 
robust, its posterior lobe large, tumid, triangular or crenate ; 
middle lobe with a prominent boss on each side. Thorax 
slender, flattened from side to side, elongate ; mesothoracic 
triangle absent or very small. Legs long and slender, often 
very long, posterior pair extending to middle of segment 3 
or apex of 4 iu male, or apex of 5 in female ; femora and 
tibiae with long, fine, closely set, bristle-like hairs ; claw-hooks 
short, situated near end of claws. Wings hyaline, opaque 
or partly so, coloured or imcoloured, often of a brilliant 
metaUic colour or iridescent in males, usually hyaline and 
uncoloured in females, hind- wing usually rather broader than 
fore-wing and considerably shorter than abdomen in both 
sexes, base narrow but not petiolated ; reticulation very 
close, cells mostly rectangular in shape ; node situate about 
middle of wing or nearer to base than to pterostigma ; mem- 
brane of wing often markedly pleated ; Rii contiguous or 
nearly so with radius near its origin ; basal space reticulated, 
traversed or entire, equal to about half the length of cubital 
space ; diseoidal cell with costal border slightly convex or 
straight, about equal in length to basal space, very narrow, 
traversed by several nervures, its ends square or a little 
obhque ; arc straight or markedly angulate, its sectors arising 
from a common point at its middle or below that level ; Cuii 
markedly convex ; I A markedly convex and often branching 
proximaUy ; intercalated sectors between most sectors, 
including Cuii and I A : most sectors curving strongly towards 
posterior margia of wing and, in some genera, pectinated near 
their distal ends ; ante- and postnodal nervures numerous, 
primaries not usuaEy distinct from the others, and costal and 
subcostal antenodals usually coincidiag ; pterostigma present 
or absent, often rudimentary in one or both sexes, very variable 
in shape and colour, sometimes false in character, especially 
in females. Abdomen very long, narrow and cyliridxical„ 
end segments occasionally a Httle broadened and depressed ; 
segment 10 rarely keeled and then only towards the apex. 
Anal appendages very similar in all genera of the subfamily 



NEUEOBASIS. US' 

superiors rather longer than segment 10, subcylindrical, 
spined outwardly, curved forcipate-lilse towards each other, 
apices slightly flattened and often shghtly broadened ; inferiors 
about two-thirds the length of superiors, broad at base, tapering 
to a point, straight, conical. Genitalia xexj homogeneous ; 
penile lobe flattened, elongate hke the body of a tick ; lamina 
deeply cleft ; hamules consisting of a quadrate low-lying 
outer plate and an inner blunt spine. 

Distribution. — Throughout the world in temperate and 
tropical zones. Represented within Indian limits by six 
genera. 

Key to Indian Genera of Agriinse. 

'Arc angulated; basal space traversed or 
entire ; sectors of arc separated at origin; 

main sectors not forked 2. 

1. -^ Arc oblique, not angulated; basal space 
entire; sectors of arc arising from a 
single point ; most maiu sectors forked ; 

pterostigma absent Vestahs Selys, p. 124. 

„ /Basal space traversed 3. 

\ Basal space entire; pterostigma present . Mnais Selys, p. 139. 

{Pterostigma present 4. 
Pterostigma absent, or if present then 
abnormal and traversed by nervures . . 5. 
'Pterostigma differing in tbe two sexes, 

node situated nearer pterostigma than [p_. 137. 

base of wing CuiiACOBASisLaidlaw, 

4. -^ Pterostigma similar in the two sexes, 
white or black in colour and broad and 
rather short ; node situated nearer base 

of wing than pterostigma Echo Selys, p. 134. 

All wings of both sexes opaque black; 
pterostigma in female white, traversed 

by nervures, in male absent MATKOifA Selys, p. 144. 

Fore-wings of both sexes hyaline, hind- 
wings opaque or hyaline; pterostigma 

absent in male, false or absent in [p. 119. 

female Nbubobasis Selys, 



Genus NEUROBASIS Selys (1853). (Kg. 35.) 

Neurobasis Selys, Syn. Cal.p. 17 (1853) ; Walker, List Neur. Ins. Brit. 
Mus. iv, p. 602 (1853) ; Selys, Mon. Cal. p. 72 (1854); Kirby, 
Cat. Odon. p. 102 (1890); Williamson, Proe. U.S. Nat. Mus. 
vol. xxxiu. p. 170 (1903) ; Munz, Mem. Amer. Ent. Soc. no. 3, 
p. 44 (1919); Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. sxxiii, 
pp. 577, 578 (1929). 

Fore- wings of male hyaline, hind- wings opaque and coloured 
partly with briUiant metallic green and blue ; all wings of 
female hyaline but with an opaque whitish spot at node ; 
pterostigma absent in male, false and whitish in female ; 
basal space travered by several nervures ; Eii near its origin 



120 



AGBnD^. 



almost confluent vdth radius ; Biii usually arising sUghtly 
proximal to subnode ; sectors of arc arising from near middle 
of arc, which is distiaotly angulated ; anal area of wings 
reticulated, but no distinct proximal branch ruiming from I A. 

Larvae very elongate and narrow, superficially resembling 
Phasmidse ; head rather small, eyes globular ; antennae seven- 
jointed, second very robust and longer than aU the rest taken 
together ; thorax long and narrow, wing-cases leaf-hke, 
directed straight back and closely apposed to the body ; 
abdomen cylindrical, long, narrow, tapering slightly towards 
the anal end ; caudal giUs three in number, triquetral in shape, 
the dorsal one shorter than the latero-ventral ones, which 
are very long and oar-like ; legs long and spidery, sHm ; 
mask with middle lobe deeply cleft, setae present on lateral 
lobes and branches of middle lobe, some robust spines on 
lateral lobes, one of which forms the movable hook ; mask 
extending as far back as origin of hind legs. 

Genotype, Libellula chinensis Linn. 




Pig. 35. — TTind-wing of Neurobasis chinensis chinensis (Linn.), female. 

Distribution. — Southern Asia and South China, Philippines, 
Ceylon, Java, Borneo, New Guinea, and Australasia. The 
genus contains two species, of which only one, N. chinensis, is 
found within Indian limits, with several races or subspecies in 
the Philippines and the islands of Southern Asia. The second 
species, N. kaupi, I regard as doubtfully belonging to the 
genus. 

Both sexes are found along the banks of streams, and rarely 
if ever stray into the neighbouring Jungles. Males are 
commonly seen flitting up and down stream, hugging the 
surface of the water so closely that, when passing over dis- 
turbed water, such as a rapid, they are seen to rise and fall, 
following the undulations and ripples of the water's surface. 
In this- act only the fore- wings of the insect are used to propel 
it, the hind being used as sustaining planes, outspread and 
motionless like the wings of an aeroplane, and flashing with a 
brflliant play of emerald-green and peacock-blue as the plane 
of the wings is altered to sustain the insect's balance. They 



NETJEOBASIS. 121 

rest on overhanging ferns and herbage beside the stream, 
or more commonly perch with closed wings on a rock ia mid- 
stream. The female has somewhat similar habits, but is not 
given to planing over water. Matiag is rarely seen ; ovi- 
positing takes place when the insects are in copula, and this 
usually in a swift current, the insects clinging to some object 
such as the rootlets of a tree, and descending far under water, 
where they are swept from side to side with every eddy of the 
current, the female meanwhile inserting her eggs in the sub- 
stance of the root. 

217. Neurobasis ehinensis ehinensis (Linn.). (Pigs. 35 & 36.) 

LibelluJa ehinensis Liinnsiua, Syst. Nat. vol. i, p. 545, n. 15 (1758); 

Edwards, Nat. Hist. Birds, vol. iii, t. 112 (1750); Donovan, 

Ins. China, t. 46, f. i, I (1798). 
Agrion nobilitata Fabricius, Gen. Ins. p. 248 (1776). 
Agrion ehinensis Guerin, Icon. R. Anim., Ins. p. 382, t. 60, f. 4 

(1829-44). 
Galopteryx ehinensis Bambur, Ins. Nevrop. p. 226 (1842). 
Calopteryx disparilis id., ibid. p. 224 (1842). 
Calopteiryx sinensis Walker, List Neur. Ins. Brit. Mtis. iv, p. 602 

(1853). 
Neurobasis ehinensis Kirby, Cat. Odon. p. 102 (1890) ; Fraser, 

Bee. Ind. Mus. vol. 3cxvi, pp. 428, 479 (1924) ; id., J. Bombay 

Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. xxxiii, pp. 577, 578 (1929) (with full 

bibliography) ; id.. Bee. Ind. Mus. vol. xxxiii. p. 448 (1931). 

Male. — Abdomen 45-60 mm. Hind-wing 32-38 mm. 

Head : labium with middle lobe whitish, lateral lobes 
metallic green ; labrum turquoise-blue, with a large triangular 
medio-basal black spot, with its apex directed towards the 
anterior border and sometimes meeting it ; cheeks and bases 
of mandibles palest blue ; antecljrpeus with a small median 
yellow spot, the remainder and postclypeus glossy metallic 
green ; a large spot of yellow on each side of postclypeus ; 
rest of head metallic green with a coppery reflex on occiput 
and vertex ; anteimse with basal and second joints pale blue ; 
upper two-thirds of eyes blackish-brown, lower third bluish- 
green, the two areas sharply defined. Prothorax bronzy-green 
with a coppery reflex ; posterior lobe truncate, its sides 
bluish- white. Thorax brflhant metallic green ; humeral and 
antero-lateral stripes blackish-brown, former diffusely so 
and clouded with bronzy brown anteriorly, latter fmely, 
postero-lateral suture white, bordered with black, which is 
confluent in places, cutting up the white into spots ; beneath 
white, barred with black ; tergum brown, with metallic spots 
at bases of wings and two coral- white spots. Legs very long 
and slim, posterior pair extending to apical border of segment 4 ; 
femora dark bronze, white on flexor surface, changing to brown 
•distally ; tibiae white, black on flexor surface ; tarsi black. 
Wings moderately rounded at apices, especially hind-wings ; 



122 



AGRnDJE. 



fore-wings considerably longer than liind-wings, hyaline tinted 
with pale yellowish-green, especially along costa and at apex, 
neuration brilliant emerald-green, especially the costa and 
main nervures, node thickened and narrowly clouded with 
brown ; hind-wings opaque, basal two-thirds appearing 
briUiant metallic green or peacock-blue according to angle of 
view, apical third blackish-brown with violaceous reflections 
and green metaUic nervures. The change from metallic green 
to black near the apex abrupt and nearly in a straight line 
from costa to posterior margin of wing ; basal space and some 
adjacent cells and some of the basal cells of costal space 
hyaline. Beneath, fore-wings similar to above, hitid-wings 
nearly uniformly blackish-brown with dull coppery or golden 




Fig. 36. — Anal appendages of Nerurohasis ohinensis chinensis (Linn.), 
male. Dorsal and left lateral views. 

reflections, neuration finely green metalhc ; 6 to 9, usually 7, 
nervures in basal space ; discoidal cell traversed 7 to 13 times 



in fore-wing, 11 to 13 in hind-wing, nodal index 



65-44 



59-35 I 42-60 



75^0 



41-63 



pterostigma absent in 



40-72 ' 
all wings. Abdomen 



70-35 140-68' 

narrow and cylindrical, much longer than wings, metallic 
bronzy-green above and at sides, intersegmental joints brighter 
emerald-green, finely bordered with black ; beneath black, 
segments 9 and 10 whitish. AtmI appendages black, 
superiors with basal half dull metallic green, inferiors white 
at base. Superiors slightly longer than segment 10, basal 
half subcylindrieal, apical half broadening and flattened 
and furnished along outer border with 4 to 6 spines ; from 



NEITEOBASIS. 123 

above they appear to curve gradually and evenly inwards, 
their apices almost meeting : seen from the side broad at 
base, tapering to a blunt apex. Inferiors one-fourth shorter 
than superiors, nearly straight, moderately separated, very 
broad at base, then narrowing abruptly at junction of basal 
and middle thirds, ending in a blunt apex which is furnished 
with a small inwardly directed spine. 

Female. — Abdomen 44^50 mm. Hind--wing 36-40 mm. 

Differs in many respects from male, and therefore liable to 
be mistaken for a diiferent species. 

Head : labium pale yellow, white at base ; labrum, cheeks, 
bases of mandibles, lower third of eyes, and two basal segments 
of antennae greenish-yellow, labrum with a small medio-basal 
black mark ; anteclypeus pale : postelypeus metallic green, 
with a small oval pale yellow spot on each side ; upper two- 
thirds of eyes brownish-black ; rest of head brilliant metallic 
green. Prothorax and thorax as in male, but himieral and lateral 
sutures finely white, with black borders, confluent in parts so 
as to cut up the white into spots ; postero-lateral sutm-e very 
broadly white, this colour completely framing the met- 
epimeron enclosing an elongate triangle of metallic green which 
surmounts a large triangular patch of yellowish- white below. 
Thorax beneath greyish-white, unmarked. Legs as in male, 
but the pale parts creamy yellow. Wiiigs tinted with yellow, 
palely enfumed with brown, especially at apices and along 
eosta from base to node in fore-wings, and generally deeper 
in tint throughout the whole of hind-wings, which have 
occasionally a diffuse denser patch nearly traversing the wings 
just proximal to pterostigma. All wings with an opaque 
creamy yellow patch at node which usually covers one cell 
distal to node ; a creamy white pterostigma in hind-Things, 
reduced or entirely absent in fore- wings, covering 7 to 14 cells 
in hind- wings, the nervures traversing it often incomplete and 
often missing in places, covering 1 to several cells in fore- 
wing when present. (In specimens from the Malabar WjTiaad 
it is usually entirely absent in all wings, in those from Coorg 
it is very small and traversed by only 3-4 nervures and there 
is no widening of the space between the costa and Ri in the 
pterostigma as is usual in other species ; Nilgiri specimens are 
variable, a vestigial pterostigma being present on one or more 
wings ; in Siamese specimens the pterostigma is better 
developed and there is a definite divergence of the costa from 
the radius, also in some specimens the pterostigma is entire, 
or at the most with a single traversing nervure at each end.) 
Other details of neuration similar to the male. Abdomen 
duU metaUio bronzy green, with golden reflections on dorsum, 
black beneath but thinly pruinosed. All segments with a 
stripe on each side, rather obscure on segments 5 to 7, broad 



124 AGEHD^. 

and conspicuous on 9 and 10, expanding at apex of each seg- 
ment as a large spot, which on 5 to 7 is usually the only vestige 
of the stripe present ; the stripe bordered above and below 
with black. AU segments with a transverse subapical black 
marking ; 8 to 10 with the dorsal carina yellow, this stripe 
broadening progressively as far as the apex of segment 10, 
which ends in a distinct keel and a fine apical spine ; laterally 
segment 10 has a small tubercle on each side surmounted by 
some minute teeth. Anal appendages stout, conical, pointed, 
rather shorter than segment 10, dark brown. Vulvar scale 
greenish or olivaceous yeUow, extending to apex of segment 10. 

Distribution. — ^Throughout India except in desert areas 
from sea-level up to about 7,500 ft., but usually found at 
3,000 to 4,000 ft. 

It breeds in montane and submontane streams, the larva 
clinging to roots and submerged water-plants. I have 
examined specimens from Ceylon, South Kanara, Coorg, 
Malabar, Palni Hills, Deecan, Bengal, Assam, Burma,- Siam, 
and Annam, and find remarkably little variation save in size 
and in the pterostigma, as already commented on above ; 
definite local races are unknown within Indian limits. Speci- 
mens from Coorg and the Mlgiri Wynaad have the ptero- 
stigma absent in the fore-wings of females, but well developed 
in the hind- wing. Some of the Coorg females have the hind- 
wings of a remarkably deep tint of burnt brown and the dark 
preapical fascia intensely developed. Females from the Palni 
Hills, 6,000 ft., have no pterostigma in fore- wings, but a single 
female from Ootacamund, 7,500 ft., has it well developed in 
all wings. 

Although widely distributed the species shows a predilection 
for certain streams ; thus its local distribution takes the form 
■of widely scattered colonies. 

The types of Libellula chinensis and Agrion nobilitata have 
apparently been lost; that of Calopteryx disparilis is in 
the Paris Museum, whilst specimens of Neurobasis chiTiensis 
are found in all national and most private collections. 

Genus VESTALIS Selys (1853). (Fig. 37.) 

Vestalis Selys, Syn. Cal. p. 24 (1853); Walker, List Neur. Ins. Brit. 
Mus. iv, p. 610 (1853); Selys, Hon. Cal. p. 79 (1854); Kirby, 
Cat. Odon. p. 102 (1890); Laidlaw, Beo. Ind. Mus. vol. xiii, 
p. 29 (1917) ; Munz, Mem. Amer. Ent. Soc. no. 3, p. 44 (1919) ; 
Praser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soo. vol. xxxiii, pp. 580, 581 
(1929). 

Vestinus Kennedy, Ohio Journ. Soi. vol. xxi, no. 2, p. 83 (1920). 

Wings of both sexes rounded at apex, entirely hyaline or 
partly opaque or metallic ; pterostigma absent in both sexes ; 
basal space entire ; Bii confluent near' its origin and for some 



VESTALIS. 125 

distance with the radius ; Biii usually arising at or slightly 
proximal to subnode ; sectors of arc arising from lower part 
of arc ; discoidal cell equal in length to basal space, traversed 
by several nervures ; arc not angxilated ; anal area simple, 
I A not sending off any proximal branch ; lA, Cuii, Riv-{-v 
and Riii branched and pectinate at the distal ends, MA un- 
branched. Legs long and thin. Abdomen cylindrical, slim 
and of great length. Ground-colour of head, thorax, and 
abdomen metalUc green or blue. 

Larva very similar to that of JSfeurobasis. 

Genotype, Galopteryx luctuosa Burm. 

Distribution. — Throughout the Oriental Region, Sunda 
Archipelago, and PhiUppines. 

Breeds in montane and submontane streams, gregarious. 
Large colonies are found inhabiting the rides of open spaces in 
forests, and along some shaded pathways almost every twig 
will be found to have its occupant. When sestivating or 




Fig. 37. — Wing of Veatalis wpicalis apicalis Selys, male. 

feeding up it will spread far inland ; thus I have found it on the 
top of wooded hUls, and it is not uncommon on Malabar HUl, 
Bombay. It is as much a woodland insect as Neurobasis 
is a riverine one, but appears to resort to streams for mating, 
as courtship is never witnessed in the jungle. Unlike Neuro- 
basis, the female oviposits in blades of grass or juicy stems 
overhanging a stream, often several feet above the water's 
surface, the newly hatched larvse dropping from thence into 
the water. (Similar habits have been noticed for Lestes and 
Tetrafhemis.) By its habits and general facies the genus is 
closely related to the African Phaon, which has a similar 
scattered distribution throughout Africa and dominates the 
AGEUDiE there as does Vestalis throughout the Oriental Region. 

Key to Indian Species of Vestalis. 

, /Tips of wings black 2. 

\Tips of wings hyaline 3. [p. 131. 

{Labrum entirely black. (Ceylon.) nigrescens Fraser, 
Labrum yellow, marked with black. 

(India.) apicalis Selys, p. 128. 



126 AGEIID^. 

{Wings tinted uniformly with golden [p. 133. 

yellow smaragdina Selys, 
Wings untinted or but partially so 4. 

f Two rows of cells between origins of Guii 

J and I A gracilis (Eamb.), p- 126. 

j Only a single row of cells between Cuii 

(_ and I A anuena Selys, p. 132. 



4, 



218. Vestalis gracilis gracilis (Ramb.). 

Gaiopteryx graailis Rambur, Ins. Nevrop. p. 224 (1842); Walker, 
List Neur. Ins. Brit. Mus. iv, p. 611 (1853). 

Vestalis gracilis Selys, Syn. Cal. p. 26 (1853); id., Mon. Cal. p. 84 
(1854); Kirby, Cat. Odon. p. 102 (1890); Selys, Ann. Mus. Civ. 
Geneva, (2) vol. x (xxx), p. 487 (1891) ; Martin, Mission Pavie, 
Ne-orop. (sep.) p. 15 (1904) ; Williamson, Proe. U.S. Nat. Mus. 
vol. xxviii, p. 183, fig. 15 (1905) ; Laidlaw, Ree. Ind. Mus. vol. 
viii, p. 340 (1914) ; id., ibid. vol. xiii, p. 30 (1917) ; Munz, Mem. 
Amer. Ent. Soo. no. 3, pi. iv, fig. 18 (1919) ; Fraser, J. Bom- 
bay Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. xxix, p. 476 (1923) ; id., Reo. Ind. Mus. 
vol. xsvi, p. 479 (1924); id., J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 
vol. xxxiii, pp. 581, 582 (1929); id., Ree. Ind. Mus. vol. xxxiii, 
p. 448 (1931). 

Male. — ^ATadomen 45-56 mm. Hmd--witig 3'^38 mm. 

Head : labium yellow ; labrum, bases of mandibles, cheeks, 
anteclypeus, two basal segments of antennse, and an oblique 
oval spot on each, side of frons bright yellow, labrum with a 
medio-basal triangle and occasionally an ill-defined basal 
bar black ; the yellow spots on frons often obscure or even 
absent ; basal Joints of antennse occasionally dark brown ; 
rest of head brilliant metallic green, sometimes with golden 
reflections. Upper two-thirds of eyes dark brown, the rest 
greenish- yellow. Proikcrax metaUie emerald green on dorsum 
and sides, yellowish on lower parts of sides and beneath. 
Posterior lobe truncate, bordered finely with yellow. Thorax 
brilliant metallic emerald-green, mid-dorsal carina finely 
black, humeral and antero-lateral sutures finely yellow, 
metepimeron yellow-ochre except for a narrow elongate 
metallic green triangle at its centre. Under surface and ventro- 
lateral borders yellow-ochre, unmarked. Legs pale to dark 
brown, flexor surfaces of tibiae and extensor surfaces of femora 
paler or yellow. In some specimens the legs are dark reddish 
or blackish-brown. Wings hyaline, iridescent with colours 
of mother-of-pearl or blue in some lights, especially the central 
parts of fore-wings, tinted variably with greenish-yeUow as 
follows : — ^Whole of hind-wings uniformly, base of fore- wings 
as far as distal end of discoidal cell, whole length of costal 
margin between costa and nervure Rii, and extreme apex of 
wing. This tinting very variable, quite absent in teneral 
specimens, always more intense in mature specimens and in 
examples from Assam, Burma, and Siam, some of which. 



VESTALIS. 127 

from the latter country, have the apices enfumed as well as 
tinted, although not to the same extent as in V. apicalis. 
Discoidal cell traversed 4^6 times in fore-wing, 3-5 in hind- 
wing, the more eastern forms seeming to be the most 
closely reticulated ; nodal indices of three specimens chosen 
at random, ^^^^ ^6-65 . 66-28 1 30-67 . 62-30 i 26-54 



53-24 24^64 52-26 1 24-57 ' 50-24 | 25-48 " 
Abdomen metaUio green or blue, usually peacock-blue in 
teneral specimens, emerald-green when mature, with a narrow 
interrupted basal yellow ring on segments 2 to 6, and sides 
of 1, 2 and base of 3 yellowish. Beneath black. Segment 10 
with a robust keel at its apical end which ends in an apical 
spine, and with a more or less robust spine on the apical border 
on each side. The great length of the abdomen as compared 
with the wings, mentioned by Eambur, Selys, and other authors, 
is not constant, as shown below : — 

Abdomen. Hind-wing. 

NUgiris 46-53 mm. 35-38 mm. 

Burma 45 mm. 36 mm. 

Siam 45 mm. 35 mm. 

Bengal 56 mm. 38 mm. 

Eastern Ghats. ... -50 mm. 34 mm. 

Anal appendages black. Superiors rather longer than seg- 
ment 10, widely separated, broad at base, then subcylindrical ; 
apex flattened and bevelled, terminating in a sharp spine ; 
a blunt dorsal conical spine at extreme base and some coarse 
spines along outer border, two or three longer than the rest ; 
seen from above these appendages are curved evenly inwards 
almost to meet at apex. Inferiors widely separated, about 
two-thirds the length of superiors, conical, tapering to an 
obtuse rounded apex. 

Female. — ^Abdomen 43-50 mm. Hind-wing 36-39 mm. 

Exactly simUar to male in colour and markings, but abdomen 
usually more dully metallic and segments 8-10 yellow laterally. 
Anal appendages and ovipositor dark brown, former conical, 
pointed, shghtly shorter than segment 10, which is keeled and 
spined as in male. 

Distribution. — ^That of the genus. After examining many 
scores of specimens from the Western and Eastern Ghats, 
Bengai, Assam, Upper and Lower Burma, Siam, Aonam, 
andToiJdn,! am unable to find differences amounting to racial 
or varietal value, unless it be that specimens from the last three 
localities have the wings more deeply tinted. It is this tinting 
which serves to separate V. gracilis from F. apicalis, some speci- 
mens of the former occasionally having the apices of the wings 
enfumed, and so being liable to be confused with the latter. 



128 AGEHD^. 

V. gracilis and V. wpicalis are frequently found in company, 
and taking pruinescence as a measure of full adulthood, we 
find specimens heavily pruinosed in which there is either no 
sign of apical darkening of the wings, or at the most a poorly 
defined shadow of such. These specimens are the true V. gracilis ; 
similarly pruinosed specimens oiapicalis found in their company 
have the apices of wings deep blackish-brown and very sharply 
defined. 
Type in the Paris Museum. 

219. Vestalis gracilis montana, nom. nov. 

Vestalis gracilis amcena Eraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. 
STCxiii, p. 583 (1929). 

Male and female. — ^Measurements, colouring, and markings 
exactly similar to V. gracilis gracilis, but the venation corre- 
sponding to that of F. amoena in that there is only a single 
row of cells separating I A and Cuii . The venation is decidedly 
closer than in V. amosna, and there are 3 to 4 rows of cells 
between lA and the posterior margin of wing as in true 
V. gracilis. On the whole this subspecies appears to be 
rather smaller than V. gracilis gracilis. 

Distribution. — S. India : Cooeg and the Nilgiri Wynaad, 
at about 3,500 ft. altitude. 

Type in the Fraser collection. 

220. Vestalis apiealis apicalis Selys. (Figs. 37 & 38.) 

Vestalis apicalis Selys, Bull. Acad. Belg. (2) vol. xxxvi, p. 612 
(1873); id., ibid. (2) vol. xlvii, p. 362(1879); Kirby, Cat. Odon. 
p. 102 (1890); id., J. Linn. See. (Zool.) vol. sxiv, pp. 558-559 
(1893); Laidlaw, Eeo. Ind. Mus. vol. xiii, p. 30 (1917); Eraser, 
J. Siam. Soc. vol. iv, p. 164 (1921) ; id., Eee. Ind. Mus. vol. xxvi, 
p. 479 (1924); Laidlaw, SpoKa Zeylanica, vol. xii, parts 47 & 
48, pp. 355, 356 (1924) ; Eraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 
vol. xxxiii, pp. 583, 584 (1929) ; id., Ree. Ind. Mus. vol. xxxiii, 
p. 448 (1931). 

Neurobasis apicalis Kirhy, Proo. Zool. See. Lond. p. 204, pi. xx, 
fig. 2 (1891). 

Male. — ^Abdomen 49-55 mm. Hind-wing 36-39 mm. 

Head : labium, labrum, cheeks, bases of mandibles, and 
basal joints of antennae coloured as in V. gracilis, rest of head 
metallic emerald-green ; upper two-thirds of eyes brown, the 
rest olivaceous or yellow. Antennal basal joints often 
brownish-black inwardly; labrum sometimes with a broad 
quadrate basal spot or broad blackish-brown line. Pro- 
thorax and thorax coloured similarly to V. gracilis, but posterior 
lobe of former more conspicuously bordered with yeUow. 
Legs blackish-brown, flezor surfaces of femora, extensor 
surfaces of tibiae, and ooxse yeUow. Wings hyahne, mature 



TESTALIS. 



129 



specimens sometimes tinted as in V. gracilis, but not as 
deeply ; apices of all wings broadly tipped with blackish- 
brown for about the distal 5 mm. ; venational details very 
similar to those of V. gracilis ; discoidal cell traversed 4 to 5 
times in fore- wing, 2 to 4 times in hind-wing ; 10 cubital 
nervures in fore-wing, 8 to 9 in hind-wing ; nodal index 



•66-30 



61-27 



30-65 68-24 



26-68 ' 54r-24 



27-69 



24-55 



Abdomen metallic emerald- 



green, marked with yellow as in V. gracilis on segments 1 to 3 ; 
intersegmental nodes black ; obsolete subapical black trans- 
verse spots on 1 to 4 ; beneath black, often more or less 
pruinosed. Anal appendages black. Superiors gradually 
curving inwards from base to apex, coarsely spined along outer 
border, broad at base, subcylindrieal thereafter, but broadening 




Fig. 38. — ^Anal appendages of Vesialis apicalis apiccdis Selys, male. 
a, from above ; 6, from the right side. 



tit end and shallowly bifid at apex, which is much broadened 
and bevelled inwardly, the inner end bearing a sharp spine, 
the outer truncate and blunt. Inferior appendages about 
two-thirds the length of superiors, cylindrical, but broad at 
base, apices blunt. 

Femaie. — ^Abdomen 46-50 mm. Hind-wing 38-40 mm. 

Closely similar to male ; labrum usually with a basal line 
in continuation with the medio-basal black spot ; often an 
obUque paler area on each side of frons similar to that often 
seen in V. gracilis, and often a small pale area on outer side 
of each lateral ocellus. Thorax with humeral and lateral 
-sutures yeUow, former and antero-lateral narrowly bordered 

VOL. n. K 



130 AGunD^. 

with, brown. Wings similar to male, but the apical marking 
usually paler and less sharply defined. Abdomen more 
coppery and less metallic than in male ; segments 2 to 5 
with narrow basal interrupted yellow rings or paired sub-basal 
spots ; ventro-lateral borders of 1 to 4 or 5 yellow ; 10 with 
a well-marked dorsal keel ending in a sharp spine, and with a 
smaller spine on each side. Ovipositor as in V. gracilis. 

Distribution. — ^That of 7. gracilis. 

Nearly always found in company with F. gracilis, and has 
exactly similar habits. Distinguished from other species by 
the black apices of wings. 

Type in the Selys collection, Brussels Museum. 



221. Vestalis apiealis submontana, nom. nov. 

Vestalis apiealis amcena Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 
vol. xsxiii, p. 684 (1929). 

Male and female closely similar to F. apiealis apiealis and 
bearing the same relation to it as does F. gracilis montana 
to V. gracilis gracilis. 

Differs from F. apiealis by the cheeks all glossy black and 
by the black apex of wings much restricted, occupying only 
about 2-5 mm. (in some specimens, usually females, this marking 
is not sharply defined) . Venation resembling that of F. amcena, 
there being only a single row of cells between Cuii and I A ; 
usually 3 to 4 rows of cells between lA and wing-border for 
a short distance. In some specimens the dorsal keel and 
spme are absent on segment 10, but the lateral spine is always 
present. In a specimen from the Nilgiris the labrum is bordered 
with black, the cheeks are entirely black ; the thorax is a. 
beautiftd metalHc emerald with black sutures, even the upper 
part of the postero-lateral suture being of this colour ; the 
abdomen is very dull metallic, the end-segments being mat 
black. In a specimen from Anantagiri, Eastern Ghats, the 
colouring is coppery or golden bronzed green, the head being 
coloured and marked as in the Nilgiri form ; the thorax with 
the sutures black except the postero-lateral one ; the abdomen 
is more brightly metallic ; the size is much smaller (abdomen 
47 mm., hind-wing 34 mm.) ; the apices of all wings are deep 
black. These two forms may represent distinct races. 

Distribution. — ^Nilgieis and Eastern Ghats. 

Easily distingiiished by the combination of apical black 
marking to all wings and a single row of cells between Cuii 
and I A, and the cheeks glossy black. 

Type in the Author's collection. 



VESTALIS. 131 

222. Vestalis nigreseens Fraser. 

Vestalis nigreseens Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. X3:xiii, 
pp. 584, 585 (1929). 

Male. — ^Abdomen 46-50 mm. Hind-wing 35-37 mm. 

Head : labium brownish-yellow, pruinosed white laterally 
and at base ; labrum and epistome blackish-brown ; cheeks, 
bases of mandibles, and basal segments of antennse black : 
rest of head dark metallic green with blue reflections ; eyes 
brownish- black above, paler below. Prothorax metallic green, 
borders of posterior lobe black. Thorax dark metallic green, 
dorsum with peacock-blue reflections, mid-dorsal carina finely 
black, humeral suture rather broadly outlined in black, 
antero-lateral suture finely black, postero-lateral sutur& 
cinereous bordered with black ; beneath white, with a posterior 
black spot which may be obscured by pruinescence. Legs 
entirely black. Wings hyahne ; apices of all, for nearly one- 
third of the distance from apex to node, deep black ; nodal 
index similar to that of F. apiccdis ; 4 to 6 transverse nervures 
in the discoidal cell : 2 rows of cells between Guii and lA at 
origins ; Siii arising at or slightly proximal or distal to sub- 
node. Abdomen dark metallic green on segments 1 to 5, 
rest mat black, intersegmental nodes blackish-brown, base 
of segment 1 pruinosed white ; 10 with a robust apical keel 
and spiae on dorsum, and a lateral spine on each side. Anal 
appendages black ; superiors and inferiors showing no marked 
differences from those of V. apicalis, lateral spines finer, 
apex of superior appendages more truncate, inferior appendages 
more sinuous and their apex with a fine point on the inner 
side. 

Female. — ^Abdomen 43 mm. Hind-wing 38 mm. 

Differs from male by the labium whitish, labrum yellow 
with a medio-basal black triangular spot ; cheeks, except 
against the eyes, bases of mandibles and basal segments of 
anteimse yellow. Thorax very similar to that of male, but 
antero-lateral suture narrowly and postero-lateral suture 
broadly yellow. Beneath, yellow with a black triangular spot 
as in male. Legs entirely black. Wings hyaline, apices of all 
wings enfmned, this tinting vignetted off proximally. Details 
of venation similar to male. Abdomen with the metalHe 
colouring confined to segments 1 and 2 and base of 3 ; 10 with 
a robust keel on dorsum, and lateral apical spines. Anal 
appendages short, conical, pointed, . black ; ovipositor dark 
yeUow. 

Distribution. — ^This beautiful species is confined to Ceylon, 
Nalande, ll.ix.24, Kandy, l.ix.24, at 2,000 ft. {F. Wall), 
Belihul Oya in May-June, 1932 (Fraser). Laidlaw reports 
V. apicalis from Ceylon, but has probably eonfased this 

k2 



132 AGEHDiE. 

species with it. He gives the following localities and dates 
for his F. apicalis : — " Kandy, July, November ; Ratnapura, 
October ; Haragama, Jiily ; Peradeniya, December 29." 

The species is easily distinguished from others of the genus 
by its dark colouring, which gives it a close superficial resem- 
blance to Echo margariia. The black labrum, antennae, and 
legs, and the non-metaUic abdomen, serve to distinguish it 
from F. apicalis. 

Type in the British Museum. 

523. Vestalis amoena Selys. 

Vestalis aincsna Selys, &yn. Cal. p. 25 (1853) ; id., Mon. Cal. p. 82 

(1854); id., BuU. Acad. Belg. (2) vol. xxxv, p. 475 (1873); 

Kirby, Cat. Odon. p. 103 (1890) ; Karsch, Bnt. Nachr. vol. xvii, 

no. 16, p. 243 (1891) ; Kniger, Stett. Ent. Zeit. p. 75 (1898) ; 

Laidlaw, Proe. Zool. See. Lond. p. 87 (1902) ; Williamson, Proc. 

U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xxviii, p. 183 (1905) ; Laidlaw, Proo. 

Zool. Soo. Lond. pp. 30-31(1915); id., ibid. p. 326 (1920). 
Calopteryx amcena Walker, List Neur. Ins. Brit. Mus. iv, p. 611 

(1853). 
Vestalis amoena amoena Fraser, J, Bombay Nat. Hist. See. 

vol. xyyiii, p. 585 (1929). 

Male. — ^Abdomen 38-52 mm. Hind-wing 31-38 mm. 

Head : labium yellow, clouded with black in mature speci- 
mens ; labrum black, with a small yellow spot on each side 
at base, or in immature adults yeUow, heavily bordered with 
black and with a median basal black mark ; bases of mandibles 
and base of second joint of antennae yellow ; rest of head a 
beautiful dark metallic green ; eyes blackish-brown above, 
paler below. Prothorax metallic emerald-green, posterior 
border of posterior lobe finely yellow. Thorax metallic emerald- 
green, with humeral and first lateral sutures black ; posterior 
suture and posterior border of metepimeron yeUow. Beneath, 
pale yellow spotted with black. Legs dark brown to black, 
posterior femora paler or brown towards proximal end. 
Wings hyaline, often with a pale yellowish-green tinge and 
iridescent viewed obhquely in a good Kght ; only a single row 
of cells between the proximal ends of Cuii and I A, and only 
2 rows of ceUs between the latter and posterior margin of wing ; 
■distal ends of main sectors curved down at a greater angle 
towards posterior margin of wing ; discoidal cell traversed 
by 2 to 3 nervures in fore-wing, by 3 to 4 in hind- wing ; 9 to 10 

cubital nervures in all wings ; nodal index - -?Zz55. 

' ^ 45-24 25-42" 

Abdomen metaUic green, passing to mat black after seg- 
ment 4 or 5, segment 10 with a dorsal keel ending in a minute 
spine and with a small spine on each side of apical border as 
in F. gracilis. Anal appendages black. Superiors rather 
longer than segment 10, curving gradually towards one 



VBSTALis. 133r. 

another and almost meeting at apices, subcylindrical at base 
but compressed at apex and bifid, so as to form two smaE 
branches, the upper, or outer, the longer, the lower, or inner,, 
short and blunt, spined coarsely on the outer side. Inferiors 
about two-thirds the length of superiors, widely separated at 
base, subcylindrical, nearly straight, apex bl\mt, base tumid. 

Female. — ^Abdomen 35-40 mm. Hind- wing 34-39 mm. 

Similar to male in markings, colouring, and venation ; 

45-25 I 24-47 
nodal index okiq ' c^r^A ] ', 8 to 10 cubital nervures ; 

discoidal ceU traversed 2 to 3 times, usually twice in all wings. 
Borders and apices of wings ia mature specimens enfumedwith 
brown. 

Distribution. — ^The type comes from Java, but the species- 
appears to be widespread, as I have seen specimens from 
Lower Bttema, Sumatra, Borneo, and Siam. 

The markings vary considerably according to the age of 
specimens, especially the labrum and antennae, which may be 
quite black when mature. The ground-colour is peacock- 
blue in teneral specimens, and changes gradually through 
brilliant emerald-green to coppery or golden-bronze. The 
colour of the labrum and venation wiQ serve to distinguish it 
from other species. 

Type in the Selys collection, Brussels Museum. 

224. Vestalis smaragdina Selys. 

VestaXis smaragdlria Selys, Bull. Acad. Belg. (2) vol. xlvii, p. 362 
(1879); Kirby, Cat. Odon. p. 103 (1890); Selys, Ann. Mus. 
Civ. Geneva, (2) vol. x (xxx), p. 488 (1891); Williamson, 
Proe. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xxviii, p. 183 (1905); Eis (subsp. 
velata), Suppl. Ent. no. 1, p. 56, t. iv, fig. 2 (1912); Laidlaw, 
Eeo. Ind. Mus. vol. siii, pp. 29 & 30 (1917) ; Fraser, J. Bom- 
bay Nat. Hist. Soe. vol. xxxiii, p. 586 (1929). 

Male. — ^Abdomen 42-45 mm. Hiad-wiag 32-35 mm. 

Head : labium black ; whole of rest of head, including 
labrum, bases of mandibles, cheeks, and basal segments of 
antennae, brilliant metaUic green or peacock-blue ; eyes brown 
above, lower third yeUowish-green. Proihorax metallic 
emerald-green ; posterior lobe large, rounded. Thorax 
brilliant metaUic emerald-green, with a blue reflection on 
dorsum ; lower half of sides, including whole of metepimeron, 
under surface of thorax, also aU coxae bright yellow. Legs 
very long and slim, brown m teneral specimens, black when 
mature. Wings hyaUne, in immature specimens tinted with 
yellow throughout, in mature specimens yellow at the base, 
otherwise with a pale greenish tinge ; only a single row of 
cells between Guii and IA as in V. amcena, and not more than 
3 rows between the latter nervure and posterior border of 



134 AGEHD^. 

•wing ; cubital space with basal nervure (ac) usually isolated 
and with 2 or 3 nervures traversing it at its outer end ; dis- 
coidal cell traversed 2 or 3 times, usually only twice ; nodal 
• w 5^20 j 21-53 52-20 21-53 40-24 | 20-42 
mdex variable, 49_i7:i7_48' 45_i8 ig-^e' 38-18 | 17-37- 
{Discoidal cell traversed only once in all wings of one specimen.} 
Abdomen metallic emerald-green on dorsum and sides, black 
beneath ; segment 1 broadly citron-yellow on sides and base 
of dorsum, terminal segments more dully metallic, and often 
pruinosed white on dorsum. Segment 10 neither keeled nor 
spined. Anal appendages black. Superiors rather longer 
than segment 10, curving ia gradually to meet at apices, but 
sHghtly angulated inwards at about the middle, outer border 
finely spiaed, base broad, and with a very robust dorsal 
spine ineliniag outward, then subcylindiical and finally 
broadening out at apex which is deeply bifid, outer branch 
much the longer, inner about half its length, and both rounded 
and blunt at apex. Inferiors about two-thirds the length 
of superiors, slim, cylindrical, ending in an acute inwardly 
■directed spine. 

Female. — ^Abdomen 34^-38 mm. Hind-wing 30-34 mm. 

Similar to male in colouring, but sides of abdominal 
segment 3 and lower parts of sides of 8 to 10 yellow. Segment 
10 with a dorsal keel ending in an apical spine and a small 
spine on each side of the apical border as in F. gracilis. Vulvar 
scale robust, yellow. Wings more highly coloured and evenly 
safironated except in very old specimens, the nervures rich 
ochre ; venation similar to that of male. Anal appendages 
short conical, pointed, brown or blackish-brown. 

Distribution. — ^Assam, Btjema, and Tibet. The type comes 
from ShUlong, Khasi Hills, Assam ; recent specimens from 
-fche same district. 

Type in the Selys collection, Brussels Museum. 

Genus ECHO Selys (1853). (Fig. 39.) 

Echo Selys, Syn. Cal. p. 19 (1853); Walker, List Ins. Neur. Brit. 
Mtis. iv, p. 604 (1853); Selys, Mon. Cal. p. 67 (1854); Kirby, 
Cat. Odon. p. 101 (1890); Laidlaw, Fasoio. Malayenses (Zool.), 
parti, pp. 191-192(1903) ; Williamson, Proo. U.S. Nat. Hist. Mus. 
vol. xxviii, p. 170 (1906); Laidlaw, Reo. Ind. Mus. vol. xiii, 
pp. 26-28 (1917) ; Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soo. voL v-«-THii , 
pp. 586, 587 (1929). 

Groimd-colour dark metaUic green and black ; thorax short, 
robust ; legs long and shm ; abdomen sHm, cylindrical, 
considerably longer than wings ; wings closely reticulated, 
hyaline or partly opaque black in both sexes ; apices of all 
wings rounded ; pterostigma opaque white or black, short 
and broad, and of the same shape in both sexes, ifider below, 



ECHO. 135 

■with lower margin markedly rounded, situated much nearer 
apex of wings than usual ; median (basal) space traversed by 
many nervures ; Bii near its origin confluent with radius ; 
Riii usually arising a little proximal to subnode ; arc angulated, 
sectors of arc arising from it separately a little below its middle ; 
discoidal cell about equal to length of median space, traversed 
by several nervures ; anal area moderately simple ; /^strongly 
forked a little after its origin ; none of the sectors pectinate 
or branched, but numerous intercalated sectors between all 
main nervures ; node situated nearer to base of wing than 
to pterostigma. 

Larva somewhat similar to that of Neurobasis. 

Genotype, Echo margarita Selys. 

Distribution. — ^Assam and Uppee Burma. Selys gives 
" China ? " as the locality of the genotype, but this is probably 
an error. 

Laidlaw (Rec. Ind. Mus. vol. xiii, pp. 26 & 28) considers 
that his genus Climacobasis is synonymous with Echo, but this 
is due to an error in his interpretation of the Selysian descrip- 
tion of .E?. margarita, and secondly to a wrong impression of the 




Fig. 39. — Hind-wing oiEcho margarita tripartita Selys, female. 

shape of the pterostigma in a male in the Indian Museum 
collection. He states that : " When Selys described the 
male of E. margarita, he did not caU attention to the difference 
in the shape of the pterostigma in the two sexes " ; but as 
the shape is identical in the two sexes, there was no call for 
Selys to make any comment on this poiat. As regards the 
specimen in the Indian Museum, I have made a re-examination 
of it and find that its pterostigma does not differ from that 
of the female. For reasons mentioned under the genus 
Climacobasis, I consider it a good genus. Dr. Laidlaw also 
suggests that Kfrby's Archineura and Martin's Echo mamma 
belong to genus Echo. As regards the former, the basal 
neuration is so different that one cannot reconcile it with 
Echo ; and in regard to the latter, I have made an examination 
of the type and find important differences in the venation ; 
thus Bii is not confluent with the radius at its origin, but is 
similar to the condition found in the genus Matrona ; the 



136 AGEICD^. 

pterostigma is elongate in both sexes and situated in the usual • 
place, viz. moderately far back from the apex ; the wings are • 
longer, the apices less rounded ; the anal area of wings more 
complicated and the node situated nearer the pterostigma 
than base of wing as in Climacobasis. Thus the genus Ec?io 
contains but two species, E. margarita Selys and E. uniformis 
Kriig., of which only the former, with its race tripartita Selys, 
has been reported from within Indian limits. 

These insects breed in montane streams, the adults being 
found along the banks settled on ferns or overhanging vegeta- 
tion, and with a slow flitting flight similar to Vestalis. 

225. Echo margarita margarita Selys. 

Echo margarita Selys, Syn. Cal. p. 19 (1853); id., Mon.Cal. p. 67 
(1854); id., BuU. Acad. Belg. (2) vol. xlvii, p. 356 (1879); 
Kirby, Cat. Odon. p. 101 (1890); Laidlaw, Eee. Ind. Mus. 
vol. xiii, pp. 26-28 (1917); Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 
vol. sssiii, pp. 587, 588 (1929). 

Male. — ^Abdomen 44-46 mm. Hind-wing 36-37 mm. 

Head : labium black ; labrum glossy black ; cheeks, bases, 
of mandibles, anteclypeus, and antennae mat black ; post- 
clypeus glossy metaUic dark bronzy-green ; eyes black above, 
pale brown to dove-grey below. Rest of head dull metallic 
dark bronzy-green. Prothorax shiny metalUc dark green,, 
pruinosed beneath. Thorax on dorsum and whole of sides 
dark metaUic-green with a coppery reflex, beneath black and 
thinly pruinosed. Legs black ; femora pruinosed thinly on 
flexor surface. Wiv^s hyaline, apical fifth dark blackish- 
brown ; a sUght clouding of brown at node in all wings ; inner 
border of the dark area running almost straight back from 
costa to posterior margin of wing ; hyaline area with a 
beautiful bluish-purple iridescence ; pterostigma milky white 
in aU wings, about twice as long as broad, distal end rounded,, 
proximal end pointed, posterior border markedly rounded, 
the space distal to the pterostigma reticulated with a double 
row of cells ; discoidal cell traversed 7 to 9 times ; basal 
space traversed 6 to 9__times ; 16 to 18 cubital nervures ; 



, , . , 69-38 
nodal mdex^^^ 



38-73 56-30 



37—58 

„■ . Abdomen ■axaSotmi.f 



29-64' 56-30 

dark blackish-brown, non-metallic, thinly pruinosed beneath. 
Anal appendages black. Superiors tumid at base, then sub- 
cylindrical, finally compressed at apex and curving gradually 
in towards one another ; outer border coarsely spined ; apices 
blunt. Inferiors very broad at base, very narrow and slightly 
sinuous thereafter, apices slightly clubbed and with a minute- 
inwardly directed spine. 

Ferrude. — ^Abdomen 37-41 mm. Hind- wing 35-37 mm. 

Closely similar to male both as regards colouring of body and 



CLIMACOBASIS. 137 

"wings. Mature specimens have the hyaline area of wings 
variably enfumed, often of a warm brown, and then lose their 
bluish iridescence. Pterostigma xisuaUy slightly shorter and 
broader than in male, so that it is subrotund or pyriform in 
some specimens. Venation similar to that of male. Vulvar 
scale very robust, extending to end of abdomen, black ; anal 
appendages short, acutely conical, black. 

Distribution. — Cherrapunji, Assam. I have seen but one 
specimen of this beautiful iasect, a very dilapidated male ia 
the Indian Museum collection, taken by Dr. Kemp in October. 
The type is a female in the Selysian collection labelled " China ?," 
and there is also a male in the same collection from Cherra- 
punji ; probably both came from the latter looahty. 

226. Echo margarita tripartita Selys. 

Echo margarita race tripartita Selys, Bull. Acad. Belg. (2) vol. xlvii, 
p. 356 (1879); Kirby, Cat. Odon. p. 101 (1890); Laidlaw, 
Bee. Ind. Mus. vol. xiii, pp. 26-28 (1917); Fraser, J. Bombay 
Nat. Hist. Soo. vol. xxxlii, p. 588 (1929). 

Differs from E. margarita margarita in the greater extent 
of black on the wing, which covers roughly the outer third 
of all wings but is subject to shght variations. In some 
specimens it extends more than half-way from pterostigma 
to node, in others slightly less than this distance. 

Distribution. — ^The type, from the Khasi Hills, is a male in 
the Selysian collection ; it is probably from Shillong, where 
Mr. Bainbrigge Fletcher has found this form moderately 
common from June to October. He writes : " Weak flight, 
sits on bushes overhanging banks and on rocks in midstream. 
Also along pebbly bottomed swift streams. Never over muddy 
water. Never seen pairing or ovipositing. Occurs from June 
to August and struggles into September, last specimen seen 
12. ix. 19." 

Genus CLIMACOBASIS Laidlaw (1902). 

Climacobasis Laidlaw, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. (1) p. 85 (1902);. 
Williamson, Proe. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xxviii, p. 170 (1905); 
Laidlaw, Rec. Ind. Mus. vol. siii, p. 26 (1917); Eraser, J. Bom- 
bay Nat. Hist. Soo. vol. xxxiii, pp. 588, 589 (1929). 

Eesembles Echo, but wings entirely hyaline, with apices 
less rounded, pterostigma in male elongate and of normal 
shape, situated more proximally, much reduced and more 
or less vestigial in female ; node situated much nearer ptero- 
stigma than base of wing ; Rii fused with radius in fore-wing 
but not in hind-wing ; sectors of arc arising from a common 
point and occasionally fused at origin ; abdomen much more 
slender and comparatively longer. 

Genotype, Echo modesta Laid. 



138 AGRIID-^;. 

Distribution. — Borneo, Siam, Assam, and probably widely but 
sparsely distributed over the intervening region and through- 
out S.E. Asia. 

As mentioned under genus Eclio, Dr. Laidlaw came to the 
conclusion that his genus was synonymous with Echo, but the 
position of the node, the similarity of the pterostigma in the 
sexes of Echo, the separated sectors of the arc, and the shorter 
more robust abdomen of the latter genus seem definitely to 
«stabhsh the independence of Climacobasis. 

227. Climacobasis modesta (Laid.). (Fig. 40.) 

Echo modesta Laidlaw, Proe. Zool. Soe. Loud. (1), p. 84, pi. v, 

fig. 6 (1902) ; id., Ree. Ind. Mus. vol. xiii, p. 28 (1917). 
Olimacohasis lugens Laidlaw, Proe. Zool. Soc. Lend. (1) p. 85, 

pi. vi, fig. 5 (1902). 
Echo (Climacobasis) modesta Laidlaw, Fascie. Malayenses (Zool.), 

pt. i, p. 191 (1903). 
Climacobasis modesta Williamson, Proe. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xxviii, 

p. 186, fig. 17 (1905); Fraser, J. Bombay Wat. Hist. Soc. 

vol. xxxiii, p. 589 (1929). 

Male. — ^Abdomen 52-54 mm. Hind-wing 37-39 mm. 

Head : labium black ; cheeks and bases of mandibles glossy 
black ; anteclypeus dark brown ; postclypeus and rest of 
head dark metaUie green, frons and ocellar space in mature 
specimens pruinosed snowy white ; eyes dark brown above, 
paler beneath. Prothorax and thorax dark metaUic green 
with a coppery, bronzy, or golden reflection, beneath black 
(usually with white pruinescence when mature). Legs long, 




Fig. 40. — Wing of Climacobasis modesta (Laid.), male. 

shm, black. Wings entirely hyaline, iridescent with purplish- 
blue ; when mature with apices enfumed, especially that of 
fore-wing, and sometimes a cloudy fascia extending over 
distal two-thirds of the space between node and base of wing, 
especially in fore-wing ; pterostigma black, elongate, narrow, 
obhque at both ends but more pointed proximally ; basal 
(median) space traversed by 8 to 9 nervures in all wings ; dis- 
coidal cell traversed by 7 to 10 nervures, usually by 7 ; 16 to 18 
cubital nervures; nodal index ^-=^1^=^^ 39-36 35-40 



33-31134^40' 33-31 



33-32 ■ 



MNAIS. 139 

Abdotnen dark metallic green on segments 1, 2, and base of 3, 
black for the remaining segments. Anal appendages black. 
Superiors slightly longer than segment 10, broad at base, 
curving gradually in almost to meet at apices, sub cylindrical 
after base and slightly compressed at apex, which is truncate 
and obtuse ; outer border coarsely spined. Inferiors almost 
two-thirds the length of superiors, broad at base, then 
cylindrical, narrow, apex blunt but furnished with a minute 
inner spine. 

Female. — Abdomen 46 mm. Hind-wing 41 mm. 

Closely similar to male, but wings with pterostigma much 
reduced, about one-third the length of that of male, its posterior 
border nearly twice the length of the costal and somewhat 
rounded ; two rows of cells in the space between costa and 
radius distal to pterostigma ; about 50 postnodal nervures, 
the increase in number over that found in male being due 
to the shorter pterostigma. Vulvar scale robust, extending 
to end of abdomen. Anal appendages about as long as 
segment 10, black, pointed. 

Distribution. — King Island, Mergui, Lowhb, Buema {Elton 
JBott). 

Type in the Hope Museum, Oxford. 

Genus MNAIS Selys (1853). (Fig. 41.) 

Jdnais Selys, Syn. Cal. p. 20 (1853); Walker, List Neijr. Ins. Brit. 
Mus. iv, p. 605 (1853); Selys, Mon. Cal. p. 63 (1854); Kirby, 
Cat. Odon. p. 101 (1890) ; WilUamson, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 
vol. xxviii, p. 184 (1905); Eis, Suppl. Ent. no. v, pp. 8 & 9 
(1916); Laidlaw, Ree. Ind. Mus. vol. siii, p. 29 (1917); Muelz, 
Mem. Aiaer. Ent. Soo. no. 3, p. 44 (1919); Fraser, J. Bombay 
Nat. Hist. See. vol. xsxiii, pp. 589, 590 (1929). 

Ground-colour dark metallic green or black, often pruinosed 
on head, dorsum of thorax, and terminal segments of abdomen. 
Thorax short, robust ; legs long and sUm ; abdomen cylindrical, 
longer than wings : wings very closely reticulated, hyaline 
or partly opaque black, or tinted with greenish-yellow or 
bright golden yellow ; apices roimded ; pterostigma usually 
red in male, white or cinereous in female, often vestigial, 
especially in female, in which sex it may be entirely absent ; are 
angulated ; sectors of arc arising from a common point a little 
below the middle of arc ; median (basal) space entire ; Bii, 
near its origin, confluent with the radius ; Biii arising at or 
a little distal to subnode ; diseoidal cell convex towards the 
costa, traversed by many nerviures ; anal area simple ; I A 
forked a little after its origin, the hinder branch of fork weakly 
or not Jbranched ; main nervures rarely forked ; many inter- 
calated sectors ; node situated nearer to base of wing than to 
pterostigma. 

Larva unknown. 



140 AGEHD^. 

Genotype, Mnais pruinosa Selys. 

Distribution. — Noetheen India, Buema, Siam, Tonkin, 
Annam, South China, and Japan. 

Some obscurity still exists as to the number of species or 
races belonging to this genus, Selys being of opinion that there 
were but two species, with a number of races or possibly merely 
age phases of the same insect. It seems fairly clear, however, 
that such is not the case, and that there are two well-defined 




Pig. 41. — Hind-wing oi Mnais eamshawi Will., male. 

groups, one with black neuration and uncoloured membrane- 
ofwing, and the other with reddish neuration and bright golden 
yellow wing-membrane. To the former group we may add 
Mnais maclachlani Fras., in which the wing is partly opaque 
black, with an outer bordering to the dark area milky opalescent 
white. Williamson split up the species into two groups — 
Palsearctic and Oriental — but the characters he gave are not 
always constant, even in the same species. 

Key to Indian Species of Mnais. 

{Venation reddish; wings tinted with 

golden yellow 2. 
Venation black ; -wings untinted, or at the [p. 140.. 

most with a faint greenish tint andersoni McLaeh., 

f Pterostigma quadrate eamshawi Will., p. 142. 

' Pterostigma elongate, more than twice 

as long as broad icteroptera Fras., p. 143. 



1' 



228. Mnais andersoni McLaehlan. 

Mnais andersoni MoLaehlan, Bull. Acad. Belg. (2) vol. xxxv. 
p. 472 (1873); Kirby, Cat. Odon. p. 101 (1890); Selys, Ann, 
Mus. Civ. Geneva, (2) vol. x (xxx), p. 485 (1891); Waiiamson, 
Proe. V.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xxviii, p. 184 (1905); Ris, Suppl. 
Ent. no. v, pp. 8, 9, & 11 (1916); Laidlaw, Reo. Ind. Mus. 
vol. xiii, p. 29 (1917); Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soo.. 
vol. xxxiii, pp. 590, 591 (1929). 

JfaZe.— Abdomen 35-42 mim. Hind-wing 26-33 mm. 
Head : labium black ; labrum and clypeus metallic emerald- 
green ; bases of mandibles, adjacent parts of cheeks, and base- 



MNAIS. 141 

of second segment of antennae bright yellow ; rest of head 

metallic green, with coppery or golden reflections ; eyes 

brown above, paler below. Prothorax and thorax brilliant 

metallic emerald-green, latter with coppery or golden reflections 

on dorsum ; antero-lateral suture finely black, postero-lateral 

suture narrowly yellow, as also the posterior half of met- 

epimeron. Beneath, yeUow, with a large black spot, pruinosed 

in mature specimens. Legs black, coxse and trochanters 

pruinosed white. Wings hyaline, tinted with pale greenish- 

yeUow or quite colourless ; reticulation black ; pterostigma 

small, about as long as broad, outer border straight, inner 

border shghtly oblique, posterior border slightly rounded, 

variably black or dark brownish ; only a single row of cells 

between costa and radius after the pterostigma ; 11 to 13 cubital 

nervures ; discoidal cell traversed 4 to 7 times ; nodal index 

30—^3 I 22—34 

"I ; ; I A forked shortly after its origin, its branches 

31-20 1 25-30 

streaming distally ; anal area simple ; Riii arising variably at 

or well distal to subnode. Abdomen black, segments 1 to 3 

or 4 metallic bronzy-green or blue in immature examples, 

remainder black, but segments 8 to 10 in fuUy mature specimens 

pruinosed chalky white on dorsum ; black beneath. Anal 

/ippendages black. Superiors timaid at base, subcylindrical 

at middle, compressed and slightly expanded at apex, which is 

obtuse, coarsely spined along outer border. Inferiors about 

two-thirds the length of superiors (which are slightly longer 

than segment 10), thick at base, then cylindrical and tapering 

to apex, which is curved slightly inward and ends in a minute 

point. 

Female. — ^Abdomen 32-37 mm. Hind-wiag 30-34 mm. 

Closely similar to male ; wings limpid ; pterostigma smaller, 
red, brown, or cinereous, varying in shape and size, even in 
the wings of a single specimen. Second segment of anteimasi 
whoUy bright yellow ; abdomen entirely metallic green from 
base to apex, black beneath. Anal appendages black, conical, 
pointed at apex, about as long as segment 10. Vulvar scale 
robust, extending to end of abdomen. 

Distribution. — Burma, South China, Formosa, Siam, and 
Tonkin ; probably widely distributed over southern Asia. 
I have a female taken at an altitude of 5,500 ft. ia April. 
Localities given by Selys are : Leito, Burma (April-May), 
Cobapo (September-November), Meteleo and Puepoli (in the 
same months), and lado (April). Williamson gives Toungoo, 
Burma. 

Nothing is known of its habits, but it is certainly a riverine 
breeder and probably submontane in habitat. 

Type in the McLachlan coUection. 



142 AftRHDiE. 

229. Mnais earnshawi Williamson. (Fig. 41.) 

Mnais earnshawi Williaiason, Proo. U.S. Nat. Mtos. vol. xxviii, 
pp. 185, 186 (1905) ; Bis, Suppl. Ent. no. v, pp. 8 and 10 (1916) j 
Laidlaw, Keo. lud. Mus. vol. xiii, p. 29 (1917); Fraser, Joum. 
Siam Soo. Nat. Hist. vol. iii, no. 4, pp. 460, 461 (1919); Praser, 
J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soo. vol. sxxiii, pp. 501, 502 (1929). 

Male. — ^Abdomen 40-44 mm. Hind-wing 33-37 mm. 

Head : labium black : labrum and olypeus glossy metallic 
emerald-green ; bases of mandibles and adjacent portion of 
cheeks bright yeUow, rest of cheeks glossy black ; antennae 
black, second segment bright yeUow from base to its middle 
or nearly to apex ; rest of head dull dark green metallic ; 
eyes dark brown above, paler below. Pmihorax and thorax 
dark metallic green, dorsum of latter chalky white between the 
humeral sutures and includiag the antealar sinus ; postero- 
lateral sutiire and rather more than one-third the hinder 
surface of metepimeron bright yellow. Thorax black, beneath 
pruinosed white. Legs black, cilia numerous and very fine. 
Win^s hyaline, tinted from base to apex with bright golden 
or amber yeUow ; reticulation reddish, costal half of wings 
more deeply tinted, costa somewhat darker from node to base. 
Pterostigma very small, rather less than 1 mm. in length, 
variable in size and shape, usually with the costal border 
about two-thirds the length of the rounded posterior border, 
outer end straight, proximal end very oblique ; deep blood- 
red in colour, this colour sometimes spreading beyond the 
bordering nervures of the pterostigma distally and proximally. 
Discoidal ceU rather convex costalwards, traversed 8 to 9 times 
in fore-wing, 6 in hind- wing; 12 to 15 cubital nervures ; usually 
only a single row of cells in the space after pterostigma, but 
occasionally two ; Riii arising widely distal to subnode in 
fore- wing, a shorter distance in hind-wing ; lA forked shortly 
after its origin, but its branches running distally ; anal area 
simple ; some of the main nervures occasionally branched. 
Abdomen with segments 1 and 2 dark glossy metallic green, 
remaining segments bronzy-black metaUic, especially 9 and 10 ; 
8 to, 10 pruinosed in mature specimens. Anal appendages- 
black. Superiors curving gradually inwards to meet at apices, 
thick at base, then subcyUndrical, with apices compressed,, 
slightly broadened, and obtuse, outer border coarsely spined. 
Inferiors slightly shorter than superiors, broad at baSe, then 
cylindrical and with a minute spine at inner side of apex. 

Female. — ^Abdomen 34-41 mm. Hind-wing 30-36 mm. 

Very similar to male, wings much paler yellow or entirely 
colourless ; reticulation reddish-brown, pterostigma white 
or cinereous, or occasionally quite xmoolured or entirely absent, 
usually much smaller than ia male and abnormal in shape, 
sometimes triangular, framed by two nervures which meet 



MNAIS. 143 

either at eosta or at radius, sometimes represented by a mere 
bordering of opaque white on one or hoth sides of a postnodal 
nervure. Thorax and abdomen without pruinosed areas. 
Anal appendages small, pointed, conical, black. Vulvar scale 
robust, estendiQg to end of abdomen, blackish- brown in colour. 

Distribution. — Bttema, Siam, Tonkin, Annam, Formosa, 
and South China. The above description is made from speci- 
mens from Siam and Annam, which agree entirely with 
Williamson's description of Burmese specimens. The speci- 
mens from South Chiua and Formosa described by Ris 
are decidedly larger, as is also the pterostigma ; they have 
also a much greater extent of yellow on the sides of thorax, 
so that I consider them a distinct race. 

Type in the Williamson collection, Michigan University 
Museum. 

230. Mnais ieteroptera Fraser. 

Mnais ieteroptera Fraser, J. Bombay Kat. Hist. Soc. vol. xxxiii,, 
pp. 592, 593 (1931). 

Male. — ^Abdomen 47 mm. Hind-wing 36 mm. 

Head : labium black ; labrum, elypeus, and occiput brilliant 

metallic green, labrum with bronze or golden reflections ; 

upper part of head emerald-green, but space between antennas, 

elypeus, and middle ocellus pruinosed chalky white ; antennse 

black, second segment and base of third bright yeEow : bases 

of mandibles and cheeks adjoining mandibles bright yellow, 

cheeks against eyes glossy black. Behind occiput on either 

side a verj"- robust pointed spine, and behind each eye a second 

conical eminence not amounting to a spine. Prothorax metaUie 

green, with golden reflections and patchy pruineseence, 

especially on the posterior lobe : densely pruinosed beneath. 

Thorax brilliant metallic green, with golden or coppery 

reflections ; the dorsum, including antealar sinus as far out 

as humeral sutures, chalky white with pruineseence. Lateral 

sutures finely black, the postero-Iateral suture with 2 to 3- 

small yellow spots, rather obscured by pruineseence when 

mature, ventro-posterior border very narrowly yellow ; 

under surface black, obscured by pruineseence. Legs blaek^ 

coxae and trochanters pruinosed. Wings uniformly rich 

golden yellow throughout, with satiny reflections ; reticulation 

red ; pterostigma 2 mm. in length, nearly three times as 

long as broad, outer border straight, inner border ohlique 

pointed, posterior border rounded, colour deep blood-red ; 

34-29 31—33 
nodal index ^^ ^„ *; " ; diseoidal ceU traversed 8to 9 times ; 



30-26 25-31 

10 to 14 cubital nervures ; anal area simple ; Riii arising slightly 
distal to subnode ; only a single row of cells in the space distal 



144 



AGEHD^. 



to pterostigma. Abdomen black, segments 1 to 4 metallic 
green, with a bronze or coppery reflection on 3 and 4 ; segments 
8, 9, and 10 obscurely metaUie green, not pruinosed ; under 
surface black, pruinosed on segments 1 and 8 . Anal appendages 
black. Superiors rather longer than segment 10, forcipate, 
curving in gradually to meet at apices, broad at base, then 
subcyhndrical, apices obtuse, compressed and a little expanded. 
Inferiors about three-fourths the length of superiors, broad 
at base, then cylindrical and tapering to apex, which is curled 
slightly inward and ends in a fine point. 

Female unknown. 

Distribution. — Kalaw, Chin Hills, Buema. 

This very beautiful insect appears to be closely related to 
M. eamshawi by the pruinescence on dorsum of thorax and the 
colour of the wings ; it is distinguished from the latter by 
its larger size, the much longer pterostigma, the pruinosed 
spot on vertex, and the relatively longer abdomen. It 
appears to Hnk up the Oriental with the Palsearctic foraas 
"by the large pterostigma and the single row of cells following 
it, the former character being common to M. costalis and 
M. pruinosa. 

Type in the Author's collection. 

Genus MATRONA Selys (1853). (Fig. 42.) 

Matrona Selys, Syn. Cal. p. 17 (1853); id., Mon. Cal. p. 52 (1854); 
Kirby, Cat. Odon. p. 100 (1890); Williamson, Proc. U.S. Nat. 
Mus. vol. xxviil. p. 170 (1905); Ris, Suppl. Ent. no. v, pp. 5-8 
(1916) ; Munz, Mem. Amer. Ent. Soo. no. 3, p. 44 (1919) ; Fraser, 
J. Bombay IsTat. Hist. Soo. vol. xxxiii, p. 593 (1929). 

Head wide, eyes widely separated and globular ; epistome 
flat, frons low ; thorax robust ; legs of great length, slim, 
with numerous fine spines; abdomen of great length, slim. 




Fig. 42. — TTind-wigg of Matrona basilaris nigripectus Selys, male. 

cylindrical, depressed at end ; body- colouring brilliant metallic 
green ; wings long, very broad, apices rounded, reticulation very 
close, especially in the anal field, opaque in both sexes ; ptero- 
stigma absent in male, but a false reticulated creamy white 



MATEONA. 145' 

one in all wings of female ; median (basal) space reticulated 
with. 2 rows of cells ; discoidal cell traversed by many nervures, 
equal in length to median space ; numerous cubital nervures ; 
anal area complex, lA bifurcated shortly after its origin and 
sending a branch basally ; great numbers of iatercalated 
nervures ; Biii arising slightly or well proximal to subnode : 
Rii not confluent with radius after its origin ; node situated- 
nearer to base of wing than to apex. 

Larva very similar to that of N. chinensis. 

Genotype, Matrona basilaris Selys. 

Distribution. — Assam, Buema, Siam, Tonkin, Hainan, 
Annam, and North and South China. 

Breeds in montane streams ; habits of the imago closely 
similar to those of Calopteryx, to which the genus is related. 
Great variability is exhibited in specimens from different 
localities, so that it would appear that there are but one or twc> 
species with a number of subspecies or races. 



231. Matrona basilaris basilaris Selys. 

Matrona basilaris Selys, Syn. Cal. p. 17 (1853) ; id., Mort. Cal. 

p. 53 (1854) ; Selys, Compt. Eend. Soe. Ent. Belg. vol. xxxii. 

p. lii (1888); Kirby, Cat. Odon. p. 100 (1890); McLaohlan, 

Aim. Mag. Nat. Hist. (6) vol. xvii, p. 370 (1896) ; Kirby, ibid. 

(7) vol. V, p. 536 (1900) ; Martia, Mission Pavie, p. 15 (1904) ; 

Bartenef, Aon. Mus. Zool. Acad. St. Petersb. vol. xvii, p. 304 

(1913) ; Bis, Suppl. Ent. no. v, p. 6 (1916) ; Laidlaw, Rec. Ind. 

Mus. vol. xiii, pp. 28-29 (1917) ; Eraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. 

Soe. vol. xxxiii, pp. 593, 594 (1929). 
Calopferyx basilaris Walker, List Neur. Ins. Brit. Mus. iv, p. 601 

(1853). 

Mcde. — ^Abdomen 42-55 mm. Hind-wing 36-^ mm. 

Head : labium black, lateral lobes paler or brownish ; 
labrum and anteclypeus steely blue ; postclypeus brilliant 
metallic bluish-green, rest of head metallic dark green ; 
antennse black ; eyes dark brown above, paler below. Pro- 
thorax and tJiorax metaUie emerald-green with bluish reflections 
on dorsum, humeral and antero-lateral sutures black, postero- 
lateral suture and posterior ventral border of metepimerort 
bright yellow, as also the under surface of thorax, which is 
spotted with black. (In a male from Tonkin the imder 
surface of thorax and postero-lateral suture are entirely 
black, but there is a longish yellow streak bordering the lower 
part of metepimeron.) Wings rounded at apices, very broad, 
varying from a dark brown to blackish steely blue according 
to age, outer fifth of fore- wings comparatively hyaline, but 
the nervures in this part aU framed in opaque brown ; reticula- 
tion and nervures (including costa) black, but the transverse 

VOL. n. I* 



146 AGRHD^. 

nervTires for a variable distance from base, -usually up to a short 
distance distal to node, bluish-white (this part of the "wing 
ATiewed horizonatally looks quite milky or bluish-white) ; 

nodal index \tt_ll -gQlit! : <iiscoidal ceU traversed 18 to 25 

times ; 26 to 28 cubital nervures ; Biii arising well proximal to 
subnode ; basal (median) space traversed by 2 rows of cells, 
often ia a network or with 10 to 12 traversing nervures ; anal 
area complex, filled with a very close network of nervures ; 
under side of wings similar, but differing in the shorter extent 
of bluish-white transverse nervures, which usually do not 
•extend as far as the node. Abdomen brilliant glossy emerald 
metallic green on dorsum, black below. Anal appendages 
black. Superiors thick at base, then subcylindrical, finally 
abruptly expanded and angulated inward at a Httle beyond 
their middle, apices blunt, outer border with 3 to 5 coarse 
spines. Inferiors about two-thirds the length of superiors, 
1;umid at base, then cylindrical as far as apex, which is hooked 
slightly in. Legs of great length, finely spined, black, distal 
■ends of hind femora brown. 

Female. — ^Abdomen 50-54 mm. Hind-wing 44^-46 mm. 

Differs from the male as follows : — ^Labrum, bases of man- 
dibles, outer sides of second segment of antennse, and labrum 
bright yellow, latter bordered with black and with a basal line 
and medio-basal point of the same colour ; the yeUow on sides 
of thorax of greater extent, coxse and trochanters spotted 
with the same colour ; under side of thorax almost entirely 
yellow ; abdomen with the sides of segments 8 to 10 yellowish- 
brown and the whole dorsum rather dull brown, segment 1 
slightly metallic ; segment 10 with a well-developed dorsal 
keel ending in a robust apical spine, and with a small tubercle 
surmounted with minute teeth on either side as in Vestalis. 
Anal appendages short, pointed, brown. Wings uniform dull 
dark brown, apices of fore-wings much as in male ; in all 
wings a moderately large creamy white pterostigma traversed 
"by a variable number of nervures (in a specimen from the Chin 
Hills this varies from 2-75 to 3 mm. in length, but in others 
it may be as large as 3-5 mm.). The milky white or bluish- 
white transverse reticulation is also very variable, beiag hardly 
evident in some specimens, but as well marked as in the male 
in others. Vulvar scale robust, yellowish or pale brown, 
■extending nearly to end of abdomen. 

Distribution. — ^The type, a male in the British Museum, is 
from Sylhet, Assam, but the species extends as far as Formosa 
■and Shanghai. It has also been reported from Tibet, Btjema 
(Chin HOls), Hainan, and Tonkin. 



JUTEONA. 147 

232. Matrona basilaris nigripectus Selys. 

Matrona basilaris race nigripedus Selys, Bull. Acad. Belg. (2) 
vol. xlvu, p. 355 (1879); Kirby, Cat. Odon. p. 100 (1890); 
Williamson, Proo. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xxviii, p. 187 (1905); 
Ris, Suppl. Ent. no. v, p. 7 (1916); Laidlaw, Rec. Ind. Mus. 
vol. xiii, pp. 28, 29 (1917); Fraser, ibid. vol. xvi, pp. 463- 
464, pi. sxxv, fig. 1, and pi. xxxvii, fig. 1 (1919) (larva) ; id., 
J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. xxxii, pp. 594, 595 (1929). 

Male. — ^Abdomen 52-54 mm. Hind-wing 38-40 mm. 

J&male. — ^Abdomen 43-53 mm. Hind-wing 39-45 mm. 

Closely similar to if. basilaris, but wings all uniformly 
dark as far as the apices ; sometimes the whole wing is dark 
metallic steely, bronze, or bluish, the pleating of the wings 
showing this off to fine advantage ; the bluish-white nemires 
on basal half of wings not nearly as pronounced as in basilaris ; 
pterostigma in female considerably smaDer and more variable, 
on fore-wing 1-75 to 2 mm., on hind-wing 0-75 to 1-25 mm. ; 
labium with lateral lobes dark and middle lobe entirely black ; 
labrum of female with a small yellow spot on either side, 
otherwise black ; under side of thorax entirely black, as is 
also the postero-lateral suture and that part of the metepimeron 
which is yellow in basilaris ; abdomen of male a much more 
brilliant metallic emerald-green. 

Distribution. — ^Khasi Hills, AssjUm; also Uppbb. BtnBMA, 
for which latter district Selys gives Puepoli, June, and Leito, 
September. 

I am indebted to Mr. Bainbrigge Fletcher for the following 
notes : — " Common ia Shillong throughout August, sexes in 
about equal mmibers. A female was seen ovipositing in 
lower Trout Lake at the Fruit Gardens. Flapping along, 
settling on reeds and grasses. Sat on stem well above water 
and palpated it with ovipositor. As a rule found along streams, 
so this was rather remarkable, as the lake is so open (but has 
three streams flowing through it). Another female seen ovi- 
positing below water-level, abdomen about two-thirds below 
water. Bases of wings of males bluish-grey, very noticeable 
in flight. . . . Occurs usually over tiny sAvift streams, usually 
clear pebbly streams, never over stagnant water except as 
mentioned above. Flies for only a short distance as a rule." 
The latest date on which the insect was seen by Mr. Fletcher 
was 18th October. 

Type, a male in the Selys collection from Shillong, 
Assam. 



x2 



148 



AaEDD^. 



Subfamily GALIPH^IN^. (Fig. 43.) 

GaKphiruB Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soo. vol. xxxiii, p. 595 
(1929). 

Head broad : eyes hemispherical, tumid behind ; occiput 
strongly ridged at its posterior border ; labium notched deeply 
and narrowly for about one-third its length, lateral lobes 
shorter than middle lobe ; face sloping to vertex ; epistome 
not projecting. Thorax robust, elongate, mesothoracio triangle 
absent ; abdomen cylindrical, comparatively short, but longer 
than wings in both sexes ; legs long, hind femora extending 
to beyond middle of segment 2, slim, spines long and hair- 
like. Wiags long and narrow, apices rounded, reticulation 
moderately close, tetragonal in type ; petiolation marked, 
extending nearly to level of arc ; discoidal cell elongate,, 
convex above, broadening gradually distally, outer end 




Fig. 43. — Wings of OaUphcea confusa Selys, male. 

obUque, about half the length of median space, which is entire ; 
antenodal nervures numerous, costal and .subcostal series 
coinciding, no primary antenodals ; arc situated between the 
fourth and fifth, or sixth and seventh antenodals, obhque, not 
angulated ; sectors of arc arising from its middle, separated 
at origin ; Rii shortly after its origin confluent for a long 
distance with radius, especially in hind-wing ; IBiii arising 
from this confluence ; Ouii and Riv+v forked, latter pectinate ; 
no iatercalated sectors between Cuii and I A and only a single 
row of cells between the latter and posterior border of wing, 
so that the anal field scarcely exists and is very simple ; 
iatercalated sectors between MA and Cuii and between the 
remaining principal sectors at apical half of wing ; node 
situa,ted well proximal to middle of wing ; pterostigma. 



CAUFSMA.. 149 

present in all wings of both sexes. Anal appendages closely 
resembling those of the Agrhnjb, but the inferiors deeply 
bifurcate at apex ; segment 10 not keeled ; ovipositor robust. 
Distribution,. — Tibet, South-western China, Bengai, Nepal, 
andAssAivi. Only a single species belonging to this subfamily 
has so far been described. 



Genus CALIPH^A Selys (1859). 

Calipheea Selys, Bull. Aead. Belg. (2) vol. vii, p. 439 (1859) ; Kirby, 
Cat. Odon. p. 108 (1890); Williamson, Proc. U.S. iSfat. Mus. 
vol. xxviii, p. 167 (1905) ; Laidlaw, Ree. Ind. Mas. vol. xiii, p. 30 
(1917); Munz, Mem. Amer. Ent. Soc. no. 3, p. 46 (1919); 
Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. xxxiii, pp. 395, 596 (1929). 

Notholestes McLacMan, Ent. Month. Mag. vol. xxiv, p. 31 (1887); 
Kirby, Cat. Odon. p. Ill (1890); McLachlan, Ann. Mag. STat. 
Hist. (6) vol. xiii, p. 435 (1894). 

Wings hyaline, tinted when mature ; pterostigma about 
twice as long as broad, oblique at both ends ; Miii ariLsing far 
distal to suhnode ; cubital nervures numerous but far less 
than in the AGEimjE, usually 4 to 6 in number ; discoidal cell 
traversed once in all wings ; 1 or 2 intercalated sectors 
between Cuii and MA, but none between Cuii and lA. 

The position of the genus is obscure and must remain so 
until the larva has been discoverd. On the whole I am 
(Esposedto place it near theAGEHN-ai on account of its metallic 
colouring, the shape of the labium and anal appendages, the 
confluence of Rii with the radius, and the short pterostigma. 
On the other hand, the extremely simple anal field, the extra- 
ordinary long petiolation of the wings, and the comparatively 
short abdomen are all foreign to the Agehnje, and seem to 
indicate a relationship with the genus Dicterms. 



533. Caliphaea confusa Selys. (Fig. 44.) 

Caliphssa confusa Selys, Bull. Acad. Belg. (2) vol. vii, p. 440 

(1859); Kirby, Cat. Odon. p. 108 (1890); Laidlaw, Rec. 

Ind. Mus. vol. xiii, pp. 30-31 (1917); Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. 

Hist. Soo. vol. xxxii, pp. 596, 597, text-fig. 2 (1929). 
Notholestes dwesii MoLaohlan, Ent. Month. Mag. vol. sxiv, 

p. 32 (1887); Kirby, Cat. Odon. p. Ill (1890); McLaehlan, 

Ent. Month. Mag. (6) vol. xvii, p. 371 (1896); Laidlaw, Reo. 

Ind. Mus. vol. xiii, p. 30 (1917). 
Calipheea consimiKs MoLaohlan, Aon. Mag. Nat. Hist. (6) 

vol. xiii, p. 434 (1894). 

Male, — ^Abdomen 36-40 mm. Hind-wing 30-32 mm. 

Head : labium black ; labrum brilliant metallic coppery ; 
clypeus brilliant metaUie coppery with a golden or green 
reflection ; hases of mandibles, adjacent portions of cheeks, 
.and second segment of antennse bright yellow ; rest of head 



150 



AGRITDiS. 



dark blackish-brown with an obscure coppery glow (teneral 
specimens have the upper surface of head metallic green or 

.peacock-blue). Eyes brown above, paler olivaceous below. 
ProtJiorax and thorax metallic coppery green with crimson 
or gold reflections in some Ughts (metallic emerald-green in 
teneral specimens), sides along ventral border, and whole of 
metepimeron save a small triangular area at its middle, bright 
yellow ; under surface of thorax yellow. Mid-dorsal carina 
and humeral and antero-lateral sutures narrowly black. 
Legs black, coxae and trochanters bright yellow. Wings 

. uniformly pale chlorine-yellow, hyaline in teneral specimens ; 
pterostigma reddish-brown (pale brown in teneral specimens), 






Pig. 44. — ^Anal appendages of Caliphasa con^usa Selys, male. 
a, dorsal view; 6, viewed from beneath; c, right lateral view. 

covering \\ to 2 cells ; venation as for the genus ; the second 

basal antenodal often incomplete : nodal mdex ^ "~-^ 

^ 27-14112-26'- 



28-17 



25-15 



17-28 



14r-25" 



Abdomen dull coppery metallic when mature, 

brilliant metallic emerald-green in teneral specimens ; segments. 
8 to 10 in mature specimens pruinosed white on dorsum, 
black beneath. Ami appendages black. Superiors curving 
in nearly to meet at apices, outer borders coarsely spined ; 
tumid at base as seen from the side, then, subcylindrical, 
and with a well-marked keel on dorsum extending nearly 
from base to apex, which is markedly broadened and rounded. 
Inferiors about three-fourths the length of superiors, flattened, 
tapering shghtly to apex, which is bent in at a right angle 
as a robust pointed spine ; on the inner border a second and 



ASISOZYGOPTBEA. 151 

equally robust spine situated as far from apes as its own length, 
so that the appendage appears to be deeply bifurcate. 

Female. — ^Abdomen 34-37 mm. Hmd-wing 31-32 mm. 

Similar to male, apart from the usual sexual differences ; 
nodal index usually slightly higher. Anal appendages short, 
conical, pointed, bro'wn. Vulvar scale very robust, extending 
to ex:treme efld of abdomen, brown. 

Distribution. — ^As noted for the subfamily. Sir. Bakibrigge 
Fletcher found this species common in ShiUong, Assam, 
6,000 ft., during May and Jime, and I have found it in the 
Daejeelikg disteict at 3,000-5,000 ft. in May. It breeds in 
small brooks meanderiag through marshes on steep, heavily 
wooded hUl- sides, and the adults are found perched on ferns 
or grasses overhanging the stream, or, if teneral, hiding 
in scrub-jungle near by. 

McLaehlan's types of C. consimilis differ only in having 
two traversing nervures to the discoidal cells and their teneral 
colouring. 

Type in the Selys collection, Brussels Museum ; types of 
C. consimilis and JV. elwesi in the McLachlan collection. 



Suborder ANISOZYGOPTERA. 

Dr. R. J. TiUyard has described a single larva * which he 
and Dr. F. F. Laidlaw beUeve to belong to the suborder 
Anisozygopteea. This larva was discovered by Dr. S. 
Kemp ia a stream a short distance below Ghoom, Darjeeling ; 
but, although both Mr. Charles IngKs and I have searched 
the same spot, no others have been found, and the imago stiU 
remains to be discovered. 

The suborder Anisozygopteka possesses characters linking 
up the other two suborders. The fore- and hind-wings are 
petiolated and closely similar in shape and size, as in the 
Zygopteba ; the discoidal cell is four-sided and closely 
resembles that of the Lbstid.!:. On the other hand, the 
imago rests with its wings expanded, as in the Anisoptbea ; 
the eyes, although separated, are not nearly so far apart 
as in the Zygopteba, and the frons is ridged and markedly 
raised as ia most Ajjisoptiea. 

Epiophlebia superstes (Selys), the only representative of 
the suborder known in the adult stage, resembles a small 
GordulegasUr in its general faeies and colouring ; it is known 
only from Japan. 

* Epiophlebia laidlawi Tillyard, Rec. Ind. Mus. vol. sxii, pp. 93-107, 
pi. xiil (1921). 



152 



AinSOPTBRA. 



Suborder ANISOPTERA. 

Head in archaic genera broad, with eyes separated, in others 
more or less globular, with eyes confluent to a variable extent 
•on vertex ; vesicle more or less developed, occasionally highly 
specialized, and with the ocelli arranged in a triangle around it; 
labium with the lateral lobes usually larger than the middle 
Jobe, the latter with or without a median fissure. Wings 




M'-^ 



Fig. 45. — Wings of Megalogomphus superhus Fraser, male. 

Al., anal loop ; At, anal triangle ; B, forking of Rs ; Br, brace of 
pterostigma; D, disooidal cell; 8a, sectors of the arc; St, sub- 
trigone; Ri, Bii, Biii, IBiii, Riv+v, MA, Cuii,aiid J^, the main 
sectors or nerviires. 



usually dissimilar (only approximately of the same shape in 
very archaic forms) ; hind-wing generally broadly dilated at 
the base and differing markedly in details of basal venation 
from the fore-wing ; disooidal cell split into two triangular 
cells, a superior (hereafter called the hypertrigone) and an 
inferior (hereafter called the disooidal cell) ; pterostigma always 
present, narrow and of variable length, nearly always braced ; 



ANISOPTEEA. 153 

antenodal nervures usually numerous, the upper (costal) 
and the lower (subcostal) series coinciding or not (-when the 
latter condition is present, then the proximal nervure, and 
another, about the fifth to seventh from the base, are much 
more robustly built than the rest, and represent the two 
primitive antenodal nervures of the CffiNAGEHD^) ; wings 
in position of rest held horizontally outwards or even deflected 
strongly downwards, never closed over dorsum as in the 
ZyaoPTEKA. Tenth abdominal segment with a pair of superior 
anal appendages present, but only a single inferior appendage 
which may be simply triangular, or bifurcated into two branches, 
the latter in close apposition or more or less strongly divaricate. 
Female ovipositor in some archaic genera formed as in the 
Zygopteea, in other genera small and inconspicuous. 

Larvce breathing by rectal gills, caudal gills entirely absent ; 
breeding ia either still or running waters. 

The Anisoptbra comprise six famihes, of which only four 
are represented within the limits of India, Burma, and Ceylon. 
These are as follows : — 

K&y to Indian Families of Anisoptera. 

-, /Eyes separated or meeting only at a point. ... 2. 
■ \Eyes more or less broadly confluent on vertex. 3. 

Byes only very sHghtly separated or meeting 
at a point ; discoidal cells of fore- and hind- 
vrings equal in size and shape, or, if dis- 
similar, then the median space traversed by 
one or more veins CordDlegasteridSB. 

Eyes widely separated ; discoidal cells unequal, 
that of hind-wing more elongate than that 
of fore-wing ; median space never traversed. Gomphidae, p. 154. 

Discoidal cells approximately of the same size 

and shape in fore- and hind-wings and 

situated equally distant from the arc; 

costal and subcostal antenodal nervures not 

coinciding, the two robust primary ante- 

nodals present ; middle lobe of labium large 

and fissured ffischnidae. 

Discoidal cells differing in size and shape in 

fore- and hind-wings, that of fore-wing 

situated far distal of the arc ; middle lobe 

of labium very small, not fissured, broadly 

overlapped by the lateral lobes ; costal and 

subcostal antenodal nervures coiaeidiag, 

the robust primary antenodals absent Libellulidae. 



2.-1 



3.^ 



154 



GOMPHID^. 



Family GOMPHID.E. (Figs. 45, 45 a (A, B, C, D).) 

Dragonflies of large or medium size, in colour yellow or 
black, marked with yellow or green, never metalUc. Eyes 
always well separated ; vesicle low and not usually well 
defined. Wings moderately broad, never petiolate, hyaliae, 
never coloured ; hind- wing in male strongly angulated at 





Kg. 45 o.— Larvae of (A) Microgomphus; (B) Maorogomphus. 

tomiis, base more or less deeply excavate, in female rounded 
(rarely rounded ia both sexes) ; reticulation close or moderately 
so ; antenodal nervures numerous, those of the costal and 
subcostal series not coinciding, the two primary robust 
antenodals always present ; discoidal cells traversed or 
entire, that of fore-wing subequilateral, that of hind-wing 



GOUPBIDM. 



155 



elongate in lengtk of wing ; median space never traversed ; 
anal loop absent or rudimentary : membrane more or less 
rudimentary. Anal appendages often highly specialized, the 
inferior strongly bifid, with its branches closely apposed or 
more or less strongly divaricate ; male genitalia very variable 
in different genera and species ; female ovipositor represented 
by inconspicuous scales at apical end of segment 8. 

Larvce variable in form, cylindrical or extremely flattened, 
elongate or short and compact : crepuscular in habits, living 
in mud, debris, or buried in sand at the bottom of pools in 
streams or lakes, more commonly in the former. 




Fig. 45 a.— Larvae of (C) Lamelligomphm ; (D) Sieboldius. 

Distribution.— €oBmo^oma,n. This is a very large and well 
defined family, represented within our limits by 108 species 
belonging to 25 genera. 

Species of the family are remarkable for the archaic separation 
of the eyes, for the slight differences between the sexes (in 
contrast with the Zygoptbka), and, lastly, by their homo- 
geneous colouring of black and yellow. Species from dry 
zones and desert areas are mainly yellowish, whilst those from 
regions of heavy rainfall, such as the Western Ghats of India 
or the hilly tracts of Assam and Burmah, are glossy black. 



156 GOMPHID^. 

with rather restricted bright greenish-yellow markings. 
In their natural habitat these colours are markedly cryptic, 
and serve to protect the insects. 

Most GoMPHiD.a!, on emerging from the streams which 
give them birth, depart immediately into heavy jungle, and 
often to a great distance from the streams, this being 
particularly the case with the females. Thus most collections 
contain few examples, and females are particularly rare. 
Moreover, they have a very brief seasonal range and restricted 
habitats, except in the case of the commoner species. 
Although they wander far on emergence, their instincts appear 
to enable them to return to their parent streams. 

Owing to the extremely small range of venational differences, 
upon which systematic writers have almost entirely depended, 
the classification of this family offers exceptional difficulties. 
This absence of venational characters has led to the adoption 
of other characters for specific differentiation, such as the 
length of the hind femora and their armature, and the form 
of the genitaha and anal appendages of the male. The 
determiaation of females is often difficult or impossible, and 
not uncommonly we are in doubt as to which genus a female 
may belong. It is for this reason that I have given the 
definition of each genus very fully. 

The late Mr. E. B. WUliamson was the first to attempt 
a classification based entirely on the venation of the wings, 
and he was followed by Dr. F. Laidlaw ; it is the latter's 
" Series " which form my subfamilies, of which we have 
representatives of aU three within Indian limits. 

The larvae of this family fall into three categories : (1) those 
with cylindrical or fusiform bodies, with robust fore-legs 
adapted for burrowing in the sandy bottoms of rivers in which 
they Hve ; their colour is sandy and their antennae are club- 
shaped : e. g., Onychogomphus, Merogomph/us, Acrogomphus 
{fig.45a, A,B) ; (2) those with extremely flattened and broadened 
bodies, with comparatively feeble fore-legs ; their colour is 
dark brown or black and their antennae are triangular and 
flattened ; these are found hving among the rotting vegetation 
and detritus at the bottoms of deep pools : e. g., Lmnelli- 
gompkus, SieboUius (fig. 45 a, C, D) ; (3) those whose body 
is Innpet- or tent-shaped, with flattened or concave under 
surface adapted for cKnging to rocks or other flat surfaces 
in streams or deep pools : e. g., Ictinus, Oomphidia. 

Examples of the first two types are found equally in the 
■Gomphiaae and Epigomphinse, whilst the third type is found 
exclusively in the Ictiniiose. Whilst the characters of this last 
group serve well to define the subfamily Ictiniinse, those of 
the first two groups are shared so promiscuously that they are 
useless for other than generic definitions. 



GOMPHESr^. 157 

Very few of the Indian larvse of the Gomphidee have so far 
been, described, and until we know more of their characters 
they must play a secondary part to venational characters 
as a means of classifjong the families, genera, and species. 

Key to Subfamilies of Gomphidse. 

f Discoidal cell, hypertrigone, and sub trigone of 

2 J fore-wing traversed or retiotdated Icrrxix^, p. 370. 

■ j Discoidal cell, hypertrigone, and subtrigone of 

(_ fore-wing always entire 2. 

At least four transverse nervures between 

sectors of arc in fore-wing from are to [p. 31o. 

bifurcation of Bs Epiao^miis-jis, 

Usually only two (rarely three or foiir) trans- 
verse nervures between sectors of arc in fore- 
wing from arc to bifurcation of iJs Go3ipaiyjE, p. 157. 



2.< 



Subfamily GOMPHIN^. 

Qomphus series Laidlaw, Eec. Ind. Mas. vol. xsiv, pp. 371, 386,. 
387 (1922). 

This subfamily contains the bulk of the species of the family, 
and it is characterized by the reduction of the number of 
transverse nervures between the sectors of the arc from the 
level of the arc to the point of bifurcation of Its , a character 
quite unique in the suborder Anisopteea. These nervures 
in the ease of the hind- wing nmnber only 1, but there may be 
as many as 4 in the fore-wing, although 2 is the usual number. 
The bifurcation of Rs is usually symmetrical. Generic 
characters are found in the shape of the anal appendages 
of the male, the genitalia, the presence or absence of a rudi- 
mentary anal loop, the presence or absence of an incomplete 
basal antenodal nervure, and lastly, the length and armature 
of the hind femora. 

Distribution. Cosmopolitan. Sixteen genera are represented 
within Indian limits. 

Key to Indian Genera of Gomphinse. 

' Discoidal cell of hind-wing traversed by 

a nervure rtoming from costal to dis- 
tal side ; I A and Cuii in hind- wing 

widely divergent at the border of 

traig DAViDrcrs Selys, p. 160. 

Discoidal cell of hind-wing traversed by 

a nervure ruaniog from costal to dis- 
1. -{ tal side; I A and Ouii in hind- wing 

limning parallel as far as the wing- [p. 225. 

border Davtdioidbs IVaser, 

Discoidal cell in hind-wing never 

traversed ; I A and Cuii rarely, or but 

slightly, ivergent at margin of hiad- 

wing 2. 



158 GOMPHIDJE. 

'Hind-wing not excavated at base, with [p. 172. 

tornus rounded in the male Anobmoqomphus Selys, 

2. -l Hind-wing more or less excavated 

at base, with tomus more or less 
angulate 3. 

Anal loop absent ; fi rst postanal cell not 
extending proximal to base of sub- 
trigone in hind-wing ; anal triangle 
nearly always 3-eolled 4. 

3. J, Anal loop present, although often rudi- 
mentary ; first postanal cell extend- 
ing more or less proximal to base of 
subtrigone in hind -wing; anal 
triangle nearly always 4-celled .... 11. 

Lobe of genitalia enormously enlarged 
and very conspicuous; an incom- 
plete basal amtenodal nervure present 
in all wings ; pterostigma very long, 
equal to nearly half the length of 

distance from node to proximal end [p. 178. 

of pterostigma Cyclo&omphtjs Selys, 

4. -i Lobe of genitalia not greatly enlarged 
and not over conspicuous; an in- 
complete basal antenodal nervure 
rarely present*; pterostigma shorter, 
equal to less than one-third or only 
one-fourth the length of distance 
from node to proximal end of ptero- 
stigma 5. 

Superior anal appendages and branches 

of inferior appendage of equal length 

and equally divaricate 6. 

Superior anal appendages variable. 

5. -i •usually much longer than brainches 
of inferior appendage, or, if not, then 
furnished with a ventral process or 
spine beneath 8. 

Discoidal field with two rows of cells to 

beyond level of node ; only two rows 

of cells between I A and border of [p. 211. 

fore-wing Buemagomphxts Will., 

Discoidal field with three rows of cells 

at level of node ; three or more rows 

of cells between I A and margin of 

fore-wing 7. 

Anal triangle weU formed ; segments 8 

and 9 not markedly dilated laterally. Gomphtts Leaoh, p. 197. 
7. •< Anal triangle poorly formed; seg- 
ments 8 and 9 greatly dilated [p, 207. 
. laterally Platysomphcs Selys, 

* An incomplete basal antenodal nervture is present in many species 
of Anisogomjihus and Merogomphus, and irregularly so in one or more 
wings of Qomphus personahis Selys. 



Superior anal appendages as long as 
branches of inferior appendage and 

furnished beneath with a black [p. 187. 

robust spine or process AmsoGOMPHtrs Selys, 

Superior anal appendages longer than 
branches of inferior appendage, 
simple and without spines or pro- 
cesses beneath 9. 

Superior anal appendages very closely 
apposed, the apical ends curling 
strongly dotmwards; inferior ap- 
pendage much shorter, its branches 
closely apposed and curled up hook- 
wise; segments 8 and 9 with lateral [p. 228. 
9. ■{ f ohate dilatations Mesogomphus Porster, 

Superior anal appendages widely sepa- 
rated, forcipate, the apical ends 
curUng inwards so as to nearly meet 
or actually overlap and enclose be- 
tween themselves an oval space 
(more rarely the superior appendages 
simple like those of Gomphizs) 10. 

"Inferior anal appendage with widely 
divaricate branches; hind femora 
with two rows of about five pairs of 
very long, widely -spaced spines; [p. 309. 

segment 9 elongate Mbbogomphus Martin, 

10. ■{ Inferior anal appendage with parallel, 
short, closely apposed branches; 
hind femora with two rows of very 
short, closely set, gradually length- 
ening spines; segment 9 not elon- [p. 288. 
gate Styiogomphus Praser, 

(Branches of inferior anal appendage [pion, p. 291. 

ending in two fine branches MBGAiOGOMPHrtJS Cam- 
Branches of inferior anal appendage 
ending in an acute or obtuse point . 12. 

Ground-colour a fine grass-green, with 
very reduced black markings ; anal 
loop well developed, formed of three 
cells ; anal appendages short, simple, [p. 305 . 

, o I of about equal length Ophdcogomphus Selys, 

"^ Groimd-colour black or bright yellow, 
with extensive markings ; anal loop 
present, but poorly developed, 
formed of two cells; anal append- 
ages variable 13. 

'Anal triangle 3 -celled; only two rows 
of cells between lA and margin of 
fore-wing ; lobe of penis swollen and [p. 282. 

, markedly vesiculate Nepogomphtjs, gen. nov,, 

^°' 1 Anal triangle 4-celled; three or more 
rows of cells hetween I A and margin 
of fore-wing ; lobe of penis not vesi- 
culate li. 



160 OOMPHID^, 

Ground-colour preponderatingly black ; 

superior anal appendages enormous 

curled hooks, which enclose a broad 

cordate or oval space by meeting 

the similarly curled branches of 

inferior appendage, -which slightly [Fraser, p. 269. 

14. -( overlap the superiors Lameixigomphxts 

Ground-colour preponderatingly yel- 
low; superior anal appendages much 

straighter and curled only at apices ; 

branches of inferior appendage 

slightly shorter than superiors, [p. 239. 

_ between which they may project .. Onychooomphd-s Selys, 

Genus DAVIDIUS Selys. (Kg. 46.) 

Davidius Selys, Bull. Acad. Belg. (2) vol. xlvi, p. 667 (1878)- 
Kirby, Cat. Odon. p. 75 (1890) ; Wiffiamson, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus' 
vol. xxxiii, pp. 273, 286, 287 (1907) ; Eis, Suppl. Ent. no. v, 
pp. 45-47 (1916); Laidlaw, Rec. Ind. Mus. vol. xsciv, p. 388 
(1922) ; Praser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. See. vol. xxis, pp 61 
329 (1923) ; id., ibid. vol. xxxi, pp. 164, 165 (1926) ; Laidlaw^ 
Trans. Ent. Soc. Lend. vol. Ixxviii, p. 190 (1930) ; Needham, 
Zool. Smica, ser. A, vol. xi, faso. 1, pp. 19, 32 (1930) ; id., Rec 
Ind. Mus. vol. xxiv, pp. 217, 218, 224 (1932). 

Size rather small, hind-wings with the discoidal cells 
traversed by a nervure, and nervures Cuii and lA widely 
divergent at the margin ; colour black, marked with some 
shade of yellow or dull ochreous. 

Head rather large ; frons angulated or moderately rounded • 
occiput straight or emarginate, usually simple. Wings with 
reticulation close ; membrane obsolete ; tornus strongly 
angulated ; base of hind- wing very oblique, strongly excavate 
and smuous ; anal triangle 3-oelled ; are situated between 
second and third antenodal nervures ; 2 to 3 transverse nervures 
between sectors of arc and bifurcation of Rs in fore-wing 
only 1 in hind-wing ; only a single row of postanal cells in 
fore-wmg, four rows in hind- wing; first postanal ceUinhind 
wmg not extending beyond the base of subtrigone proximally • 
anal loop absent ; no incomplete basal antenodal nervures 
present ; nodal index high ; primary antenodals the first and 
the fourth, fifth, or sixth ; discoidal cell of fore-wmg usually 
enture, obliquely and sUghtly elongate, distal side slightly 
longer than costal, latter one-third as long again as basal side • 
discoidal ceU of hind-wiag nearly always traversed by a 
nervure running from costal to distal side, latter slightly 
longer than former and at least twice as long as basal side ■ 
distal side of both discoidal ceUs smuous or angulate, ceUs 
themselves qmte frequently joined to lower sector of are by 
a distmct but short stalk ; pterostigma short and markedly 



DAVIDITJS. 



161 



swollen, that of fore-wing always shorter than that of hind- 
wing, braced or not, in the fore-wing, this organ about one 
fourth the length of distance from node to proximal end of 
pterostigma ; I A in fore-wing zigzagged but not pectinate, 
only a double row of cells between it and margin of wing ; 
Cuii and lA in hind-wing very widely divergent at margin, 
4 to 5 cells between their ends at this point ; , 31 A and 
Fdv+v in the same wing also divergent, 3 to 4 cells between 
their ends at margin : only 1 cubital nervure in all wings ; 
subtrigones and hj'pertrigones entire in all wings. Legs 
rather long, hind femora extending to apical end of abdominal 
segment 1 or to the middle of segment 2, armed with two rows 
of short, moderately closely-set spines and a single much 
longer one at the extreme distal end, these spines more robust, 
more widely-set, and less numerous in the female : tibial spines 




Fig. 46. — ^Wings of Davidiua zallorensis delineatus Fraser, male. 



very short, closelj- resembling those on the femora ; abdomen 
short and rather stout, or shm and moderately long, tumid 
at base, cylindrical from segment 3 to 7, then gradually 
dilated again as far as the end ; segments 7 and 8 occasionally 
with a curious tubercle or tubercles on the ventral surface. 
Anal appendages : superiors shortly conical, divergent, often 
bearing a curled process or spine on the ventral surface ; 
inferior deeply and broadly bifid, the branches short and obtuse 
or longer, finer, and acutety pointed at apex. Genitalia : 
lamina depressed, emarginate ; anterior hamules spatulate 
and strongly curled at apices ; posterior hamules more robust, 
compressed, and bearing a short recurved spine at apex ; 
lobe inconspicuous, flask-shaped. 

VOL. n. M 



162 GOMPHID^. 

Genotype, Davidius davidi Selys, by designation of Kirby. 

Distribution. — ^Fourteen species are known, of which eight 
occxor within Indian limits, these being confined to the montane 
areas of Assam, Bengal, and Sikkim ; the remainder occur 
in Japan, Indo-China, and China. I have been able to examine 
the types of aU save that of D. zallorensis zallorensis Selys. 

The genus is especially interesting on account of the curious 
blending of archaic with modem characters ; thus we find 
in the venation an angulated discoidal cell, and in the hind- 
wing a very much elongated one which requires a cross-nervure 
to strengthen it. The level of the arc is far out, but there 
is a marked reduction of the cross-nervures between the 
sectors of arc as far as the bifurcation of Rs. The habits 
of the species and general facies closely copy those of Burma- 
gomphus, but with no knowledge of the larvse of Davidiv^ it 
is impossible to say how far this apparent relationship is real. 

Key to Indian Species of Davidius. 

("Superior anal appendages branched 2. 

1. < Superior anal appendages simple, un- 
(^ branched 6. 

f Abdominal segments 3 to 8 with very [p. 171. 

broad complete basal aruiules kumaonensis Fras., 

Abdominal segments 3 to 8 with paired 
(^ yellow basal spots 3. 

'Both humeral and antehixmeral yellow 

markings present on dorsunx of thorax . i. 
Humeral and antehumeral markings 
absent or only a humeral cuneiform 
spot present 5. 

'Superior branch of superior anal append- 
ages less than half the length of seg- [Selys, p. 163. 

4. J, m;ent 10 zallorensis zallorensis 

Superior branch of superior anal append- [Fras., p. 164. 

ages equal in length to segment 10 ... zallorensis delineatus 

An upper cuneiform humeral yellow spot [p. 168. 

present davidi davidi Selys, 

No upper cuneiform spot present davidi assamensis 

"A narrow antehumeral yellow stripe [Laid., p. 168. 
lying close to and parallel with the mid- 
dorsal stripe 7. 

Antehumeral stripe absent and replaced 
by an upper oval yeUow spot, which by 
confluence with the mid-dorsal stripe 
_ forms a T-like marking wia!ion/i Fras., p. 169. 

C Labrum and face entirely yellow aberrans aberrans Selys,. 

7. < [p. 165. 

1^ Labrum and face black , abe/rrans s&nchalensis 

[Pras., p. 167. 



■I 



3.-^ 



■c 



6-S 



DAVIDIFS. 163 

234. Davidius zallorensis zallorensis Selys. 

Davidius zallorensis Hagen, in Selys, Bull. Acad. Belg. (2) vol. xlvv 

p. 667 (1878); Williamson, Proc. U.S. Xat. llus. vol. xxsiii, 

pp. 286, 287 (1907) ; Ris, Suppl. Ent. no. v. p. 47 (1916) ; 

Laidlaw, Eec. Ind. Mus. vol. xxiv, pp. 371, 388, 389 (1922); 

Fraser, J.Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. vol.sxix, pp. 61, 330 (1923) ; 

Needham, Rec. Ind. llus. vol. sxxiv, p. 234 (1932). 
Davidiiis 1 zallorensis Kirby, Cat. Odon. p. 75 (1890). 
Davidius zallorensis zallorensis Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soo. 

vol. xsxi, pp. 163, 166, pi. i, fig. 3 (1926); Laidlaw, Trans. 

Ent. Soe. Lond. vol. Ixxviii, p. 190 (1930). 

Male. — ^Abdomen 31 mm. Hind- wing 27 mm. 

Head : labium, pale yeUow ; labrum. greenish-yellow, its 
extreme base black ; face and frons greenish-yeUow, base 
of latter black above ; vertex and occiput black, a pale 
median yellow spot on former, hinder part of latter yellow. 
Proihorax black, its base and posterior lobe yellow. Thorax 
black, marked with greenish-yellow as follows : — ^A complete 
mesothoracic eoUar confluent with a carinal stripe of the same 
colour, a narrow sinuous antehumeral stripe dilated abruptlj- 
above, a very fine humeral line and an upper poiat, laterally 
entirely yellow save for a narrow black Hne on the hinder 
suture. Legs black, rather long, robust ; femora brownish, 
armed with a row of short spines. Wiiigs hyaline, in teneral 
specimens a little enfumed at base as far as outer end of 
trigones and along costa as far as node. Costa black ; ptero- 
stigma yellowish in teneral specimens, dark brown when mature, 
2-5 to 3 mm. long, covering four cells, braced poorly ; diseoidal 
cell of fore- wings not traversed ; nodal index 8/12 — 11/10 ; 
3 cells in anal triangle. Abdomen black, marked with 3'-eUow 
as follows : — Segments 1 and 2 with a pale yeUow mid-dorsal 
stripe and the sides broadly yellow, 3 to 6 with a small baso- 
lateral and a similar apico-lateral spot, borders of 8 and 9 
yellowish. AvM appendages black, superiors bifid nearly tO' 
base, upper branches divaricate, shorter than half the length 
of segment 10, apex rounded, endiag in a short point above,, 
inner branch straight, nearly at a right angle to the outer,, 
inclined abruptly downward, its end curved back slighth^ 
towards the base and resting on the inferior appendage ; 
the latter paler, slightly longer, triangular, excavate above, 
with a transverse tooth on each side, apex blunt and slightly 
bifid. Genitalia : hamules robust, anteriors long curved 
spines, posteriors more robust and ending in a tooth whiek 
curves inwardly towards its fellow. 

Female unknown. 

Distribution. — Selys gives " Le col de Zallore," Himalayas, 
but I have been unable to trace any such place either on. 
ordnance maps or by local inquiries. 

Type in the Hagen collection. 

m2 



164 



GOlVIPHIDiE. 



235. Davidius zallorensis delineatus Fraser. (Fig. 47.) 

Davidius zallorensis delineatus Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 
vol. xxxi, p. 166, pi. i, fig. 4, test-fig. 3, iii, viii (1926) ; Laidlaw, 
Trans. Ent. Soe. Loud. vol. Ixxviii, p. 191 (1930). 

Davidius delineatus J^ieedhaja, Ree. Ind. Mus. vol. xxxiv, pp. 224, 
225 (1932). 

Male. — Abdomen 26 mm. Hind- wing 25 mm. 

Head : labium and labrum glossy black ; anteolypeus dirty 
yellow ; mandibles bright citron-yellow ; face and lower 
part of frons glossy black ; frons broadly yellow above, 
this colour slightly overlapping the fore-border, its extreme 
base above narrowly black ; rest of head mat black ; occiput 
with sinuous border, fringed with long black hairs. Proikorax 
black, with a broad anterior collar and a lateral posterior 
triangular spot citron- yellow. Above and just in front of the 
posterior lobe a tiny geminate spot. Thorax black, marked 
with yellow as follows : — A complete mesothoracic collar, 





"Fig. 47. — ^Anal appendages of Davidius zallorensis delineatits Praser, naalo. 
Right lateral and dorsal views. 

long, narrow antehumeral spots not confluent with the collar 
below, nor meeting the alar sinus above, oblique and con- 
verging above ; a small but prominent tipper humeral spot 
and the sides broadly yellow. Posterior suture narrowly 
mapped out in black ; anterior suture with a vestigial similar 
line, broadly interrupted in its upper part. Legs black, 
unmarked ; hinder femora with a row of moderately closely- 
set robust spines, the distal ones the longer ; tibial spines 
short. Wings hyaline, bases bright saffron halfway from base 
to node. Pterostigma palest brown, framed in darker brown, 
short and dilated, covering 3 cells, poorly braced as a rule ; 



DAVIDIUS. 165 

discoidal cell of fore-wing entire, that of hind-w-ing traversed 
once, or very rarely entixe : only 1 cubital nervure in all 
wings ; 4 to 5 rows of postanal cells in hind-wing ; usually 
only 2 nervures between the sectors of arc in the fore-wing, 

19—14. T^— It) 

and onlv 1 ia the hind-wing : nodal index -^^—^"—t^^' 

" 10-9 i 8-10 

Abdomen black, marked with yellow as follows : — Segment 1 
with sides broadty yellow ; 2 with the dorsal carina very 
finely so, and two large subtriangular lateral spots nearly 
confluent with each other, the basal one of which involves 
the oreillet : 3 with a large triangular baso- lateral spot 
narrowing apieallj', where it is limited by the jugal suture, 
apical to the jugum with a narrow elongate subapical spot ; 
4 to 8 with a small baso-lateral and a similar apico-lateral 
spot on each side, which become progressively smaller from 
4 to 8 ; remaining segments unmarked. A7ial appendages 
black (fig. 47). Genitalia similar to those of D. zallorensis 
zalloreiisis. Lamina very depressed, bulb of penis funnel- 
shaped, notched at its lip, very prominent. 

Female. — Abdomen 27 mm. Hind- wing 27 mm. 

Almost exactly similar to the male. The yellow markings 
of abdomen more extensive ; yellow areas on sides of seg- 
ment 2 confluent, on 3 only narrowly divided bj- the jugal 
suture, on 4 to 6 an additional spot at basal side of jugal suture 
and a similar narrow linear spot placed subapically as on 
segment 3 of the male. Vulvar scale small, triangular, about 
half the length of segment 9, shghtly bifid at apes. 

Distribution. — Gangtok, Dahjeeling distbict ; May (C. M. 
Inglis). 

Distinguished easily from D. zallorensis zallorensis by the 
thoracic markings and by the glossy black face. Possibly the 
face of the latter, in fully mature specimens, is darker than as 
described by Selys. Venation ui both species identical. 

Type in the British Museum. 

236. Davidius afcerrans aberrans (Selys). (Pig. 48.) 

Hagenius ? aberrans Selys, Bull. Acad. Belg. (2) vol. xssvi, p. 506 
(1873); Kirby, Cat. Odon. p. 75 (1890). 

Davidim aberrans Selys, Bull. Aead. Belg. (2) vol. xlvi, p. 669 
(1878); id., Ann. Soo. Ent. Belg. vol. ssxviu, p. 178 (1894); 
Williamson, Proo. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xxxiii, pp. 286, 287 
(1907); Laidlaw, Reo. Ind. Mus. vol. xxiv, pp. 371, 388, test- 
fig. 9 (1922); Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soo. vol. sxis, 
pp. 61, 329 ( 1923) ; Needham, Bee. Ind. Mus. vol. xxxiv, pp. 224, 
225 (1932). 

Damdius dherrana aberrans Praser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soo. 
vol. xxsi, pp. 169, 170, text-fig. 3, ii, pi. i, fig. 1 (1926) ; Laidlaw, 
Trans. Ent. Soo. Lend. vol. Ixxviii, p. 191 (1930). 

Male. — ^Abdomen 27 mm. Hind-wing 25 mm. 



166 GOMPHXD^. 

Head : labium, labrum, and face entirely yellow ; frons 
yellow, its base above narrowly black ; vertex black ; occiput 
yeUow, sinuous, fringed with hairs. Prothorax black, a large 
spot on each side and the posterior lobe bright yellow. Thorax 
black, marked with bright greenish-yeUow as follows : — 
A short uninterrupted mesothoracic collar, which is confluent 
with two contiguous dorsal stripes which lie close to and 
parallel with the mid-dorsal carina, a sinuous, moderately 
narrow antehumeral stripe. Laterally broadly yellow, postero- 
lateral suture finely lined with black, lastly the remnants of 
.a similar stripe on the anterior suture extending only as far 




Tig. 48. — Thoracic markings of Davidius aberrans aberrans {8elyB),iaBle. 

as spiracle. The dorsal carina has some dark shading on each 
side. Legs black, coxas yellow, femora armed as in genus 
with a row of closely-set, evenly-spaced spines, the last 3 or 4 
slightly longer and less closely set. Wings hyaline, pale saffron, 
■ diffusely so and of a deeper tint at base ; pterostigma reddish- 
brown, swollen, short, and broad, covering 3 cells; 5 rows 
•of postanal cells in hind-wing, 3 ceUs in anal triangle ; dis- 
' coidal ceU in fore-wing entire, in hind- wings traversed once ; 

nodal index -^^ =^^^. Abdomen black, marked with 



7-8 8-7 

yeUow as follows : — A mid-dorsal stripe on segment 1, con- 
tinued over segment 2 to the basal half of 3 ; sides of 1 and 2 
broadly yellow, including the oreillets ; 3 with a subtriangular 
baso-lateral spot and a narrow linear subapical lateral spot ; 
4 with similar but much smaller spots ; 5 and 6 with the basal 
spots only ; 7 with a baso-lateral " T "-shaped spot ; 8 with 
a linear lateral spot broken at the jugal suture and extending 
downwards at either end ; 9 with a miaute subbasal lateral 
spot and its ventral border narrowly ; 10 with a large lateral 
spot not quite reaching base. Anal appendages yellow ; 
superiors divaricate, simple, equal in length to segment 10, 
unbranched, the apices pointed and turning a little inward ; 
inferior appendage triangular, slightly bifid at the blunt apex. 
•Genitalia : lamina depressed, lobe tumid, corrugated, but glossy 
Wack ; posterior hamules very robust, ending in a short, 



DAViDitrs. 167 

stout, slightly upturned recurved spine which turns in towards 
its fellow. 

Female. — Abdomen 29 mm. Hind-wing 27 mm. 

Very similar to the male, but nodal index slightly higher ; 
discoidal cell of fore-wing traversed or entire ; pterostigma 
slightly longer, covering 4 to 5 cells and sKghtly longer in the 
hind- wing than in the fore- wing. Vertex with a small median 
spot of yellow, occiput low, emarginate, and with two promi- 
nences behind. Prothorax with a small geminate spot just 
in front of the posterior lobe (this probably present also in 
most males). 

Distribution. — Type a female in the Mclaehlan collection, 
collected by Capt. Lang m Xokth Ikdia. Allotype male in 
the Pusa collection, coUected bv Mr. T. Bainbrigge Fletcher 
at Muktesar, Kumaon, Assam, 7,000 ft., May 9, 1923. 

The species differs from all others except D. malloryi in 
the simple nature of the anal appendages, and from D. malloryi 
in its markings. The two species are closely related, but, 
I think, must be considered as distinct rather than subspecies. 

237. Davidius aberrans senchalensis Fraser. 

DaviMua aberrans senohcUensis Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 
vol. xxxi, p. 170 (1926); Laidlaw, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lend, 
vol. Ixxviii, p. 191 (1930) ; Needham, Reo. Ind. Mus. vol. xxxiv, 
pp. 224, 225 (1932). 

Male unknown. 

Female. — ^Abdomen 28 mm. Hind-wing 27 mm. 

This subspecies closely resembles typical D. aberrans, but 

differs ia the following particulars : — Nodal index higher, 

14—12 12—1^ 

Face black, except for a fine obscure sub- 



12-10 10-13' 

marginal line of yellow on labrum and an obscure yeUow Hne 
on postclypeus. Occiput indented on either side and not 
emarginate. Humeral stripe entirely absent. Discoidal ceU 
of fore-wings is entire. Bases of all wings markedly safironated. 
Pterostigma in all wings covering only 4 cells. Dorsal 
abdominal stripe is arrested at extreme base of segment 3 ; 
segments 3 to 7 each with a basal and a subapical spot ; 
basal spot on 3 and 4 elongate and dumb-beU-shaped, on 5 to 7 
not dilated at apical end, on 8 appearing only as a small 
baso-lateral spot, and a smaller triangular dorsal spot at base ; 
9 and 10 unmarked. 

Distribution. — ^A single female from Senohal, DAEJnEEiitNG 
DiSTKiOT, 8,000 ft., May 19, 1924. 

The characteristic parallel antehumeral stripes, almost eon- 
fluent with the yellow mid-dorsal carina, show a close 
relationship to D. aberrans aberrans. 

Type in the Author's collection. 



168 GOfiiPHiDiE; 

Davidius davidi davidi Selya. 

Davidius davidii Selys, Bull. Acad. Belg. (2) vol. xlvi, p. 671 
(1878); Kirby, Cat. Odon. p. 76 (1890); Selys, Ami. Soe. Ent. 
,Belg. vol. xxxviii, p. 179 (1894); Williamson, Proc. U.S. Nat. 
Mus. vol. xxxiii, p. 286 (1907) ; Needham, Zool. Sinioa, ser. A,, 
vol. xi, fase. 1, pp. 34, 35 (1930). 

Davidiiis davidi davidi Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. xxix, 
pp. 61, 329 (1923) ; id., ibid. vol. xxxi, pp. 166, 167, pi. i, fig. 6 
(1926); Laidlaw, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. vol. Ixx-viii, p. 191 
(1930). 

Davidius davidi Needham, Ree. Ind. Mus. vol. xxxiv, p. 224 (1932). 

The typical form of this species is not known to occur in 
India. 

Mah unknown. 

Fetnale. — Abdomen 34 mm. Hind-wing 32 mm. 

Head black, except the frons, which has a broad dark yellow 
transverse stripe on its crest ; occiput low, fringed with hair 
behind. Prothorax black, its base and posterior lobe dark 
yellowi Thorax black, marked with yellow as follows : — 
A short unbroken mesothoraeic collar ; lower part of mid- 
dorsal carina, which is confluent with the yellow collar ; an 
upper isolated cuneiform humeral spot, and laterally two very 
broad yellow stripes separated by a narrow black stripe on 
the postero-lateral suture. Interalar space also yellow. 
L^gs black, femora armed as in D. zallorensis, rather long 
(8 mm.). Wings hyaline, sUghtly safironated, costa black. 
Nodal index 13/15 — 15/15 ; discoidal cell of fore-wing 
entire, that of hind-wing traversed once ; pterostigma blackish- 
brown, 3 mm. long, stout, covering 3| to 4 cells. Abdomen 
black, dorsum and sides of segment 1 and a dorsal stripe and 
the sides of segment 2 yellow ; 3 to 5 with baso-lateral aiid 
apico-lateral yellow spots, 6 to 7 with basal spots only. Anal 
appendages small, as long as segment 10, which is very short. 
Vulvar scale slightly notched. 

Distribution. — Tibet. Two females, one of which is the type, 
in the Paris Museum, collected by the Abb6 David. 

238. Davidius davidi assamensis Laidlaw. (Fig. 49.) 

Davidius davidi assaanensis Laidlaw, Ree. Ind. Mus. vol. xii, 
pp. 135, 136, text-fig. 2 (1916); id., ibid. vol. xxiv, pp. 371, 
388, 389, text-fig. 10 (1922); Praser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. 
Soc. vol. xxix, pp. 61, 329 (1923); id., ibid. vol. xxxi, p. 167,. 
pi. i, fig. 2 (1926) ; Laidlaw, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. vol. Ixxviii, 
p. 191 (1930); Needham, Ree. Ind. Mus. vol. xxxiv, pp. 224, 
225 (1932). 

Male and female. — Abdomen 34 mm. Hind- wing 32 mm. 

Differs from the last by the total absence of the antehumeral 
cuneiform spot on thorax. In the male the last five abdominal 
segments are unmarked ; segment 7 has on its ventral aspect, 
a little apical to the middle of segment, a small tubercle-like 



DAVIDIUS. 



169' 



process on the ventral tergite, coated with tiny backwardly 
directed spines : the sides on the eighth segment have a series 
of larger spmes, and the stemite has also a small obtuse pro- 
jection close after the base. The markings of the body are 
a rich ochreous- rather than greenish- or citron-yellow as m 
other species. (This mav be due to postmortem changes m 




Fie 49.— Anal appendages of Damdius davidi assammsis Laidlaw, male. 
Right lateral and dorsal views. 

the tjTie) Wings hvaline, slightly enfumed at the bases. 
Venation corresponding to that of D. zallorensis : discoidal 
cells traversed only on hind-wings. Anal appendages (fig. 49) 
very similar to those of D. zallorensis. 

i)i5iri6M«fo?i.— Gopaldhara,DAEjEELiNG distkict; one male 

(type) and two females in the Indian Museum. 

239. Davidius malloryi Fraser. (Figs. 50 & 51.) 

Davidi-us malloryi Fraser, J. Bombaj- Nat Hist. Soe. vol. xxxi, 
pp. 167, 168, text-eg. 3, iv, pi. i, fig. 5 (1926) ; Laidlaw, Trans. 
Ent. Soc. Lond. vol. Ixxviii, p. 191 (1930); Xeedham, Ree. 
Ind. Mus. vol. xxxiv, p. 224 (l932). 

illaZe.— Abdomen 29 mm. Hind-wing 21-23 mm 
Head ■ labium dirtv brown or dirty yeUow ; labrum and 
face areenish-yeUow, "unmarked : frons greenish-yeUow, its 
base above broadly black ; vertex black ; occiput greenish- 
yeUow, notched at the middle, fringed with long black hairs. 
Prothorax black, its posterior lobe and a large subdorsal spot 
which is confluent with it, yellow. Thorax black, marked 
with greenish-yellow as foUows :— A very narrow meso- 
thoracie collar, confluent with a median dorsal stripe, which 
narrows above, and is confluent here with two subdorsal 
longitudinal oval spots, the three markings together shaped 
Hke a " T " The extreme upper, keeled part of the dorsal 



170 GOMPHID^. 

carina black, this alone separating the adjacent dorsal oval 
spots. A tiny upper antehumeral point. Laterally greenish- 
yellow, postero-lateral suture very finely black, also antero- 
lateral suture below level of spiracle ; from this a line runs 
back to meet the posterior suture, thus forming a black 
inverted " Y." Underside and dorsum very hairy. Legs 
black, femora armed as for genus, very hairy, the distal spine 
considerably longer. Wings hyaline, palely enfumed, not 
saffronated ; pterostigma bright ochreous between heavy 
black nervures, braced, but the brace at an angle to the 
oblique end of pterostigma, covering 3-4 cells, the hind ptero- 
stigma slightly the longer, not nearly as swollen as in other 

species. Nodal index ^^^r--^, anal triangle with 3 cells ; 



8-8 

2 oross-nervures between the sectors of arc in fore-wing, 
only 1 in hind- wing ; only 1 cubital nervure in all wings ; 
discoidal cell in fore-wingalwaysentire, in hind- wing more often 




Fig. 50. — Thoracic markings of Davidius malloryi Fraser, male. 

■entire than traversed. Abdomen black, marked with yellow 
as follows : — Segment 1 with a narrow mid-dorsal stripe, 
continued over 2 nearly to apical border of 3 ; sides of 1 to 3 
broadly, including oreillets on 2, after which the yellow is 
almost interrupted by an invasion of black from above. 
■On segment 3 the lateral yellow broadly interrupted by the 
black jugal suture, 4 to 7 with small triangular baso-lateral 
spots, these segments also with the mid-dorsal carina finely 
yellow, but not extending quite to apex on 5 and 7, latter 
segment with ventral border narrowly yellow ; 8 to 10 with 
this same border more broadly yellow ; 10 with a dorso-apical 
spot ; the intersegmental joints between the last four segments 
bright yellow. Anal appendages (fig. 51) black, the inferior 
yellow within. Genitalia: lamina depressed ; anterior hamules 
fine, long, black spines, markedly curled, so that the points 
almost meet the stem again to enclose a space ; posteriors 
very robust, tumid, paler, sloping downwards and backwards, 
contracting rapidly near the apex into a short, stout, robust, 
recurved spine ; lobe inflated, funnel-shaped, glossy black. 
Female. — Abdomen 29 mm. Hind-wing 24 mm. 



DAVIDItrS. 



171 



Almost entirely similar to the male ; abdominal markings 
rather more extensive ; nodal index a little higher ; diseoidal 
cell of hind- wings traversed or entire. Vulvar scale triangular, 
slightly bifid, apex blunt. 

Distribution. — Assam. Several specimens, adult males 
and a single rather teneral female, collected by Mr. T. Bain- 
brigge Fletcher at Laitlyngkot, Khasi HiUs, Assam, 21. iv. 24. 

The species is closely allied to aberrans by its appendages, 
but is easily distinguished from it and from all other species 
by the remarkably specialized dorsal thoracic markings, 
unique ia the family Gomphid^, and recalling the bizarre 
patterns of Cceliccia. 



I 1 1 




Fig. 51.- 



-Anal appendages of Damdiua Tnalloryi Fraser, male. 
-Right lateral and dorsal views. 



The species is found settled flat on rocks and stones in the 
beds of rivers, and lies so close that Mr. Fletcher states that 
he had to " shovel them off with the rim of his net." These 
habits closely correspond to those oi Burmagomphus, the genus 
which most closely approaches the genus Davidius, at least 
in considering the Asiatic genera. The narrower pterostigma 
and the simple form of the anal appendages might justify 
a removal of this species and D. aberrans to a separate genus. 
In their simple appendages they resemble Burmagomphus 
more closely than do other species of the genus. 

Type in the British Museum. 



240. Davidius kumaonensis Fraser. 

David/ius humaonensis Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. xssd, 
pp. 170, 171, pi. i, fig. 6 (1926); Laidla-w, Trans. Ent. Soo. 
Lend. vol. Ixxviii, p. 191 (1930); Needham, Ree. Ind. Mus. 
vol. xxxiv, pp. 224, 225 (1932). 



Male unknown. 

Female. — ^Abdomen 27 mm. 



Hind- wing 22 mm. 



172 GOMPHIDJE. 

Head : labmm dirty yellow, labrum black, face and frons 
glossy black, upper surface and fore-border of latter greenisb- 
yellow, vertex and occiput black, the latter sinuous, notched 
at its middle. Prothorax black, its posterior lobe, a geminate 
spot just in front of it, and a largish lateral spot yellow. 
Thorax black, marked with bright yellow as follows : — ^A very 
short but complete mesothoracio collar, obhque narrow ante- 
humeral stripes not confluent with the collar, a small upper 
humeral spot ; laterally almost entirely greenish-yellow ; 
posterior suture finely mapped out in black. L&gs black, 
•unmarked, hind femora with armature common to the genus. 
Wings hyaline, slightly saffronated at the bases. Discoidal 
cell of fore-wings entire, of hiad- wings usually traversed ; 

15—13 

• pterostigma pale yellow, stout 



nodal index 



11-10 10-11 

and short, covering 3 cells, braced indifferently. Abdomen 
black, ringed with yellow as follows : — Basal half of segments 
1 and 2, latter with a prolongation along dorsal carina and 
another along ventral border ; segments 3 to 8 with rather 
more than the basal third yellow, but the ring narrowing 
considerably on 7 and 8 ; 9 and 10 unmarked ; sutures 
between last four segments bright yellow. AtmI appendages 
and the conical process between them yellow, shortly conical. 
Vulvar scale small, in poor condition owing to the teneral 
condition of the specimens. 

Distribution.— Kms.A.os, 7,000 ft., in May {T. Bainbrigge 
Fletcher). Two females, one of which is the type, ui the British 
Museum. 

This interesting species is distinguished from all others of 
the genus by the broad rings on the abdomen. The markings 
on the thorax closely resemble those of D. zallorensis delineatus, 
but without the evidence of the male it cannot be said 
whether they are nearly related. 



Genus ANORMOGOMPHUS Selys. (Kg. 52.) 

Anormogomphus Selys, Bull. Acad. Belg. vol. xxi, pt. 2, p. 60 (1854) ; 
id., Moil. Gomph. p. 102 (1857) ; Kirby, Cat. Odon. p. 70 (1890) ; 
Williamson, Proo. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xxxiii, p. 298 (1907);, 
Laidlaw, Reo. Ind. Mus. vol. xxiv, p. 396 (1922) ; Fraser, J. Bom- 
bay Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. xxix, pp. 61, 330 (1923); id., ibid. 
vol. xxxi, pp. 744, 745 (1926); Laidlaw, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 
vol. Ixxviii, p. 190 (1930); Needham, Reo. Ind. Mus. vol. xxxiv,. 
pp. 217, 225 (1932). 

Size rather small ; colouring pale, vmiform, and almost 
without markings. 

Head moderately large, frons angulated, rather prominent, 
occiput flat and simple. Wings : reticulation open, base of 



ASOEMOGOilPHTS. 



173 



hind-wmg rounded in both sexes, the tomus absent : membrane 
almost absent : anal triangle single-celled ; arc situated 
bet-ween the first and second antenodal nervures : only 1 to 2 
nervures between sectors of arc, from arc to bifurcation of i?s, 
in fore-wing, 1 in hind-wing ; 1 row of postanal cells in 
fore-wings, 2 to 3 in hind- wing ; first postanal cell in hind- wing 
extending proximally as far as the centre of base of sub- 
trigone only ; anal loop absent ; basal incomplete post costal 
nervures absent ; nodal index low ; primary antenodal nervures 
the first and fourth ; discoidal cells entire , that of fore- wing with 
costal and proximal sides equal, distal sUghtly longer, that 
of hind-wing with costal side longer than proximal and distal 
longer than costal ; pterostigma large, expanded at the middle. 




Fig. 52. — Wings of AnormogompTius heteropterus Selys, male. 



equal to rather more than one-fourth the distance from node to 
distal end of pterostigma, strongly braced ; lA in fore-wing 
not pectinate ; Cuii and I A in hind-wing nearly parallel to 
termen ; only 1 cubital nervure in all wings ; hypertrigones 
and subtrigones entire in aU whigs. Legs moderately long, 
hind femora with a group of short, closely-packed, robust 
spines and a long single spine at distal end. Abdomen sHghtly 
tumid at base, terminal segments in male slightly dilated, in 
female of even width and cylindrical throughout. Anal 
appendages very short ; superiors conical, widely divaricate, 
and furnished with a robust basal ventral spine ; inferior 
deeply cleft into two widely divaricate branches. Genitalia : 
lamina depressed, minutely emarginate ; anterior hamules 
small, fine ; posterior hamules much longer, projecting almost 
perpendicularly, tapering to an acute hook-like apex ; lobe 



174 GOMPHIDiE. 

funnel-shaped, moderately large ; vulvar scales two, very 
sraall, triangular, -widely (Uvaricate plates. 

Genotype, AnormogoTnphus heteropterus Selys. 

Distribution. — Generally desert and arid areas of India. 
Iraq, and Persia, but one species is known from Bengal. 

Larvce undescribed. 

Key to Indian Species of Aaormogomplius. 

[p. 174. 
Head and thorax with pale brown markings . . heteropterus Selys, 
Head and thorax without markings kiritschenkoi Bart., 

[p. 176. 

241. Anormogomphus heteropterus Selys. (Fig. 53.) 

Anormogomphus heteropterus Selys, Bull. Aead. Belg. vol. xxi, pt. 2, 
p. 61 (1854); id., Mon. Gomph. p. 103 (1857); id., Bull. Acad. 
Belg. (2) vol. xxxvi, p. 500 (1873); Kirby, Oat. Odon. p. 70 
(1890); WilUamson, Proo. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xxxiii, p. 298, 
text-fig. 26 (1907) ; Laidlaw, Ree. Ind. Mus. vol. xxiv, pp. 371,. 
396 (1922) ; Eraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. xxix, pp. 61, 
330 (1923); id., ibid. vol. xxxi, pp. 745, 746, text-figs. 2, xii, 
& 56 (1926); Needham, Eeo. Ind. Mus. vol. xxxiv, p. 225. 
(1932). 

MaZe. — Abdomen 25 mm. Hind-wing 22 mm. 

Head pale whitish-yellow, eyes and ocelli brown and con- 
trasting strikingly with the pale ground-colour ; an obscure 
brown line at base of frons above and another in front of 
occiput ; latter simple, depressed, its border angulated 
obtusely. Proihorax sandy-yeUow, with obscure brownish 
transverse Unes. Thorax darker yellow with a grass-green 
tiage laterally ; dorsum with obscure vestiges of brownish 
lines ; a median bordering each side of mid-dorsal carina 
and convex inwards, an antehumeral stripe, more distinct, 
running obhquely from above downwards and outwards, 
lastly a humeral stripe only visible at its middle part. Wings 
pale, reticulation open, black, costa bright yellow ; ptero- 
stigma pale yellow between black nervures, short, and stout, 



covering 1 and 2 ceUs, braced ; nodal index %-~ 

6—7 



10-5 , 
"7--6' *^°' 



rows of cells in discoidal field to beyond level of node. Legs 
sandy yellow with black spines. Abdomen pale sandy yellow, 
marked with dark brown as follows : — ^A spot on each side of 
segment 1, a baso-lateral and a broad apico-lateral on 2, 
jugal sutures and articulations of 3 and 6, these segments also 
having a small blackish-brown spot on each side of apical 
border ; 7 with a basal ring, 8 and 9 with a dorsal stripe on carina 
pale yellow ; sides of 8, 9, and 10 darker yellow ; apical border 
of segment 10 rounded and not turned down between anal 
appendages as in ^. kiritschenkoi. Anal appendages (fig. 53). 



AiTOEMOGOIPHTJS. 



175 



yelloTv. Genitalia : lamina depressed, shallowly notched ; 
anterior hamules small, conical, tapering ; posterior hamules 
more robust, projecting perpendicularly to long axis of abdomen, 
of even thickness to apex, where they are abruptly conical, and 
end in a short, fine, inwardly curved black spine ; lobe large, 
tumid, deeply bifid at lip, scoop-shaped. 

Female. — ^Abdomen 27 mm. Hind-wing 25 mm. 

Very similar to but larger than male. Closely resembles 
in many respects the female of ^. kiritschenkoi, but reticulation 
of wings is much more abundant, as in the male. Head 
(missing in the only known specimen of this sex). Prothorax 
similar to that of male. Thorax yellow laterally, grass-green 
on dorsum with some obscure dark brown stripes : upper part 
of mid-dorsal carina ; a well-defined antehumeral stripe 





Pig. 53. — Anal appendages of Anormogompliits heteropterus Selys, male.. 
Dorsal and left lateral views. 

running from the alar sinus above, very obliquely downwards 
and outwards and becomiog lost in its lower' third ; a short 
obsom-e line on upper part of humeral suture and a broken 
line on the second lateral suture. Legs greenish-yellow with 
black spines, numbering about 15-20 on posterior femora. 
Wings hyaline, similar to those of male ; Cuii pectinate in 
fore-wing. Abdomen yellow with a greenish tinge, marked 
obscurely as follows : segments 2 and 7 with a subapical, 
subdorsal, oblique linear spot on each side convergent apically ; 
8 and 10 ferruginous, the subdorsum and subapical borders 
clouded with black ; 10 with the base similarly clouded on 
dorsum. Aoial appendages ferruginous, very smaU, com'cal, 
separated by a similarly coloured conical structure; viilvar 



176 GOMPHID^. 

scale very minute ; two tiny triangular processes on each 
side of hinder border of segment 8. 

Distribution. — Type, a male in the Selys collection, from 
India, without further data as to locality, collected by Stevens. 
There is a male from Lahore, Pxinjab, in the Indian Museum, 
and a third male in my own collection from Bihae, the latter 
very teneral. The only female known is a damaged but fully 
coloured specimen in my coUeotion from Baghwonie, Bihab. 

A. heteropterus appears to be much rarer than A. kirit- 
schenJcoi, but may be overlooked on account of its weak 
flight and colourless body and wings. The above description 
has been taken from the Bihar specimen. 

242. Anormogomphus kiritsehenkoi Bartenef. (Fig. 54.) 

AnormogompJius kiritsehenkoi Bartenef, Revue Eusse d'Ent. 
vol. xiii, p. 179 (1913) ; Morton, Ent. Month. Mag. (3) vol. v, 
p. U9 (1919); id., ibid. (3) vol. vi, p. 87 (1920); id., Ann. 
Mag. Nat. Hist. (9) vol. v, pp. 296, 297 (1920) ; Fraser, J. Bombay 
Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. xxxi, pp. 746, 747, text-figs. 2, xi, & 5 « 
(1926) ; Needham, Ree. Ind. Mus. vol. xxxiv, p. 225 (1932). 

Male. — Abdomen 29-31 mm. Hind-wing 24-25 mm. 

Very similar to the last species, but rather more colourless, 
and the reticulation of wings more simple and open. Head : 
lips, face, and vertex palest greenish- white or creamy ; ocelli 
and eyes dark brown and strongly contrasted against the pale 
ground-colour ; occiput pale, its hinder border obtusely 
angled. Prothorax palest yellow, rather darker on dorsum. ; 
posterior lobe and a transverse ridge in front of it brighter 
greenish-yellow. Thorax pale green, yellowish in some 
specimens, but very variable and almost grass-green in others, 
unmarked ; dorsum darker olivaceous. Legs yellow, all 
femora with a longitudinal brown line on the outer sides, 
dark and well defined distally, paler and diffuse proximally, 
and much darker and better defined on the anterior than 
posterior femora ; spines shorter, but more numerous and 
more closely set than in A. heteropterus. Wings hyaline, oosta 
and most of the nervures pale straw-coloured ; pterostigma 
pale with a pinkish tinge, between black nervures, covering 

three cells, braced ; nodal index of two specimens 

-6-10 

7-7 



6-6 



6-5' 



— -— ; discoidal field in fore- wing with two rows of cells 

nearly to level of node. Abdomen sandy- yellow, with subapical 
subdorsal spots on segments 2 to 6 exactly similar to those of 
A. heteropterus ; segments 7 to 10 unmarked. Anal appendages 
(fig. 54) yellow, superiors with a pale green tint, inferior 
ferruginous. Genitalia very similar to those of ^. heteropterus ; 



AA-OEMOaOMPHtJS. 



177 



lamina very depressed, its surface with a narrow deep fissure 
dividiag it into two convex areas ; anterior hamules conical 
and short in profile, sloping backwards and downwards, 
parallel, flattened as seen from below ; posterior hamules- 
much more robust, conical, ending in a tinyforwardly directed 
spiae, cream-colom-ed, projecting very slightly backwards, 
and almost perpendicularly so, to long axis of abdomen : lobe 
dark olivaceous, scrotal-shaped, narrowly but deeply notched 
at apex. 

Female. — Abdomen 29-31 mm. Hind-wing 26-27 mm. 

Similar in all respects to male ; two rows of cells in discoidal 
field of fore- wing to level of node ; pterostigma slightly longer ^ 
vulvar scale as for genus. 




Fig. 54. — ^Anal appendages of Anormogomphus hiritschenkoi Bartenef, 
male. Dorsal and left lateral views. 

Distribution. — Iraq, Persia, along the shores of the Persian 
Gulf, the Mekran coast, and Sind. I took this species in large 
numbers at Zobeir, Mesopotamia, ia AprU 1915. Baghdad 
is the most northern locality from which I have received 
specimens ; it occurs later there, towards the end of August. 
It is probably not uncommon along the banks of the lower 
Indus. 

Its flight is weak and not sustained. It may be found near 
its breeding places settled gregariously on low bushes or in 
grass. At Zobeir the inhabitants dig holes in the sand for 
their water supply, fresh pits being dug as others become 
fouled. It is in these pits that A. hiritschenkoi breeds. 

Type, in the Leningrad Museum ; other specimens in the 
British Museum, Morton and Author's collections. 

VOL. u. 's 



178 



GOMPHID^. 



Genus CYCLOGOMPHUS Selys. (Fig. 55.) 

Oydogomphus Selys, Bull. Acad. Belg. vol. xxi, pt. 2, p. 61 (1854) ; 
id., Mon. Gompli. p. 105 (1857); Kirby, Cat. Odon. p. 69 (1890); 
Williamson, Proc. tJ.S. Nat. Mas. vol. xxxiii, pp. 274, 296-298 
(1907); Laidlaw, Eec.Iiid.MTis. vol. xxiv, p. 390(1922); Fraser, 
J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soo. vol. xxix, pp. 64, 332 (1923); id., 
ibid. vol. xxxi, pp. 168, 159 (1926) ; Laidlaw, Trans. Ent. Soc. 
Lond. vol. Ixxviii, p. 186 (1930); Needham, Bee. Ind. Mus. 
vol. xxxiv, p. 218 (1932). 

Size medium ; flight slow and unsustained ; colour pale 
yellow, with linear black markings. 

Head triangular, moderately large for the size of the 
insect, frons angulate, occiput simple, flat or slightly concave. 
Wings : reticulation very open ; tornus angulate ; base of 
hind- wing rather deeply excavate ; membrane obsolete ; costa 
brightly coloured ; anal triangle 3-eelled ; arc situated between 
first and second antenodal nervures ; only 2 transverse 
nervures between sectors of arc from latter to bifurcation of 




Kg. 55. — Wings of Oyclogomphtis heterostylus Selys, male. 

Rs in fore-wing, only 1 in hind- wing ; fore-wing with a single 
row of postanal cells, 3 to 4 rows in hind-wing ; anal loop 
absent, first postanal cell not extending proximal to inner end 
of base of subtrigone ; incomplete basal antenodal nervure 
present in all wings ; nodal index moderately high ; first and 
fifth antenodal nervures the primaries ; diseoidal ceU of fore- 
wing entire, with costal side slightly longer than basal and 
distal slightly longer than costal, entire ; that of hind-wing 
also entire, elongate in length of wing, costal and distal sides 
about equal and nearly twice the length of basal ; pterostigma 



CYCLOGOIVIPHtrS. 179 

long and stout, distinctly less than twice the distance between 
node and proximal end of pterostigma, braced ; I A in fore- wing 
short and strongly arched, not pectinate ; lA and Cuiiin. hind- 
wing parallel nearly to wing-border ; only 1 cubital nervure 
in aU wings ; subtrigones and hj'pertrigones all entire. Legs 
robust, hind femora very long, extending to middle of seg- 
ment 2, and furnished with a group of short numerous spines 
on the proximal half and two rows of longer, more robust 
spines on the distal half ; tibial spines short, numerous, very 
closely set. Abdomen relatively short and stout, tumid at 
base, cylindrical from segment 3 to base of 7, the latter and 
8 and 9 markedly dilated, 10 very short and narrow. Anal 
appendages : superiors as long as segment 10, parallel, broad 
at base, then constricted and again expanded at apes, which 
-tapers to a fine point (the superior appendages of C. gynostylus 
are aberrant) ; inferior broad at base, deeply bifid into two long, 
narrow, widely divaricate branches, with an inner spine near 
the middle. Genitalia : lamina small, rounded, deeply 
emarginate ; anterior hamules very small ; posterior hamules 
very long and projecting prominently from the genital sac, 
their apices pointed and turned inwards ; lobe enormously 
swollen, a massive, scrotal- shaped organ. 

Gtenotype, CydogompJius ypsilon Selys. 

Distribution. — India, Bttrma, Ceylon, Malaysia, and Siam. 

The larvae (as yet imdescribed) breed in sluggish submontane 
or Decean streams, or in marshy spots at the origin of such 
streams. The imago rests in grass or on sedges, and has an 
extremely weak flight. 



1.^. 



Key to Indian Species of Cyelogomphus. 

fTwo black Y-shaped markings on each side 

J of thorax 2. 

"j One Y-shaped marking on each side of 
{_ thorax 3. 

'Superior anal appendages black, closely 

apposed and curved and arched strongly [p. 185. 

^ J downwards gynostylus Eras., 

\ Superior anal appendages pale yellow, short, 

straight, slightly separated, and directed [p. 182. 

{_ straight backwards heterostylus Selys, 

'Black stripe on autero-lateral suture of 
thorax complete ; yellow mid-dorsal stripes 

on abdominal segments 4 to 7 wilkinsi'Piaa.,^. 183. 

Black stripe on antero-lateral suture of 
thorax vestigial, directed obliquely back- 
wards but not fusing -with stripe on 
postero-lateral suture; yellow oval spots 
on abdominal segments 4 to 7 yj3siton.,Selys, p. 180. 

n2 



Z.-1 



180 GOMHPID^. 

243. Cyelogomphus ypsilon Selys. 

Gyclogomphus ypsilon Selys, Bull. Acad. Belg. vol.xxi, pt. 2, p. 62 
(1854); id., Moa. Gomph. pp. 107, 406 (1857); Williamson, 
Proo. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xxxiii, p. 297 (1907) ; Praser, J. Bom- 
bay Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. xxix, pp. 64, 332 (1923); id., Eea. 
Ind. Mus. vol. xxvi, pp. 427, 475 (1924) ; id., J. Bombay Nat. 
Hist. Soe. vol. XXX, text-fig. 3, viii, pi. facing p. 854, fig. 1(1925); 
id., ibid. vol. xxxi, pp. 159-160, text-fig. 1 (1926); Laidlaw,. 
Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. vol. Ixxviii, p. 186 (1930); Eraser, 
Rec. Ind. Mus. vol. xxxiii, p. 447 (1931). 

(?) Gyclogomphus vesicvlosus Selys, Bull. Acad. Belg. (2) 
vol. xxxvi, p. 300 (1873); Kirby, Cat. Odon. p. 69 (1890); 
Williamson, Proo. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xxxiii, p. 297 (1907); 
Laidlaw, Rec. Ind. Mus. vol. xxiv, pp. 371, 390 (1922) ; Praser, 
J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soo. vol. xxix, pp. 64, 332 (1923); id., 
ibid. vol. xxxi, p. 161 (1926) ; Laidlaw, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 
vol. Ixxviii, p. 186 (1930). 

Gyclogomphus hypsilon Laidlaw, Reo. Ind. Mus. vol. xxiv, pp. 371,. 
390, 391, text-fig. ii (1922). 

Male,. — ^Abdomen 30 mm. Hind-wing 27 mm. 

Head : labium yellow, its middle lobe bordered with black ; 
labrum, ante- and postclypeus greenish-yellow, former with 
a very fine bordering and base black ; frons above and in front 
greenish-yeUow, with a fine transverse black band across 
its lower front border, and a narrow basal border above, rather 
more extensively so in middle ; vertex black ; occiput pale 
yellow, simple. Eyes bottle-green, yellow below and behind, 
glossy black above and behind. Prothorax black, with a 
geminate spot on mid-dorsum of posterior lobe and a large 
yellow spot on each side. Thorax black and greenish-yellow ; 
two broad black mid-dorsal stripes narrowly separated by 
the finely yellow median ridge, which is itself confluent below 
with a broad yellow complete mesothoracie collar, the yellow 
thus forming an inverted " Y " ; the two black stripes widely 
confluent above through the medium of the black alar sinus, 
and also outwardly with a broad black humeral stripe which 
crosses the humeral suture rather obHquely and encloses 
a small yellow spot above its upper part, thus being split into 
two arms and forming an upright " Y " ; laterally a vestigial 
fine black stripe on the upper part of the first lateral suture, 
and a complete black stripe on the second lateral suture. 
Legs bright yellow, marked with black ; tibiae and tarsi 
black, but the hind tibiae with a small yellow spot on the distal 
end of the flexor surface ; hind femora with an inner and 
outer stripe, broad and confluent distally, rapidly tapering 
and ending well before the base ; middle and anterior femora 
entirely black on the outer side. Wings hyaline, or in old 
specimens evenly enfamed ; pterostigma pale brown, or in some 
male specimens brown at the centre, pale at either end, and 
well-braced, covering 3 to 4 cells ; nodal index very variable : 



OYCLOGOHPHtrS. 181 

^-^^ I ^^"^ izl£ i^ ; four rows of postanal cells in hind- 
7-9 I 9-8 ' 10-11 i 11-9 ^ 

wings. Abdomen black, marked with greenish-yellow as 
follows : segment 1 almost entirely yellow, a fine basal black 
border broadening very slightly subdorsally ; 2, including the 
large oreillets, yellow, with broad longitudinal subdorsal black 
stripes which enclose a mid-dorsal bilobed spot, the black 
broadening at level of transverse suture and almost confluent 
with that of the other side ; 3 similar to 2, the black, however, 
confluent at apical border of segment and almost so at level 
of transverse suture, thus cutting the dorsal yellow into a 
smaUish basal spot and a much larger apical spot ; 4 to 6 with 
the subdorsal black stripe not extending nearly to base of 
segments, there being a broadish yellow complete ring here, 
at apex of each segment the black broadly confluent over the 
dorsum, and almost equally so at the transverse sutures ; 
7 similar, but the black stripe of even width at transverse 
suture and not nearly confluent, at apical border only slightly 
confluent ; 8 similar, but the black subdorsal stripe broader 
and extending almost to base of segment ; 9 similar, but the 
black stripes well separated throughout their entire length ; 
10 almost entirely black, with a small arrowhead-shaped 
mark on the dorsum and the ventro-lateral borders narrowly 
yellow. Anal appendages : superiors resemblmg those of 
LiBEULiULiN-^, almost equal in length to segment 10 ; seen 
from the side cylindrical in basal half, broadened in apical 
half, extreme apex curved up, stem of appendage curved down, 
broadened part expanded below into a robust blunt tooth ; 
seen from above thickened at extreme base, then constricted 
and again considerably dilated and finally tapered to an acute 
point ; these appendages moderately closely apposed, enclosing 
a small foramen between their stems, yellow. Inferior 
appendage nearly one-third longer, deeply bifid, the branches 
widely divaricate, more slim than the superiors, bluntly acute 
at the apices, tapering, presenting a large blunt tooth at the 
middle third which is directed down and somewhat inwards, 
yellow changing to black ia the outer half. Genitalia prominent ; 
lamina depressed; hamules very large, projecting ahnost 
perpendicularly from genital sac, apices dfrected slightly 
forward, pale yellow; lobe enormously swoHen, pyriform, 
globular, overlapping basal third of third abdominal segment, 
^eenish-yellow, surmounted by a black penis. 

Female similar to male, differing as foUows : usually larger, 
abdomen 32 mm., hiad-wing 29 mm. ; nodal index as variable 
as in male ; basal marking on abdominal segment 1 broader ; 
segments 2 and 3 similar ; 4 to 7 with the black broadly con- 
fluent over dorsum at transverse suture and apical border, 



182 gompbdedje:. 

thus enclosing long oval yellow spots ; segment 10 broadly 
yellow on dorsum. Vulvar scale small and rudimentary, 
two tiny triangular processes in close apposition at base of 
segment 8, followed immediately afterwards by two raised 
folds on the ventral aspect of segment 9 which are widely 
divaricate. 

Distribution. — Centeal India and the Deocan. Type, 
a male in the British Museum ; a paratype in the Selys 
collection is labelled " Cuna," obviously an error for " Guna," 
in the Central Provinces, India. 

I found this insect moderately plentiful in the marshland 
at the head of the Katraj Lake, near Poena, Deccan. It 
rests in long grass, and has to be put up by beating. Its flight 
is short and weak, and it falls an easy prey to the collector's net. 

The type of G. vesiculosus, a male from an unrecorded 
locality in India, with the last five abdominal segments 
missing, was formerly in the Moore collection, but appears to 
have been lost. It was probably merely a small specimen 
of 0. ypsilon. 

244. Cyclogomphus heterostylus Selys. (Fig. 56.) 

Oyologomphus heterostyla Selys, Bull. Acad. Belg. vol. xxi, pt. 2, 

p. 62 (Z854). 
Oyologomphus heterostylus Selys, Mon. Gomph. p. 106 (1857); 

id., BuU. Aoad. Belg. (2) vol. xxxv, p. 757 (1873); Kirby, Cat. 

Odoii.p. 69(1890); Williamson, Proo. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xxxiii, 

pp. 297, 298, text-fig. 23 (1907); Laidlaw, Reo. Ind. Mus. 

vol. xxiv, pp. 371, 390, 391 (1922); Praser, J. Bombay Nat. 

Hist. Soo. vol. xxix, pp. 64, 332 (1923); id., Reo. Ind. Mus. 

vol. xsrvi, pp. 427, 474 (1923) ; id., J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 

vol. xxxi, pp. 160, 161 (1926) ; Laidlaw, Trans. Ent. Soo. Lond. 

vol. Ixxviii, p. 186 (1930); Fraser, Rec. Ind. Mus. vol. xxxiii,. 

p. 447 (1931). 

Male. — ^Abdomen 32 mm. Hind-wing 28 mm. 

This species is very similar to the last. The differences 
indicated in Selys's description are found on examination of 
a large number of specimens to be inconstant. Thus no 
dependence can be placed on the nodal index, which varies 
widely in this as in C. ypsilon and C. willdnsi. The bicolorous 
character of the pterostigma is also found to be shared by 
fully mature specimens of C. ypsilon. Size also is very 
variable. Other minor differences given by Dr. Hagen are- 
also unimportant. The only reliable characters which I have 
been able to find are the following : — Black band on lower part 
of ff ons distiactly thicker ; labrum entirely yellow ; stripe on 
first lateral suture of thorax obUque, and confluent at an 
angle with stripe on second lateral suture, so as to form a 
second black " Y " on sides. Finally, the anal appendages 
(fig. 56) present some differences : the superiors are more 



CYCLOGOMPHTTS. 



185 



closely apposed and their apices are turned outward as well 
as downward ; the inferior is relatively much longer, the 
branches being stouter and tapering more gradually, the 
tooth at the middle third is smaller, more acute, and directed 
straight up. 
Female unknown. 




Kg. 36.- 



-Anal appendages of Cyclogomphus heterostylus Selys, male. 
Dorsal and left lateral views. 



Distribution. — Katraj Lake, Poona, Deccak, and jVIadkas, 
in marshes along the course of the Coomb River. 

Habits similar to those of C. ypsilon, and, like it, found on 
the wing during September and October. 

Type in Saunders's collection (British Museum), from the 
north of India, locality not stated. 



245. Cyclogomphus wilkinsi Fraser. (Fig. 57.) 

Cyclogomphus wilkinsi Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. sxs, 
text-fig. 3, V, vi, & vii, pi. facing p. 854, fig. 2 (1925) ; id., ibid, 
vol. xxxi, pp. 161, 162 (1926) ; Laidlaw, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 
vol. Ixxviii, p. 186 (1930) ; Fraser, Eec. Ind. Mus. vol. xxxiii, 
p. 447 (1931). 

Male. — ^Abdomen 34 mm. Hind-wing 28 mm. 

Head : labium bright citron-yellow, mid-lobe somewhat 
greenish ; labrum bright citron-yellow, base very narrowly 
black ; face bright yeEow, with a narrow well-defined black 
band separating frons from postclypeus ; frons unmarked 
save for a very fine black basal line ; vertex black, occiput 
bright yellow, flat, a little concave. Prothorax black, marked 
with an anterior yellow collar, a naid-dorsal geminate spot, 
and a large lateral spot on each side. Thorax bright greenish- 
yellow, marked vividly with black as foEows : two broad 
dorsal stripes which taper to a point below and outwards. 



184 



GOMPHID^. 



but converging and confluent above, the complete yellow meso- 
thoracic collar sending a fine carinal prolongation upwards which 
separates them except near the alar sinus ; a humeral black 
" Y," the arms of which are of even thickness and equal length ; 
two lateral narrow black stripes on the lateral sutures, parallel, 
not extending below the level of the spiracle, finely connected 
above by a bordering hne. Unmarked beneath. Legs 
bright citron-yellow, marked with black ; inner sides of femora 
almiost entirely black, outer sides with a fine longitudinal 
black stripe, almost obsolete in anterior femora. Hind femora 
armed with pairs of moderately widely spaced, fine, short, 
black spines ; tibial spines short, tibiae with a black stripe 
on both inner and outer sides. Wings hyaliae, costa wholly 
bright citron-yellow except at pterostigma, latter brown 




Kg. 57. — ^Anal appendages of Gyclogomphus uiilkinsi Fraser, male. 
Dorsal and left lateral views. 



between black nervures, braced, covering four cells ; a basal 
incomplete antenodal nervure in all wings ; nodal index 

~ -Ur-^ ; one row ofcells between 5m and /iJw. Abdomen 

short and tumid, segments 3 to 6 narrower and cylindrical ; 
black, marked with yellow as follows : segment 1 with sides 
and dorsum broadly, enclosing a subdorsal stripe of black ; 
2 similar, the subdorsal black stripes enclosing a trUobed 
cajinal dorsal yeUow stripe ; 3 very similar, but the dorsal 
yellow stripe more narrow and nearly divided by the fine 
transverse black suture ; 4 to 6 each with a basal yellow ring, 
which is prolonged in a narrow fusiform dorsal stripe to the 
apical border of segment and laterally for a very short distance 
along the ventral border, being separated by a considerable 
interval from an oval lateral spot ; 7 similar, but the basal 
ring much narrower and the ventro-lateral oval spot expanding 



CYCLOGOMPHUS. 185 

into a broad lateral fascia, especially towards the apex of 
segment ; 8 and 9 with a narrow even dorsal stripe running 
from apex to base, and the sides along the ventral border 
broadly yellow ; segments 8 and 9 and the greater part of 7 
laterally expanded as in C. heterostylus ; segment 10 with 
narrow dorsal ventro-lateral yellow stripes ; intersegmental 
joints from 1 to 7 finely black, the remaining finely yellow. 
Anal appendages (fig. 57) very similar to those of C ypsilon, but 
branches of inferior longer, and black from the lateral spine 
as far as apex. Genitalia : lobe rather more tumid ; lamina 
slightly larger ; hamules bright yellow, longer, less recurved. 

Female. — ^Abdomen 35 mm. Hind-wing 31 mm. 

Similar to male, but the black more extensive. The sub- 
dorsal black stripes extend basally as far as the extreme base 
of segments, thus cutting the basal rings into dorsal and lateral 
spots. Laterally the ventral oval spots are much more 
extensive, and may be actually confluent with the basal 
yellow or merely separated by a fine prolongation from the 
transverse suture. 

Distribution. — One male and two females taken by Slr.Wilkins 
and myself along the banks of a smaU stream at Hunse, 
Mysore, 12-13. x. 1924, settled in long grass, after the usual 
habit of species of the genus. 

C. wilkinsi is closely allied to both C. heterostyhts and 
G. ypsilon, but differs in its larger size, in the continuous 
dorsal carinal stripes on segments 3 to 7, and more especially 
in the complete antero-lateral black stripe on sides of thorax 
(vestigial in the other species), and in the form of the humeral 
black " Y." Lastly the extreme apices of the superior append- 
ages are turned distinctly inwards. 

Type and allotype at present in my own collection, but will 
be deposited eventually in the British Museum. 

246. Cyelogomphus gynostylus Fraser. (Fig. 58.) 

Cyclogomphus heterostylus Laidlaw, Spolia Zeylan. vol. sii, p. 341 

(1924). 
Cyclogomphus gynostylus Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. See. 

vol. XXX, text-fig. 3, iv, pi. facing p. 854, fig. 3 (1925) ; id., ibid. 

vol. xxxi, pp. 162, 163 (1926) ; Laidlaw, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lend. 

vol. Ixxviii, p. 186 (1930); Fraser, Ceylon J. Sci. vol. xviu, 

p. 26 (1933). 

JfoZe.— Abdomen 26 mm. Hind-wing 23 mm. 

Head : labium dirty yellow ; labrum bright citron-yeUow, 
its base finely black ; ante- and postclypeus yellow ; frons 
above yellow traversed by a black band across its crest, from 
which a short black tongue runs downward ; vertex black ; 
•occiput dark ochreous, its border straight, fiiaged with black 
Jiairs. Prothorax black, with a geminate spot on dorsum of 



186 



GOMPHID^. 



posterior lobe and a large lateral spot. Thorax black, marked 
with greenish-yellow as follows : a complete mesothoracic 
collar ; a small median spot on dorsal carina ; a broad very 
oblique antehumeral stripe which runs from near alar sinus 
downwards, steadily broadening ; a small upper humeral spot 
which bisects the black, dividing the antehumeral stripe from 
the lateral yellow, and converts it into a black " Y." Laterally 
yellow, with a broad black stripe on the postero-lateral suture 
which sends a short oblique branch forwards at its upper part 
and so forms a second black " Y " on the sides. Legs short, 
hind femora not extending beyond the apical border of seg- 
ment 1, black ; inner sides of the two anterior femora greenish- 
yellow studded with minute black spines ; posterior femora, 
largely yeUow, clouded with black on the outer sides, these 
armed with two rows of 7-8 black, robust, widely-spaced spines. 




Pig. 58. — Anal appendages of Cyclogormphus gynostyltts Fraser, male. 
Dorsal and left lateral views. 

Wings hyaline. A single row of postanal cells in fore-wing, 
4 in hind-wing ; sectors of arc parallel from origin ; trigone 
of hind-wing elongate as in genotype ; 2 rows of cells in dis- 
coidal field of fore-wing almost to level of node ; first postanal 
cell in hind-wing entire and not nearly extending inwards- 
as far as proximal angle of subtrigone ; anal triangle of 3 cells ; 
base of wing slightly excavate : pterostigma yellow, swoUen, 
short, braced, covering 2 to 3 cells ; a basal incomplete antenodal 



8-11 



nervure present in all wings; nodal iadex — 



8-9 



13-8 



9-9 



Abdomen 



short, tumid, black, marked with yellow as follows : sides of 
segments 1 and 2, including the large swollen lobe and a 
lanceolate mid-dorsal stripe on segment 2 ; sides of 3 (but 
narrowly broken here at the transverse suture) ; narrow basal 
complete rings on 4 to 6 ; a considerably broader ring on 7, 
occupying rather more than its basal fifth, and expanding, 



AA'ISOGOMPHtrS. 187 

ventro-laterallj^ as far as its apical border ; sides of segments 
8 to 10, on the latter also a confluent basal ring ; segnaents 
7 to 9 rather dilated. Anal appendages i&g. 58) hlaok. Oreillets 
large, denticulate behind, yellow. Genitalia very prominent ; 
lamina small, projecting ; hamules narrow, long, projecting 
down, with the apex recurving forward ; lobe of penis ot 
enormous size, globular. 

Female. — ^Abdomen 28 mm. Hind-wing 29 mm. 

Does not differ in any marked respect from the female of 
C. ypsilon. Anal appendages yeUow, shortly conical ; vulvar 
scale triangular, very short and deeply emarginate at apex. 

Distribution. — Ceylon only. Three specimens are known, 
a teneral male (the type) from Kandy Lake, May, and an adult 
male from Ambatenne, September, in my collection, and a 
female from Kandy ia the Colombo Museum. 

The curious anal appendages of the male will serve to dis- 
tinguish this species from all others of the genus. 

Type in the Author's collection. 

Genus ANISOGOMPHUS Selys. (Fig- 59.) 
Anisogomphus Selys, Mon. Gomph. p. 102 (1857); id., Bull. Aoad- 
Belg. (2) vol. xlvi, p. 451 (1878); Kirby, Cat. Odon. p. 69 
(1890); WilHamson, Proo. TJ.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xxxm, pp. 274, 
298 (1907); Laidlaw, Reo. Ind. Mus. vol. xsiv, pp. 391, i^i 
(1922): Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. xxix, pp. 63, 
331 (1923); id., ibid. vol. xxxi, pp. 420, 421 (1926); Laidlaw, 
Trana. Eut. Soc. Lond. vol. Ixx^-lii, p. 183 (1930); Needham, 
Zool. Sinica, vol. xi, ser. A, faso. 1, pp. 20, 67 (1930); id., Reo. 
Ind. Mus. vol. xxxiv, p. 218(1932). _ <,„^ ,-,„,,n 

Temnogomphus Laidlaw, Bee. Ind. Mus. vol. xxiv, p. 394 1922 ; 
Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. xxix, pp. 64, 332 (1923); 
id., ibid. vol. xxxi, pp. 424, 425 (1926); Laidlaw, Trans. Ent. 
Soc. Lond. vol. Ixxviii, p. 185 (1930) ; NeedJiam, Ree. Ind. Mus. 
voL xxxiv, p. 218 (1932). 
Size medium, colour black, marked with bright greenish- 
yellow Head with frons slightly rounded, flattened above, 
occiput flat, posterior border straight or slightly convex. 
Wings : reticulation close : tornus rounded or with the shghtest 
angulation ; base of hind-wing very oblique ; anal triangle 
3-ceUed ; arc situated opposite second antenodal nervure or 
between second and third ; 3 to 4 transverse nervures between 
sectors of arc from arc to bifurcation of Bs m fore-wmg, 
only 1 or rarely 2 in hind-wing ; 2 rows of postanal ceUs in 
fore-wing, 4 rows in hind-wing ; anal loop absent first postanal 
ceU of hind-wing not extending proximal to middle of base ot 
subtrigone : basal incomplete antenodal nervure present or 
absent in both fore- and hind-wings (nearly always present 
in A. bivittatus and A. orites, but absent in one or aU wmgs 
of 50 per cent, of ^. occipitalis) ; nodal index high ; prmairy 
antenodals the first and the sixth or seventh ; discoidal ceUs 



188 



GOMPHID^. 



entire (very rarely traversed in the hind-wing of some speci- 
mens of ^. orites), that of fore-wing with the costal and basal 
sides equal in length, the distal slightly longer, or all sides equal, 
that of hind- wing with the distal side nearly twice the length of 
basal and sKghtly longer than costal, the connection between 
this ceU and the lower sector of arc in hind-wing nearly always 
stalked as in Merogomphus ; pterostigma short and swollen, 
equal to about one-third the distance from node to proximal end 
of pterostigma, braced ; I A in fore- wing markedly pectinate ; 
Guii and lA in hind-wing, but slightly divergent at wing- 
margin ; 1 to 2 cubital nervures in fore-wings, 1 in hind- 
wings (A. occipitalis has two cubital nervures in the fore-wings 
almost invariably, other species but one) ; all subtrigones 
and hypertrigones entire. Legs long and slender ; hind 




Fig. 59. — Wings of Anisogomphus occipitalis (Selys), male. 

femora extending to middle or slightly beyond middle of seg- 
ment 2, armed with a group of short, numerous, closely-set 
spines at the proximal half or third and with two rows of four 
or five very long, very widely set spines at the distal half 
or two-thirds, very similar to the arrangement met with in 
Merogomphus (A. occipitalis has these spines shorter and 
less numerous than in A. orites and A. bivittatus ; none of the 
species have any short interposed spines between the pairs 
of long ones) ; tibial spines long, slim, and widely spaced. 
Abdomen tumid at base, then slim and cylindrical as far as the 
base of segment 7, from which point the abdomen dUates 
again, especially at segments 8 and 9, as far as the end. Anal 
appendages : superiors white, with a ventral black spine-like 
protuberance, these appendages directed straight backwards 
or but slightly divaricate ; the inferior deeply and very 
broadly bifid, the two branches splayed out to such an extent 



ANISOGOMPHTJS. 189 

as to be nearly in a straight line. Genitalia : lamina depressed, 
deeply and broadly arched ; anterior hamules short, slim, 
acutely pointed processes ; posterior hamules differing greatly 
in the various species ; lobe funnel- or purse-shaped, with 
emarginate lip. 

Genotype, Qonvphus occipitaiis Selys. 

Distribution. — Confined to N.E. India, Assam, Bengal, and 
SrKKiM. Pour species found within these limits, all closely 
similar in appearance. 

The imago is found resting on bushes or foliage in the 
neighbourhood of montane streams, in which the larvse (at 
present unknown) probably breed. 

The genus is closely related to Merogomphus, and, except 
for the characteristic anal appendages, can hardly be separated 
therefrom. Thus the venation of the wings and the armature 
of the femora agree, including the stalked character of the 
discoidal cell of the hind- wing and the long legs and excessively 
long widely spaced spines on the hind femora, these latter 
being most evident in the female. Laidlaw separated 
A. bivittatus from the genus, erecting the genus Temnogomphus 
to accommodate it, because he was under the impression that 
A. occipitalis, and perhaps A. orites, did not possess an in- 
complete basal antenodal nervure : but in long series of both 
these species I find that exactly half the specimens of A. occi- 
pitalis have the incomplete antenodal present and usually 
duplicated in the fore- wings, whilst all of ^. orites have it 
present. For this reason I have decided to suppress the genus 
TemnogompJius . 

Key to Indian Species of Anisogomphus. 

An inoomplete basal antenodal nervure always 
present; rarely more than a single cubital 
nervure present in tbe fore-wings 2. 

An incomplete basal antenodal nervure very 
rarely present ; nearly always two cnbital 
nervures in the fore-wings 3. 

A sinuous bumeral stripe present, not con- 
fluent above with the antehumeral stripe; 
Tjostolypeus at its lower part and the occiput [p . 1 92. 

yellow bivittatus (Selys), 

1 Antehumeral and humeral stripes connected 
above by an obUque transverse spot; post- 
[ elypeus and occiput black ontesLaid.,p. 194. 

Only an upper humeral spot present; ante- 
humeral stripes confluent with the middles 
of eaehhaUof themesothoraciocollar.so as fP; > 

to form iaverted T-shaped figures occipitahs (Selys), 

An upper humeral spot and a stripe present; 
antehumeral stripes confluent with the 
outer ends of the mesothoracic coUar, so as to , , . _ LP- ■^''°- 

formL-shaped figures coucWwFras., 



190 



GOMPHID^. 



247. Anisogomphus occipitalis (Selys). (Pigs. 59 & 60.) 

OompJms occipitalis Selys, Bull. Acad. Belg. vol. xxi, pt. 2, p. 45 
(1854); id., Mon. Gomph. p. 166 (1857). 

Anisogomphiis occipitalis Kirby, Cat. Odon. p. 69 (1890) ; 'William- 
son, Proe. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xxxiii, p. 298, text-figs. 24, 25 
(1907); Laidlaw, Ree. Ind. Mus. vol. xxiv, pp. 371, 392, 
text-flgs. 12, 12 a (1922); Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soo. 
vol. xxix, pp. 64, 332 (1923); id., ibid. vol. xxxi, p. 421, 423, 
pi. ii, fig. 2, text-figs. 3, v, 4, 5 c & d (1926); Laidlaw, Trams. 
Ent. Soe. Lond. vol. Ixxviii, p. 185 (1930); Needham, Reo. 
lad. Mus. vol. xxxiv, p. 226 (1932). 

Male. — Abdomen 52 mm. Hind-wing 30 mm. 

Head : labium yellow, middle lobe blackish-brown ; labrum 
glossy black, with two small, basal, greenish-yellow spots ; 
bases of mandibles citron- yellow, rest of face glossy black ; 
frons broadly greenish-yellow ; vertex and occiput black ; 
eyes bottle-green. Prothorax black, with a large lateral spot 
and a smaller median twin spot on middle lobe, citron- yellow. 
Thorax black, marked with citron-yellow or greenish-yellow as 
foUows : — ^A slightly interrupted mesothoracio collar ; sHghtly 
obHque antehumeral stripes confluent below with the middle 





Fig. 60. — ^Aual appendages of Anisogomphus occipitalis (Selys), male. 
Right lateral and dorsal views. 

■of each half of the mesothoracio collar ; an upper triangular 
spot, and the vestiges of a humeral stripe well below this. 
Xaterally, two narrow black stripes on the sutures, the first 
of which curls forwards above and sends a short prolongation 
backwards below at level of thoracic spiracle ; the stripe on 
the second suture sends a short prolongation forwards and 
downwards below level of the spiracle. Wings usually 
hyaliae or more or less enfumed brown according to age 
of specimens ; pterostigma dark reddish-brown, covering 
3 to 4 cells, lying between thick black nervures ; 2 cubital 



AMSOGOMPHTJS. 191 

nervTires in fore- wing, only I in hind-wing ; membrane almost 
obsolete, greyish ; nodal index of two specimens - "' , 

10 n lo^YT- ^^ black, inaer sides of anterior femora 

yellow. Abdomen black, marked with yellow as follows : 
segment 1 with a large triangular dorsal spot tapering basally, 
and its sides very broadly ; 2 with a trilobed mid-dorsal stripe 
■extending whole length of segment, middle lobe of stripe 
globular, the sides, the oreillets, and a very large apical spot 
which is prolonged along ventral border towards base of 
segment ; 3 with a baso-lateral triangular spot and its dorsal 
carina finely, but more broadly at the base ; 4 to 6 finely 
yellow along the mid-dorsal carina ; 7 similar, but the yellow 
stripe broader ; 8 with a mere basal vestige of this stripe ; 
9 and, 10 unmarked ; 10 globular, compressed dorsaily at apex. 
Anal appendages (fig. 60) pale greenish-white at base, reddish 
thereafter. Genitalia : lamina depressed, broadly arched ; 
anterior hamules short, broad at base, tapering to a fine point 
which is curled back ; posterior hamules very robust, thick, 
sinuously curved, S-shaped, apex shortly pointed and directed 
slightly forwards, the surface coated with minute spines and 
hairs, the latter especially thick near the apex ; lobe shaped 
like the spout of a jug, long and tapering, coated with long 
hairs. 

Female. — ^Abdomen 33 mm. Hind-wing 32 mm. 

Very similar to the male, differs as follows : — ^Thoracic stripe 
more evident (sometimes confluent with the upper spot, 
■especially in teneral sj)ecimens of both sexes) ; abdominal 
markiags more extensive, on segment 2 the dorsal stripe 
broader and the lateral yellow stripes uninterrupted, on seg- 
ment 3 is a broad lateral stripe extending the whole length, 
and tapering towards the apex ; stripes on ■i to 7 similar 
but not reaching the apical border and broadly interrupted 
at level of transverse suture, stripe on 8 vestigial. The 
femoral spines are more numerous, more robust, and more 

14_19 19—14 
widely-spaced (6 to 7 in number) ; nodal index j - ; 

the first and eighth are the primary antenodals ; occiput 
more deeply notched than in the male ; vulvar scale of 
great length, nearly as long as segment 9, very narrow, tapering 
to a blunt point, spht nearly to its base into two closely 
apposed scales, which closely resemble those of Onychogomphus 
M-flamim. 

Distribution. — Nobthbbk Bengal and Assam, from Jvme 
to August. 



192 GOMPHID^. 

The shape of the anal appendages of the male and of the 
vulvar scale of the female and the presence of two cubital 
nervures in the fore-wing will distinguish this species from 
others of the same genus. 

Type, in the British Museum. Other specimens in the British 
Museum, Pusa, and Indian Museums, and in the Laidlaw 
and Fraser collections. 

248. Anisogomphus bivittatus (Selys). (Fig. 61, a.) 

Gomphus bivittatus Selys, Bull. Acad. Belg. vol. xxi, pt. 2, p. 46 
(1854); id., Hon. Gomph. pp. 168-170 (1857). 

Anisogomphus bivittattis Kirby, Cat. Odon. p. 69 (1890) ; William- 
sou, Proo. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xyyjii, p. 298 (1907). 

Temnogomphiis bivittatus Laidlaw, Keo. lad. Mus. vol. xxiv, pp. 371, 
394, 395, text-fig. 15 (1922) ; Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soo. 
vol. xxix, pp. 64, 332 (1923); id., ibid. vol. xxxi, pp. 425, 426, 
text-figs. 3, viii, & 5 a, pi. ii, fig. 4 (1926); Needham, Rec. Ind. 
Mus. vol. xxxiv, p. 225 (1932). 

Male. — ^Abdomen 36 mm. Hind-wing 33 mm. 

Head : labium greenish-yellow, border of middle lobe black ; 
labrum and bases of mandibles greenish-yellow ; anteclypeus 
glossy black ; postclypeus greenish-yellow, bordered with 
black above ; frons greenish-yellow, its lower part in front 
black, this black confluent with the black of upper border of 





Fig. 61. — ^Anal appendages of (a) Anisogomphus bivittatu^s (Selys), male, 
dorsal view ; (Ij) Anisogomphv^ oavdalis Fraser, male, right dorso- 
lateral view. 

postclypeus ; the face is thus crossed by a succession of 
alternating greenish-yellow and black bands ; vertex black ; 
occiput markedly convex, yellow fringed with black hairs. 
Prothorax black, marked with a moderately large subdorsal 
spot on each side of the posterior lobe, and a large gemijuate 
spot at its middle above. Thorax black, marked with bright 
greenish-yellow as follows : — An interrupted mesothoracio 



ANISOGOMPHUS. 193 

collar confluent with very oblique antehumeral stripes on 
•each side, which form with it inverted figures 7 ; long sinuous 
humeral stripes slightly expanded at upper end and con- 
tinuous with the yellow at the base of middle pair of legs 
below. Laterally bright greenish-yellow marked with two 
fine sinuous black lines on the sutures. The yellow space 
between the black humeral stripe and that on the first suture 
sends a hook-hke extension above, this curious marking 
being invariably present. The wavy black stripes on the 
yellow ground-colour of the sides give a curiously tigrine effect 
to this insect. Legs black ; hind femora with a linear yellow 
stripe running the whole length of the outer side, middle 
femora with a distal stripe at the inner sides, femora entirely 
yellow on the inner sides. Wings hyaline, costa greenish- 
yellow in subadults ; pterostigma light brown between black 
nervures, covering 3 to 4 cells ; nodal index of two specimens 

9-16 1 14-10 11-16115-11 ,,, , , , , , .^, 

g3jQ 1 -g^g- , -^j^ j jjTg- • Abdomen black, marked with 

■citron-yellow as follows : — A mid-dorsal stripe on segments 
1 to 7, broad and triangular on 1, broad and trilobed on 2, then 
narrow and fine to end of 7, and interrupted only narrowly at 
the apical border of each segment ; sides of segments 1 and 2 
broadly, including the oreiilets ; 3 with a broad lateral stripe 
tapering apically, and interrupted shghtly at the jugal suture ; 
4 to 7 with a small triangular baso-laterai spot, and 7 with 
•an additional mid-ventro-Iateral spot ; 8 with a very large 
baso-Iateral spot which rims narrowly along ventral border 
nearly to apical border and ascends some way up the dorsum ; 
9 and 10 unmarked. (In one male there is a much larger 
spot on the side of segment 8, extending as far as the apex 
of the segment, and a similar spot on the side of 9 ; segment 10 
has a much smaller lateral spot. In all other respects it 
resembles the type.) Anal appendages: structure as shown 
in fig. 61, a; superiors black at base, otherwise dark reddish- 
brown ; inferior black or very dark brown. Genitalia : the 
posterior hamules of unique shape, black, or bright yeUow in 
some, cyHndrical at base, and broadened at end so as to be 
roughly T-shaped, the hinder limb long and rounded at end, 
the anterior end bearing a sharp robust spine tipped with 
black. 

Female. — ^Abdomen 38 mm. Hind-wing 33 mm. 

Colour and markings as in the male, except that there 
is a continuation of the lateral stripe on segments 4, 5, and 6, 
and that 8 and 9 are marked as described above for an aberrant 
male. Segment 10 is broadly yellow laterally and the anal 
appendages are also reddish-yeUow, very short and conical. 

VOL. n. o 



194 GOMPHID^. 

Vulvar scale highly specialized ; an elliptical ridge at 
ventro-apical border of segment 8, followed by a flatter ridge?, 
from the border of which springs the vulvar scale proper ; 
this is narrow, about half the length of segment 9, very slightly 
bifid at its apex, which is squared and nearly as broad afe 
its base; the surface is raised on either side into two long 
ridges tapering to a point which projects slightly beyond 
the apex of scale; these two ridges appear to be the usual 
bilateral scales united across the mid hne. Femora armed 
with longer, more widely spaced, and more numerous spines 
(about 8 or 9 long ones and some shorter near the base). 

Nodal index i ; pterostigma longer, covering 4 to 

1^—10 [ 11—11 

5 cells ; 5 rows of postanal cells in hind- wing. 

Diftribvivm. — ^Easteen Himalayas : DarjeelLng district, 
Pashbk (May) and Mungpoo (August). Western Himalayas : 
Kumaon (May). \ 

A. bivittatus may be at once recognized by the alternating 
three black bands and three bright yellow ones on the face, 
by' the dilated terminal segments of abdomen, and lastly 
by the incomplete antenodal nervure in all wings. 

Type itt the Selys collection, Brussels Museum. 

249. Anisogomphus orites Laidlaw. (Fig. 62.) 

Anisogomphus orites Laidlaw, Ree. Ind. Mus. vol. xxiv, pp. 371, 
393, text-flgs. 13, 14 (1922) ; BVaser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soo. 
vol. ssix, pp. 64, 332 (1923); id., ibid. vol. xxxi, pp. 422, 423, 
pi. ii, fig. 7 (1926) ; Needham, Ree. Ind. Mus. vol. xxxiv, p. 225 
(1932). 

Male. — Abdomen 31 mm. Hind-wing 30 mm. 

Head : labium with middle lobe black, lateral lobe citron- 
yellow ; labrum black, marked with two small transversely 
oval basal greenish-yellow spots ; frons and bases of mandibles 
broadly citron-yellow ; rest of head black. Prothorax black, 
marked with citron-yellow as follows : — ^An anterior collar ; 
a large spot on each side ; a median spot on posterior lobe ; 
and a small geminate spot just in front of it. Thorax black, 
marked with bright citron-yellow as follows : — ^A broadly 
interrupted mesothoracie collar ; narrow oblique antehumeral 
stripes confluent below with outer part of collar ; a small 
triangular upper humeral spot, its long axis across the dorsum 
of thorax and its apex confluent or almost confluent with 
upper part of antehumeral stripe ; a vestigial fine humeral 
line situated well below humeral spot. Laterally, two narrow 
black stripes on lateral sutures, the hinder of which is continued 
back for some distance along the ventral border. Legs black, 
fore femora yellow internally. Wings hyaline, sometimes palely 



A>vrSOGOMPHirS. 



195 



enfumed -when mature ; pterostigtna dark brown between 

thick black nervures, covering o to 6 cells ; nodal index 

14-20 i 17-13 ,. ., , „ 

1 gjTo f9llj9 '> discoidal cells normally entire (in one specimen 

those of both hind-wings traversed by a nervure which runs 
from the basal to the outer side) ; only one cubital nervure 
in all wings. Abdomen black, marked with citron-yellow 
as follows : — Segment 1 with a mid-dorsal spot and the sides 
broadly ; 2 with a trilobed mid-dorsal stripe extending the 
whole length of segment ; 3 to 7 with the mid-dorsal carina 
finely yellow, more conspicuous on 7 ; 2 laterally, including 
the oreillets, and a baso-lateral spot on 3 : 8 to 10 unmarked. 
Ancd appendages : superiors greenish-white ; inferior black. 
Structure as shown in fig. 62. 
Female. — ^Abdomen 34 mm. Hind-wing 32 mm. 




Fig. 62. — ^Anal appendages of Anisogomphits orites Laidlaw, male. 
Dorsal and right lateral views. 

Very similar to male. The antehumeral stripe nearly always- 
confluent with the humeral spot, sometimes broadly so. 
Segment 2 of abdomen more broadly yellow laterally ; 3 to 5 
with lateral stripes as in A. occipitalis, 6 and 7 with only 
a basal spot left of this stripe, 7 with a rather large basal 
dorsal spot formed by an expansion of the mid-dorsal carinal 
stripe. Anal appendages small, greenish-yellow ; vulvar 
scale very different from that of A. occipitalis, very short 
and broad, especially at base, its apex about half the breadth 
of base and very shaUowly concave, not split. Hind femora 
with a row of 6 long, robust, widely-spaced spines, this 
femur extending to middle of segment 2 of abdomen. 

Distribution. — Nobthern Bengal, Assam, and Stkktm:. 

Distinguished from A. occipitalis by having only a single 
cubital nervure in all wings in both sexes. The female is 

o2 



196 GOMPHID^. 

at once distinguished by its short broad vulvar scale, contrasting 
strongly with the long, narrow, cleft scale of A. occipitalis. 
The distinctive dorsal thoracic markings will separate it 
from the other two species. 

Frequents and breeds in mountain streams, its habits 
apparently similar to those of Burmagomphus. A female 
taken by Mr Fletcher was captured flying along a hedge 
some distance from any stream. 

Type in the Indian Museum, from Shillong, Assam, 6,000 ft. 
(BaiTibrigge Fletcher). Several males and females, including 
■one with traversed discoidal cells, in my own collection. 

250. Anisogomphus caudalis Fraser. (Fig. 61, b.) 

Aniaogomphus caudalis Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soe. vol. xxxi, 
pp. 423, 424, text-figs. 3, xii, & 5 6, pi. ii. fig. 3 (1926); Laidlaw, 
Trans. But. Soc. Loud. vol. Ixsviii, p. 185 (1930); Needham, 
Reo. lad. Mus. vol. xsxiv, pp. 225, 226 (1932). 

Male. — ^Abdomen 36 mm. Hind-wing 30 mm. 

Head : labium with lateral lobes greenish- white, middle 
lobe black ; labrum black, with a narrow linear basal streak 
greenish-white, nearly divided at its middle ; bases of man- 
dibles pale greenish- white ; ante- and postcljrpeus glossy 
black with a small greenish- white spot at sides of latter against 
the eyes ; frons black in front, broadly greenish-yeUow above ; 
vertex and occiput black, latter nearly straight. ProtJiorax 
black, marked with a large transversely oval yellow spot 
on each side. Thorax black, marked with greenish-yellow 
■as follows : — A broadly interrupted mesothoracio collar ; 
narrow nearly parallel antehumeral stripes forming inverted 
7s by confluence with the outer ends of the mesothoracio 
collar below ; an upper triangular spot and a lower vestigial 
•stripe representing a broken humeral stripe. Laterally, 
two narrow black stripes on sutures, the hinder of which fuses 
with an elongate triangular spot beneath thorax ; ground- 
colour at the sides greenish-yellow. Legs black, unmarked ; 
Mnd femora with a group of tiny spines on ventral surface 
of the proximal three-fifths and an imier and outer row of 
•5 robust spines on the distal two-fifths. Wi?igs hyaline ; 
pterostigma black, short ; 2 to 3 cubital nervures in fore-wing, 
only 1 in hind-wing ; 4 to 5 rows of postanal cells in hind- wing. 



, ^ , , . , 12-17 

"the first entnre : nodal mdex 



tK^^o ■ Abdomen black. 



13-13 

marked with citron-yellow as follows : — Segment 1 with a 
dorsal triangular spot tapering basally, and its sides very 
broadly ; 2 with a trilobed mid-dorsal stripe extending 
"the whole length of segment, the oreillets and the lower part 



GOMPHUS. 



19T 



of its apical border and the apical two-thirds of its ventral 
border broadly; 3 with its mid-dorsal carina finely and 
a large baso-lateral triangular spot ; 4 to 6 similar, but the 
lateral spots very small ; 7 T^ith the basal half of dorsum 
narrowly, the end of this spot square ; 8 with a smaU triangular 
spot on its dorsum at base ; 7 and 8 each with a smaU round 
apico-lateral spot, rather larger on segment 7 ; 9 and 10 
unmarked. Anal appendages : superiors greenish-yeUow above 
on dorsum, black below and at sides. Structure as shown 
in fig 61, b. Genitalia : lobe hood-shaped, rather depressed : 
anterior hamules exactly similar to those of A. occipitalis : 
posterior also shaped similarly, but much smaUer and not 
spined on surface ; lobe similar to that of A. occipitalis. 

Distribution. — Assam. . 

This species closely resembles A. orites, but differs m the 
foUowing points :— Lateral spots present on postclypeus ; 
humeral spots further removed from upper ends of ante- 
humeral stripes ; lateral spots on segments 4 to 6, the basa^l 
half of 7 yellow on dorsum, apico-lateral spots on segments i 
and 8 • lastly the formation of the superior anal appendages. 
It agrees in the extra cubital nervures in the fore-wmgs and 
in the thoracic markings. The nodal index is almost the same, 
especiaUy that of the hind-wings. The abdommal markmgs 
appear to be the best guide for separating the two species 

Type in the British Museum, from ShJlong, 6,000 leet, 
June 18, 1924 {Bainbrigge Fletcher). 

Genus GOMPHUS Leach. (Fig. 63.) 

Ins vol iii, -p. 286 (1802 ; KJrby, Cat. Odon. p. 64 (1890). 
<?o^jLeSk!E4ib. Encyol. vol. ik, p. 137 (1815); Eambur, 
SNev^op. p. 154 (1842) ; Selys, Bull. Acad Belg vol. xxi, 
pt\ p. 44^18^54); id..Mon.Gomph.p. 115 (1857) ; WiUiaj^-; 
Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xxxui, pp. 275, 304, 305 (iaU7) 
K^uedy;op. cit. vol. lu, pp. 549, 550 (1917); }^^^^'"' ^^■ 
^d. C vol. xxiv, p. 396 (1922) ; Eraser J Bombay Nat ^ 
^c vol. xxix, pp. 62, 330 (1923 ; id., ibid. vol. sxx, pp. 657 
658'(l925); Maw, Trans. Ent. Soc Lond. vol. Ixxvm, p. 187 
(1930) ; Needham, Zool. Sinica, ser A, vol. xi, fa?p. 1, pp. 19, 
4^8 1930) ; id.. Ree. Ind. Mus. vol. ^v, PP: 21 ^ |\8/1||2 ; 
Dia^taomma (paxs) Burmeister, Haadb. Eat. vol. u. p. 831 (1839) , 
Ciharpentier, Lib. Eur. p. 15 (1840). 
Size large or moderate, colour yeUow marked with black, 
or (in the ease of Indian species) black. marked with yeUow. 
Head of robust build, frons weU angulated, occiput smaple, 
straight or shaEowly concave. Wings : reticulation close; 
tornSs angulated ; base of hind-wing nioderately excavated 
membrane obsolete ; anal triangle 3-eelled (m Indian species) ; 



198 



GOMPHID^. 



arc situated between the first and second antenodal nervures ; 
1 to 2, rarely 3 nervures between the sectors of arc from arc 
to bifurcation of Es in fore-wings, only 1 or rarely 2 in hind- 
wings ; 2 rows or a single row with a few double cells in the 
postanal area of fore- wings, 4 to 6 rows in hind- wings ; anal 
loop absent, the first postanal cell not extending proximaUy 
beyond the middle of base of subtrigone ; basal incomplete 
antenodal nervures usually absent (present in many specimens 
of G. ji&rsonalus), nodal index high; primary antenodals 
the first and fourth or fifth (the fifth in Indian species) ; 
discoidal cells entire, in fore-wing with basal and costal sides 
equal or slightly subequal, the distal side considerably longer, 
in hind- wing elongate in the length of wing, its junction with 
lower sector of arc sometimes with a short but definite stalk, 
distal side more than half as long again as basal side and 




Fig. 63. — ^Wings of Oomphus personatus Selys, male. 

slightly longer than costal ; pterostigma small, braced or not, 
swollen at middle, equal to about one-third the distance 
from node to proximal end of pterostigma ; I A in fore- wing 
pectinate ; lA and Guii in hind- wing more or less divergent 
at the wing-border ; only 1 cubital nervure in all wings ; 
subtrigones and hypertrigones entire in all wings. Legs 
robust, hind femora extending to apical border of segment 1 
and furnished with two rows of closely-set short spines, 
which are shghtly increased in length and size distally ; 
tibial spines serrate, very short, robust, closely set, with two or 
three longer ones at the distal end. Abdomen (in Indian 
species) tumid at basal segments, then slim and cylindrical 
as far as the base of segment 7, from which point it is again 
expanded as far as the end, segments 8 and 9 having the 



GOMPHUS. 



199 



lateral borders ciirled slightly upwards and more expanded 
than the others, segment 10 rather broad and square ; anal 
appendages simple, the superiors shortly conical and widely 
divaricate, the inferior broadly and shallowly bifid, its two 
branches equally divaricate " as the superiors ; genitalia 
variable ; lamina usually depressed, arched or slightly emar- 
ginate ; anterior hamules short and slim ; posterior hamules 
very robust, broad hooked processes projecting markedly 
from the genital sac, with sinuous anterior border and a robust 
recurved hook at apex ; lobe rather long and narrow flask- 
shaped. 

Genotype, Libellula vidgatissima Linn. 

Distribution.— The genus is largely north-temperate in 
range, the greater number of species occurring in Europe, 
Northern Asia, and North America. Only three Indian 
species are known, from the Westeen Ghats, Burma, 
Bengal, and Assam. 

The genus eontaias a large number of rather heterogeneous 
species, which have not yet been satisfactorily classified, but 
which will have to be arranged in separate genera eventually. 
Needham, for example, has grouped no less than twenty-five 
species under this genus from China alone, including m it 
also those of Platygomphus and BurmagompJius. The above 
definition of the genus has been made from Indian species 
as being most helpful to Indian students, and comparisons 
have been made with the genotype. , , 4. 

The Indian species breed in clean gravelly or rocky- bottomed 
submontane streams, the females depositing their ova m 
shallow swift runnels and the males awaiting the females 
perched on prominent rocks in the course of streams m dense 
primary jungles. This is rather foreign to the habits of the 
genotype, which prefers brooks running through open grassy 
meadow-lands . 

Key to Iniian Species of Gomphus. 

r Segments 7 and 8 of abdomen unmarked; 

humeral stripe entirely absent. (Western _ Lp. ^0^. 

1 Ghats ) mlgmcus Liaidiaw, 

i Segments Y and 8 of abdomen broadly 
marked with yellow ; humeral stripe or 
spot present. (Assam, Bengal, and Burma.) 2. 
Occiput yellow above; abdominal segment 9 
with a broad apical yeUow triangle on 
dorsum ; two narrow black stripes on each LP- -sW- 

side of thorax persorwtus Selys, 

Occiput black above; abdommal s^ent 
9 with a large yellow spot on each side, 
the apical border unmarked; a broad black 

stripe bearing two or three yellow spots on lp. ^OS 

each side ofthorax o'do^eit Fraser, 



200 GOMPHID^. 

251. Gomphus personatus Selys. 

Gomphus personatus Selys, Bull Aead. Belg. (2) vol. xxxvi, p. 49T 
(1873); id., ibid. (2) vol. xlvi, p. 454 (1878); Martin, Missioa 
Pavie Indo-Chine, vol. iii, p. 214 (1904); Williamson, Proc. 
U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xxxiii, pp. 305, 308 (1907); Laidlaw, 
Bee. Ind. Mus. vol. xxiv, pp. 396, 398 (1922); Fraser, J. Bom- 
bay Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. xxix, pp. 62, 330 (1923); id., ibid, 
vol. XXX, pp. 658-660, pi. i, figs. 1 & 2 (1925); Laidlaw, Trans. 
Ent. Soo. Lend. vol. Ixxviii, p. 187 (1930); Needham, Rec. 
Ind. Mus. vol. xxxiv, p. 226 (1932). 

JSshna personata Kirhj, Cat. Odon. p. 68 (1890). 

Oomphvs xanthenatus Williamson, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xxxiii,, 
pp. 305-308, text-figs. 32, 33 (1907); Laidlaw, Rec. Ind. Mus. 
vol. xxiv, pp. 371, 398 (1922); Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. 
Soo. vol. xxix, pp. 61, 330 (1923). 

Male. — Abdonieii 42-45 mm. Hind- wing 37-39 mm. 

Head : labium with, middle lobe blackish, lateral lobe.s 
yeUow ; labium glossy black, marked at base with two 
oblong bright yellow spots ; bases of mandibles yellow, 
ante- and postclypeus black, latter with a large lateral yellow 
spot against the eye and a variable small medial spot of the 
same colour ; frons bright greenish- yellow except the lower 
part in front and its base above, which is marked with a fine 
crenulate black basal hne ; rest of head black, but occiput 
variably bright to dull yellow at its centre, black laterally,, 
straight, fringed with very long black hairs. Prothorax 
black, marked with bright citron-yellow ; a broad anterior 
coUar, a small medial spot, and a much larger lateral one 
on the posterior lobe. Thorax black, marked variably with 
citron-yellow as follows : — ^A mesothoracic collar slightly 
broken at its middle by the black mid-dorsal carina, and 
confluent at its outer end with straight antehumeral stripes- 
which rim from the antealar sinus parallel with the dorsal 
carina, thus forming an inverted 7 on each side ; a variable 
humeral marking, represented in a slight majority of specimens 
by a small upper spot, but in others by a sinuous stripe which 
expands into an upper spot and may be broken at its middle. 
In Shillong specimens both forms are met with ; in a pair 
taken by Col. F. Wall at Maymyo, Upper Burma, the stripe 
is well formed, in Williamson's variety xanthenatus from Burma,, 
the stripe is absent in three specimens, incomplete and broken 
in a fourth. Laterally more or less broadly yellow, marked 
with two narrow black lines on sutures ; in Williamson's 
xanthenatus these two lines are more or less confluent and 
almost obhterate the included yellow ; in the pair from 
Maymyo the lines are well separated throughout their entire 
length by the yellow ; in Shillong specimens the line on the 
anterior suture is invariably broadly broken, being represented 



GOMPHTJS. 201 

by a small upper section and a longer lower which begins 
at the spiracle. The line on the posterior suture is much 
finer and the lateral yeUow correspondingly much more 
extensive. Legs black, anterior femora with a yellow stripe 
on the inner side, posterior femora with a row of short, robust, 
moderately widely spaced, gradually lengthening spines. 
Wings hyaline, very palely and evenly enfumed ; pterostigma 
dark brown between black ner\Tires ; costa reddish-brown ; 
2 rows of cells between Rii and IRii at level of outer end of 
pterostigma, but 4 rows at apex of wing ; a basal incom- 
plete antenodal nervure frequently present on one or more 
wings. Anal triangle of 3 to 5 cells : 4 to 5 rows of postanal 
cells in the hind- wing ; 3 rows of cells at level of node in the 

diseoidal field ; nodal index of two specimens , 

13—11 11— lo 
12-14115-12: , , ,, ,^, ., , 

TTTnlTTT^ membrane obsolete. Abacymen t\xmva &t base 

and from segment 7 to 10, thin and cylindrical in middle, 
black, marked with bright citron-yellow as follows : — A. broad 
continuous stripe on sides of segments 1 and 2, extending 
shortly on to base of 3 ; a large apico-dorsal spot on 1 ; 
a trilobed stripe on dorsum of 2 extending the whole length 
of segment ; a fine dorsal carinal stripe on 3 tapering 
apically and with a sUghtly crenate edge : 4 to 6 with small 
baso-lateral spots and larger baso-dorsal triangular spots 
which taper along the carinal ridge for a variable distance ; 
on 7 these spots are confluent to form a basal ring which 
extends for a short distance apically along the carina ; 
markings on 8 extremely variable, usually a narrow apical ring 
which expands on the sides into a triangular point directed 
basally, a small triangular baso-dorsal spot, and a largish 
ventro-iateral elongate spot ; on this segment the apical ring 
may be completely absent or with two irregularly shaped 
lateral spots at the apex, the ventral spot may be very 
minute or entirely absent, and the carinal spot may extend 
as far as the apical border and show a medial expansion; 
segment 9 with a broad apical ring of variable width, extending 
nearer base on dorsum than on sides, in some specimens 
extending as far as base of segment, in others quite fine with 
its basal border serrated ; usually, however, it covers about 
half the segment ; 10 entirely unmarked, or more rarely 
with a fine broken apical ring. Anal appendages as long 
as segment 10, of equal length and equally divaricate, black ; 
superiors tapering to a point, curling evenly down nearly 
to the apex, which is directed abruptly straight backwards ; 
inferior deeply cleft into two branches wMch lie parallel 



202 GOMPHID^. 

to the superiors, hollowed out above, cmlLng evenly upwards. 
Genitalia : lamina cowl-shaped, projecting slightly ; hamules 
very robust and projecting almost perpendicularly from the 
genital sac, their apices turning rather abruptly forward, 
black; lobe mat black, very large and tumid, projecting 
as a massive funnel-shaped organ. 

Female. — Abdomen 42-45 mm. Hind-wiag 38-42 mm. 

Almost exactly similar to male. Occiput more extensively 
yellow in centre, fringed with shorter hairs, sKghtly sinuous 
and usually with one or two small spines on either side. 
Abdominal markings more extensive ; oarinal stripe almost 
complete from segments 1 to 6 and often confluent with the 
baso-lateral spots ; lateral stripe extending almost to apical 
end of segment 3 ; segment 8 with a fine apical ring and less 
rarely a small triangular baso-dorsal point; apical border 
of segnient 10, anal appendages, and a conical prominence 
between them yellow. In some specimens the anal appen- 
dages are black and marked with yellow on the dorsum only. 
Vulvar scale not quite half the length of segment 9, bifid for 
about half its length, narrow and subtriangular. 

Distribution. — ^Assam : Khasi Hills, Shillong {Bainbrigge 
Fletcher). Btjema : Maymyo (Col. F. Wall) ; Toungoo and 
Karen districts (Williamson). 

The above description has been made from a large number 
of specimens collected at Shillong during May and June, 
and from a pair collected at Maymyo in June. Mr. William- 
son's specimens grade almost imperceptibly through the 
Maymyo specimens into the Shillong ones, the only real point 
•of difference being the lateral sutural black lines, which are 
complete in Burmese material but invariably broken in 
Assam specimens. 

Type, a specimen with complete humeral stripe, in Selys's 
collection from the Khasi Hills. Type of G. xanthenatus in 
the Williamson collection. 

252. Gomphus nilgirieus Laidlaw. (Fig. 64.) 

Qomphus nilgirims Laidlaw, Bee. Ind. Mus. vol. jodv, pp. 371, 
397, 398, text-fig. 16 (1922) ; Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 
vol. xxix, pp. 62, 330 (1923); id., Keo. Ind. Mus. vol. xxvi, 
pp. 427, 476, 477 (1924); id., J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soo. 
vol. XXX, pp. 660, 661, pi. i, fig. 3 (1925); Laidlaw, Trans. 
Ent. Soo. Lond. vol. Ixxviii, p. 188 (1930); Fraser, Reo. Ind. 
Mus. vol. xxxiii, pp. 444, 447 (1931); Needham, Reo. Ind. 
Mus. vol. xxxiv, p. 226 (1932). 

Male. — ^Abdomen 40 mm. Hind-wing 35 mm. 
Head : labiiun pale brownish-yellow ; labrum, bases of 
mandibles, and anteclypeus dark brown ; postclypeus and 



GOMPHUS. 



203 



front of frons black, upper part of frons bright greenish-yellow, 
rest of head black. Occiput black, slightly raised in the middle. 
ProtJiorax black, marked with citron-yeUow as follows : — 
An anterior collar, a transversely oval spot on the dorsum 
of posterior lobe, and a small paired spot just in front of and 
confluent with latter. Thorax mat black marked with greenish- 
yeUow as follows :— Straight antehumeral stripes running 
parallel with the mid-dorsal carina, gradually broadening 
below, where they are confluent with a widely interrupted 
mesothoracic collar. . laterally broadly greenish-yellow, marked 
with two moderately broad black stripes on sutures, oft«n 
confluent with one another so as to split up the intervening 
yellow into two or three spots. Legs black, robust, posterior 
femora extending well on to second abdominal segment, 
minutely and densely spined. Wings hyaline ; pterostigma 
braced, covering 4 to 5 cells, dark brown between black 

nervures ; nodal index ,- ^ - fTn^ ; membrane obsolete ; 

lo-9 10-13 





Fig. 64. — Anal appendages of Gomphus nUgiricus Laidlaw, male. 
Dorsal and left lateral views. 

1 to 2 rows of cells between Bii and JRii at outer end of 
pterostigma ; 5 to 6 rows of postanal cells in hind-wing, 
the first entire, extending basally for a httle more than half 
the length of base of subtrigone ; a basal incomplete ante- 
nodal nervure variably present (more often present in fore- 
wing than hind-wing) ; 2 to 3 rows of cells in diseoidal field 
at level of node, usually 3 ; only 1 cubital nervure in all wings. 
Abdomen tumid at base, moderately and squarely dilated from 
•segment 7 to 10, slender and cylindrical between these parts ; 



204 GOMPHID^. 

black marked with bright primrose-yellow as follows : — 
The sides of segments 1 and 2 at and below level of oreillets, 
latter margined with black ; a dorsal spot on segment 1 
widening apically ; a trilobed band on mid- dorsum of 2, 
extending the whole length of segment ; a mid- dorsal line 
on 3 tapering rapidly from its base and not quite reaching 
apical border of segment ; a triangular basal spot on the 
sides of this segment ; paired basal dorsal spots on 4 to 7 
and confluent with one another at the base ; 8 and 10 unmarked 
but 9 with its apical half yellow, the border of this wide 
annule markedly crenate or serrate and resembling a similar 
marking in 0. p&rsonatus. Anal appendages (fig. 64) black. 
Genitalia : lamina depressed, broad and shallowly arched ; 
hamules very robust, broad at base, tapering to a point, 
projecting markedly from the genital sac with a slight posterior 
slope, black ; lobe large and prominent, funnel-shaped, black. 

Female. — ^Abdomen 43 mm. Hind-wing 38-40 mm. 

Closely similar to the male save for sexual differences. 
Abdomen thick and robust, cylindrical throughout. Wings 
rather broader ; pterostigma pale brown, covering 4 to 6 
cells ; nodal index considerably higher. Abdominal markings 
broader, the dorsal basal spots entirely confluent and continued 
along the mid-dorsal carina as fine Hnes. The basal lateral 
spot on segment 3 much larger, confluent with the lateral 
yellow area on the two previous segments and continued 
nearly to apex of segment. Segments 8 and 10 are unmarked 
as in the male, but 9 bears a similar broad apical ring. Unlike 
G. personatus the markings of this insect are remarkably 
free from variation. Vulvar scale of great length, projecting 
from the abdomen at an angle of about 45 degrees, consisting 
of two closely apposed scales which taper from a moderately 
broad base to a fine point. Anal appendages small, conical, 
black, the conical protuberance between them yellow. 

Distribution. — A rare insect found sparsely throughout 
the Westeek Ghats. A few specimens have been taken 
on streams flowing down the Mettapalayam and Gudalur 
G-hats, NiLGiEis. I have taken five males at the head of the 
Sampaji River and on a small stream above the Hatti River, 
OooEG. Major Frere found it in larger numbers on the Bear 
and Cinchona streams, Kodaikanal, Palni Hills. Lately 
I took a few specimens in the Mudis Hills, Coimbatore district, 
at 4,000 feet. 

It rests on rocks in mid-stream ; females are rarely seen,, 
and then only when they are ovipositing in some quiet shaded 
pool. 

Type male and allotype female in the British Museum. 



GOMPHUS. 205 

253. Gomphus o'doneli Eraser. 

Oomphus o'doneli Fraser, Ree. Ind. Mus. vol. xxiv, pp. 420, 421, 
pi. xi, fig. 6 (1922); id., J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soe. vol. xxix, 
pp. 61, 330 (1923) ; id., ibid. vol. xxs, pp. 662, 663, pi. i, fig. 4 
(1925); Laidlaw, Trans. Ent. Soo. Lend. vol. IxxviU, p. 188 
(1930); Needham, Reo. Ind. Mus. vol. xx3dv, p. 226 (1932). 

Male. — ^Abdomen 42 mm. Hind-wing 30 voxa. 

Head : labium pale yellow, middle lobe bordered -with 
black ; labram glossy black, -with two small basal yellcw 
spots ; rest of face and head black except for a narrow 
transverse yellow band on crest of frons. Occiput emar- 
ginate, fringed thickly with black hairs. Prothorax black, 
posterior lobe, a small spot on either side of it, a duplicated 
spot just iu front of it, and an anterior collar yellow. Thorax 
black, marked with yellow as follows : — Oblique antehumeral 
stripes which are confluent with a slightly interrupted meso- 
thoracic collar ; a small upper humeral spot. Laterally 
yellow, marked by a broad medial black band which is itself 
marked by three small yellow spots. Legs short, robust, 
entirely black; hind femora armed with small spines and 
with a single larger spine at the distal end. Wings hyaline; 
pterostigma dark brown, braced, rather small ; membrane 
almost obsolete, dark brown ; only 1 row of cells between 
Rii and lEii at level of distal end of pterostigma ; Cuii 
and I A nearly parallel in the hind- wing ; nodal index 

9-16 14-9 

r; 3 rows of cells in discoidal field at level of 



11-10 11-10 

node in fore- wing ; 3 to 4 rows of postanal cells in hind- wing, 
the first postanal cell very small, entire, extending inwards 
towards base of wing for only half the length of the base 
of subtrigone ; no incomplete basal antenodal nervure in 
either sex. Abdomen tumid at base ; apex of segment 7 and 
segments 8 and 9 broadly dilated although not winged ; 
segments 3 to 7 narrow and cylindrical ; colour black, marked 
with yellow as foUows : — ^A triangular dorsal spot at apex 
of segment 1 and a broad lateral spot on each side ; 2 with 
a trilobed dorsal stripe, the oreiUet and a large lateral spot 
beyond it ; 3 with the dorsum narrowly at the base and a 
large lateral basal spot ; 4 to 6 with dorsal basal spots rather 
widely confluent across the carina ; 7 with a broad basal 
•annule prolonged apieaUy along the dorsal carina ; 8 with 
a small spot on the mid-dorsal carina at the base and another 
larger angulated spot on the middle of each side ; 9 with 
the whole of the ventro-lateral border broadly yellow ; 10 
unmarked. Anal appendages black, widely and equally 
divaricate : superiors slightly longer than branches of inferior 



206 GOMPHJDiB. 

and about equal in length to segment 10, very robust, very 
thick at base, at &st directed obliquely out, the apex then 
sharply bent backwards so that the outer border presents 
a prominent angle, the apex itself rapidly tapering to a sharp 
point ; inferior deeply and broadly cleft into two strongly 
divaricate branches, short, broad, and with the apex ending 
in a minute upturned spine. Genitalia : lamina depressed, 
broad ; hamules very robust, projecting almost perpendicularly 
from the genital sac, ending in a robust, slightly forwardly 
directed spine ; lobe of great size, bulbous, funnel-shaped, 
black. 

Female. — ^Abdomen 42 mm. Hind-wing 32 mm. 

Resembles the male in its robust statm-e and general 
colouring. Abdomen a little stouter than that of the male 
at middle, but not of such even width as usual in female 
Gomphines. Labrum, in addition to the two small basal 
spots, with another smaller but brighter spot on the outer 
side of each ; anteclypeus very dark brown ; postclypeus with 
two small median yellow spots on the lower border and a very 
obscure spot at the border of eyes. Occiput fringed with 
short black hairs, simple, its extreme edge brown, but behind 
(as seen by tilting the head forward) bright yellow. Prothorax 
and thorax similar to those of male, but mesothoracic collar 
barely interrupted and upper humeral spot nearly obsolete. 
Legs black, hind femora with a row of gradually lengthening, 
closely set, very robust spines, the distal one of great length. 
Wings similar to those of male. Abdomen with the basal 
spots so confluent as to form rather broad basal rings on 
segments 3 to 7 ; mid-dorsal stripe on 2 tapering apically, 
more so than in the male ; lateral spot on 8 not angulate 
but quadrate and extending to base of segment ; an additional 
small baso-dorsal spot on 9, lower part of the sides of 9 and 10' 
yellow. Anal appendages very small, pointed, yellow. Vulvar 
scale rudimentary, merely a small broad short projection 
of the apical border of segment 8, but slightly overlapping 9 ; 
the expanded borders of the segments here function for the 
vulvar scale. 

Distribution. — ^Two males and a female only of this rare 
species are known, collected by Mr. H. V. O'Donel at Hasimara 
Tea Estate, Duars, Bengal. In general faeies they recall 
strongly species of the same genus from North America, 
and cannot be readily confused with either 0. persoTwius 
or G. nilgiricus. 

Type male ajid allotjrpe female in my collection, paratype 
male in the British Museum. 



PLATYGOMPHUS. 



207 



Genus PLATYGOMPHUS Selys. (Fig. 6.5.) 

Platygomphus Selys, Bull. Acad. Belg. vol. xxi, pt. 2, p. 44 (18.54) 
id., Mon. Gomph. p. 112 (1857) ; Kirby, Cat. Odoii. p. 70 (1890) 
Williamson, Proc. U.S. Xat. Mus. vol. xxxiii, pp. 275, 303 (1907) 
Laidlaw, Ree. Ind. Mus. vol. xxiv, p. 398 (1922); Fraser, J 
Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. xxlx, pp. 61, .330 (1923) ; id., ibid, 
vol. xxxi, pp. 415, 416 (1926); Laidlaw, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond 
vol. Ixxinii, p. 188 (1930) ; Xeedham, Rec. Ind. Mus. vol. xxxiv, 
p. 218(1932). 

Gomphus (pars) Neediam, Zool. Sinica, ser. A, vol. xi, fasc. 1, 
pp. 46, 47 (1930). 

Size rather above tlie average ; colour bright sandy yellow, 
marked with black or brown : hind-wings of both sexes 
rounded at the base and barely excavate in male. Head 
comparatively small : frons rounded ; face rather oblique ; 
occiput simple, flat, and\^ith straight posterior border. Wings : 
reticulation close : base of hind- wing in male barely excavated ; 
tornus slightly rounded ; membrane obsolete : anal triangle 
poorly formed, 3- to 4-celled ; arc situated between the first 




Fig. 65. — Wings of Platygomphus dolabraius Selys, male. 

and second or opposite the second antenodal nervure ; 2 trans- 
verse nervures between the sectors of are from arc to bifur- 
cation of ills in fore-wings, only 1 in hind-wings ; a single 
row of postanal cells in fore-wings, 3 rows in hind-wings ; 
anal loop absent, first postanal cell of hind-wing extending 
only as far as the middle of base of subtrigone ; no basal 
incomplete antenodal nervures present ; nodal index rather 
high ; primary antenodals the first and the fifth ; diseoidal 
cells entire, that of fore-wing subequilateral, but the distal 
side shghtly longer than the two others ; that of hind- wing 



-208 QOMPHID^. 

elongate in length, of wing, the distal side twice as long as 
the basal and slightly longer than the costal ; pterostigma 
short and swollen, about one-third the distance from node 
to proximal end of pterostigma, braced ; lA in fore-wing 
pectinate ; CvAi and lA in hiad-wing divaricate at border 
of wing ; only 1 cubital nervure in all wings ; subtrigones 
and hypertrigones entire in all wings. Legs short, hind 
femora extending but sUghtly beyond end of thorax, furnished 
with a group of short, robust, and numerous spines on the 
proximal half of limb and two rows of much longer spines 
on the distal half, these latter in female being much longer 
than in male ; hind tibial spines slim, numerous, and very 
dosely set. Abdomen tumid on basal segments, then slim 
and cylindrical as far as segment 6, 7 from its middle and 
8 and 9 greatly dilated, 8 being more than four times the 
width of 6 and bearing lateral expansions which are minutely 
spined along the borders ; anal appendages closely similar 
to those of genus Gom'phus, superiors shortly conical and 
markedly divaricate, inferior broadly and shallowly cleft 
into two widely divaricate branches. Genitalia : lamina 
depressed ; anterior hamules short, sUm ; posterior hamules 
much more robust, projecting and ending in a small crochette- 
like hook ; lobe scrotal-shaped, short, deeply emarginate. 

Genotjrpe, Platygomphus dolabratus Selys. 

Distribution. — ^Bengal, Bihae, Buema, and China (?). Two 
species occur in India. 

In general facies and colouring these species resemble 
■closely those of Onychogom'phus (group M-fiwum), but the 
appendages are as vuGomphus, s. str., as well as the venation, 
so that they are probably closely allied to this genus. 

The larvas are unknown, but the teneral imago has been 
taken along the banks of rivers in Bihar and has habits 
very similar to those of Cyclogomphus, being slow in flight 
and settling on low herbage. 

K&y to Indian Species of Platygomphus. 

Legs marked with yellow; abdominal seg- 
ments 5, 6, and 7 with mid-dorsal yellow 
spots ooniliient with basal yellow rings .... dolabratim Selys, p. 208. 

Legs entirely black ; abdominal segments 5, 6, 

and 7 without mid-dorsal yellow spots .... /ese Selys, p. 210. 

254. Platygomphus dolabratus Selys. (Fig. 65) 

Platygomphus dolabratus Selys, Bull. Acad. Belg. (2) vol. xxi, p. 44 
(1854) ; id., Mon. Gomph. p. 113 (1857) ; Kirby, Cat. Odoa. p. 70 
(1890); Williamson, Proo. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xxxiii, pp. 303, 
304, text-figs. 30, 31 (1907) ; Laidlaw. Bee. Ind. Mus. vol. xxiv, 
pp. 371, 398, 399 (1922); Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 



PLATYGOMPHFS. 209 

vol. sxix, pp. 62, 330 (1923); id., ibid. vol. xxxi, pp. 416, 417, 
text-figs. 2, 3, xi, pi. ii, fig. 5 (1926); Laidiaw, Traos. Ent. Soo. 
vol. Ixxviii, p. 188 (1930) ; Needfaam, Rec. Ind. Mus. vol. xxxiv^ 
p. 22S (1932). 

Male. — ^Abdomen 41 mm. Hind-wing 30 mm. 

Head : labium, labrum, and face bright yellow ; labrimi 
with a small brown median, stripe projecting down from the 
base ; postclj-peus with a broad transverse black band, 
the upper border of which is shghtly convex and encroaches 
on the anterior surface of frons, the lower produced into two 
quadrate projections, one on each side near the middle Line ; 
frons entirely j'ellow above and for greater part of front ; 
vertex black, with a large round yellow spot behind ocelH ; 
occiput bright yellow, its border very slightl3" convex at the 
middle. Eyes bottle-green. Prothorax yellow at sides, 
black on dorsum except for a pair of twin spots at middle 
of posterior lobe and the whole of the prominent anterior 
coUar. Thorax 3- eUow, marked with black as follows : — -Dorsum , 
where the black encloses a complete bright yellow meso- 
thoracic collar and two broad triangular antehumeral duller 
yeUow spots ; behind these a moderately broad and even, 
humeral, bright yellow stripe which turns in a little at its 
upper part. On the sides a short fine vestigial black Hne 
on the first lateral suture and a complete verj' fine black 
line on the second suture. Wings hyaline, a little tinted 
with yellow occasionally ; pterostigma yellow between black 
nervures, braced strongly, covering 3 cells ; nodal index 

"qZTo ' " iA_in ■ ^^^^ yellow, marked with black ; a narrow 

distal streak on the outer side of the hind femora and the whole 
of the outer sides of the other two pairs ; all tibiae black ; hind 
femora with a row of short robust spines. Abdomen j'ellow, 
marked with black as follows : — Segment 1 with a small 
subdorsal spot and a fine black hne running obhquely back- 
wards and outwards from it ; 2 with a broad subdorsal stripe 
extending the whole length of segment and enclosing an acorn- 
shaped spot, the stalk of which is directed towards base of 
segment ; 3 to 7 black on dorsum ; in mature specimens 
this black encloses a lanceolate mid-dorsal spot, broader 
at base and pointed towards apical border ; basally the spot 
is confluent with a basal ring in immature specimens (in all 
the specimens from Pusa the black is present as an apical 
ring with a subdorsal branch running towards the base of 
segment on either side, enclosing a prolongation of the ground- 
colour which runs from a basal riog) ; 8 and 9 dark brown 
above, changijog to yellow on the sides ; 8 with a fine mid-dorsal 
hne at base ; 10 paler brownish-yellow. Anal appendages 
VOL. n. p 



'210 GOMPHID^. 

yellow or yellowish-brown, bordered with black, as long 
as segment 10 ; superiors flat, divaricate, inner sides straight, 
outer right-angled with prominent outer point, apex seen 
from above pointed, sHghtly bifid seen in profile ; inferior 
deeply forked, its branches rather more divaricate than the 
superiors, their apices turned up a Httle. Genitalia : lamina 
shghtly raised, rounded, broadly arched ; posterior hamules 
very long, projecting almost perpendicularly from abdomen, 
subcylindrical, the apex strongly curled and ending in a hooked 
spine ; lobe very bulky, subrounded, deeply cleft, its border 
somewhat sinuous as seen in profile. 

Female. — ^Abdomen 40 mm. Hind-wing 33 mm. 

Coloured and marked similarly to male. Terminal segments 
of abdomen less dilated, more broadly yellow along the sides, 
segment 10 yellow. Vulvar scale very short, emarginate. 
Occiput low, its free border a little tumid, a httle rounded 
at the middle. 

Distribution. — ^Bihae and Bengal. 

Type in the Selys collection, paratype females in the 
British Museum, and specimens of both sexes in the Pusa and 
my own collections. 

256. Platygomphus fese Selys. 

Platygomphus fe» Selys, Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Geneva, (2) 
vol. X, pp. 479, 480 (1891); Williamson, Proo. U.S. Nat. Mus. 
vol. xxxiii, pp. 303, 304 (1907); Laidlaw, Reo. Ind. Mus. 
vol. xxiv, pp. 371, 399 (1922); Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. 
Soe. vol. xxix, pp. 62, 330 (1923); id., ibid. vol. xxxi, pp. 417- 
419, pi. ii, fig. 6 (1926); Laidlaw, Trans. Ent. Soe. Lend, 
vol. Ixxviii, p. 188 (1930) ; Needham, Ree. Ind. T&as. vol. xxxiv, 
p. 226 (1932). 

Male. — ^Abdomen 35-37 mm. Hind-wing 30-31 mm. 

Head : labium, labrum, face, and frons dull yellow, unmarked 
■except for some brownish suffusion of face and a basal black 
line on frons which extends forwards as far as the crest at the 
middle ; vertex black ; occiput yellow, fringed with greyish 
hairs, black behind, straight. ProtJiorax yellow, black at 
middle of dorsum. Thorax yellow, marked with black as 
follows : — ^Dorsum similar to that of P. dolahratus, the black 
■enclosing a broad antehumeral oval or subtriangular spot 
on each side and a moderately narrow humeral yellow stripe. 
Laterally a single narrow black stripe on the second lateral 
suture, which divides above to form a " Y," the anterior 
arm of which runs towards the base of fore-wing. Legs 
«hort, black, umer surfaces of femora pale yellow. Wi-ngs 
hyaline ; pterostigma brown, between thick black nervures, 

12- 



■covering 3 cells ; nodal index ? ' 

w) — y 



in q ' ^'ostal border 



BtTEMAGOMPHtrS. 211 

brownish. Abdomen black, marked with yellow as follows : — 
Segment 1 with a mid-dorsal stripe and the sides broadly ; 

2 with a lanceolate stripe on the mid-dorsum extending 
from base to apex, and the sides very broadly ; 3 to 6 with 
a narrow basal ring prolonged along the sides below ; on 

3 and 4 a smaU median dorsal oval spot ; 7 with its basal 
half yeUow ; 8 to 10 coloured as in P. dolabratus. Anal 
appendages black, equal in length to the tenth abdominal 
segment. Superiors markedly flattened, the outer border 
strongly angulate but the point situated much nearer apex 
than in P. dolabratus. Apox shortly acuminate so that, seen, 
in profile, it appears to be bifid. Inferior strongly forked, 
with the apices of its branches blunt and turned sHghtly up. 

Female unknown. 

Distribution. — ^Bhamo, Burma, July, August. 

Distinguished from P. dolabraius by the face being unmarked, 
the vertex without a yeUow spot, the abdomen more broadly 
marked with black, the anal appendages and legs black, 
the forking of the hinder stripe on the sides of thorax, 
segments 5 and 6 of the abdomen without a dorsal spot, and 
lastly by the shape of the superior anal appendages, which 
appear more bifid in profile than those of P. dolabratus. 

Type in the Selys collection. 

Genus BURMAGOMPHUS WiUiamson. (Fig. 66.) 

Burmagom^hus Williamson, Proo. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xxxiii, pp. 275, 

298-301 (1907) ; Laidlaw, Beo. Ind. Mus. vol. xxiv, p. 399 (1922); 

Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soo. vol. sxix, pp. 62, 330 (1923); 

id., ibid. vol. xxxi, pp. 408, 409 (1926); Laidlaw, Trans. Bnt. 

See. Lend. vol. Ixxviii, p. 189 (1930); Needham, Rec. Ind. Mua. 

vol. xxxiv, p. 218 (1932). 
Qomphus (pars) Needham, Zool. Siniea, ser. A, vol. xi, fasc. 1, 

pp. 46, 47 (1930). 

Size medium, colour black, marked with bright citron- 
yeUow. Head of moderate size and proportions ; &ons 
-angulate, rounded above ; occiput simple, shallowly concave. 
Wings : reticulation very close ; base of hind- wing very 
oblique, tornus angulate and prominent ; anal triangle 
3-celled ; arc situated between the first and second antenodal 
nervures ; only 2 transverse nervures between the sectors 
of are from arc to bifurcation of Ra in fore- wings, only 1 in 
hind-wings ; anal loop absent ; the fijst postanal ceU in hind- 
wing extending proximally as far as middle of base of sub- 
trigone ; basal incomplete antenodal nervures always absent ; 
nodal index high ; primary antenodal nervures usually the 
first and fifth ; discoidal cell in fore-wing entire, costal and 
basal sides equal, the distal sUghtly longer ; that of hiad-wing 
Twth the costal side nearly half as long again as the basal 

p2 



212 



GOMPHID^. 



but distinctly sliorter than the distal, entire ; pterostigma 
relatively short, dilated, braced, equal to rather more than- 
one-third the distance from node to proximal end of ptero-- 
stigma ; I A in fore- wing pectinate ; Cuii and I A in hind-wing- 
only shghtly divaricate at wing-border ; only a single cubital 
nervure in all wings ; subtrigones and hy^jcrtrigones all 
entire. Legs moderately long, extending as far as the base 
of segment 2 ; hind femora furnished with a group of closely- 
set, small even spines, which at the distal third of the limb- 
become arranged into two single rows of slightly more robust 
spines ; hind tibial spines of same Umb short, robust, and very 
closely set. Abdomen tumid at basal segments, then narrow 
and cylindrical as far as segment 7, from which point it again 
expands markedly, especially at segment 8 ; terminal segments 




Kg. 66. — ^Wings of Burmagomphus pyrmmdalis Laidlaw, male. 

gradually decreasing in length and not elongate as in genus 
MerogompJius. Anal appendages: superiors simple, short, 
and markedly divaricate as in genus Qomphus ; inferior bifur- 
cated into two equally long and divaricate branches. GenitaUa : 
lamina markedly depressed, arched ; anterior hamules short, 
shm ; posterior hamules variable, broad flattened plates usually 
furnished with one or more marginal spities. 

Genotype, Burmagomphus williamsoni Fraser. 

Distnbution.—IsDiA, Bxjema, Ciylon, Malaysia, Indo- 
CMna, and Java. Eight species are known from within our 
limits, all of which are closely similar in size and appearance. 

The larvie burrow in sand in montane streams ; they are 
sandy in colour, fusiform or cyhndrical m shape ; the neck ia. 
quadrate, without setse, and furnished with a robust, movable 
hook. 



BUEMAGOMPHXJS. 213 

The adult insects are arboreal by nattare and are curiously 
fond of settling on bright green fohage, in whieh position 
their rather cryptic shagreened markings make them very 
inconspicuous. 

The position of the genus is doubtful, but Laidlaw places 
it near Qomphus. 

Key to Indian Species of Burmagomphus. 

Only upper and lower halves of antehumeral 
and humeral thoracic stripes respectively 
present, the two halves joined obliquely to 
form a sinuous stripe on each side of 

dorsum of thorax 2. 

1. ■( Antehmneral and humeral stripes separated, 
the latter often incomplete or represented 

by an upper spot only 4. 

Antehumeral and humeral thoracic stripes con- 
fluent at their lower ends to form V-shaped [p. 223. 
markings on each side of dorsum of thorax. V-flavum Fras., 
A yellow spot on vertex ; mesothoraoic collar 

not interrupted; segment 8 broadly yellow [p. 213. 

at sides, finely so at base pyramidalis Laid., 

Vertex entirely black; mesothoraoic collar 
finely interrupted ; segment 8 entirely black . 3. 
f Labium yeUow ; a continuous mid-dorsal yel- [p. 216. 

„ J low stripe on segments 3 to 5 wilUamsoni !Pras., 

■ ] Middle lobe of labivmi black; segment 5 with- [p. 216. 

[_ out a yellow mid-dorsal stripe hasimarious Fias., 

THumeral thoracic stripe incomplete 5. 

4. •< Humeral stripe complete; three lateral black [p. 217. 

1_ stripes on each side of thorax siiialikensis Laid., 

{Humeral stripe made up of an upper spot and 
a short lower stripe 6. 
Humeral stripe a short lower one only, with- [p. 222. 

out any upper spot cauverictts Pras., 

fAntero -lateral thoracic stripe complete Icddlawi Fras., 

.„ J Antero-lateral stripe incomplete, its upper half [p. 220. 

j directed obliquely backwards so as nearly to [p. 219. 

I join the postero -lateral stripe simuitus Fras., 

256. Burmagomphus pyramidalis Laidlaw. (Fig. 67.) 

Burmagomphus pyramidalis Laidlaw, Rec. Lid. Mus. vol. xxiv, 
pp. 371, 399-401, text-fig. 17 (1922); Fraser, J. Bombay Ifat 
Hist. Soc. vol. xxix, pp. 62, 331 (1923); id., Rec. Lid. Mus, 
vol. xxvi, pp. 427, 476 (1924); id., J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soo 
vol. xxxi, pp. 409-410, text-figs. 1, 3, 9, pi. i, fig. 3 (1926); 
Laidlaw, lians. Ent. Soc. Lond. vol. Ixxviii, p. 189 (1930); 
Fraser, Rec. Ind. Mus. vol. xxxiii, p. 447 (1931); Needham, 
Bee. Ind. Mus. vol. xxxiv, p. 226 (1932). 

Male. — ^Abdomen 30 mm. Hind-wing 23-24 mm. 

Head : labium yellow, margined with black ; labrum. 
greenish-yellow, with its anterior border narrowly and base 
more broadly black, and a short medial black prolongation 



214 GOMPHIDiE. 

ruiming from base ; bases of mandibles black, genae, ante- 
clypeus, and postolypeus black, latter marked with a greenish- 
yeUow median spot and a lateral triangular larger spot ; 
irons greenish-yellow, its base above black ; vertex and 
occiput black, latter slightly concave. Prothorax black, 
marked with a greenish-yellow spot on each side. Thorax 
black, marked with greenish-yellow as follows : — ^A complete 
mesothoracic collar, a small spot in the alar sinus above, 
a sinuous dorsal stripe running from near the alar sinus above 
downwards and outwards to the second pair of legs. This, 
stripe is formed by a union of an antehumeral with a humeral 
stripe, the upper antehumeral portion is very narrow and 
broadens abruptly at its middle, where it takes a bayonet 
turn outwards to fuse with the humeral portion. A small 
upper humeral spot representing the upper part of an obsolete 
humeral stripe and the sides broadly yellow. Sides marked 




Fig. 67. — ^Ttoracie markiugs of Burmagompkus pyramidaMs Laidlaw, 

male. 

with a narrow, complete black stripe on the postero-lateral 
suture and an incomplete one on the lower half of the anterior 
suture. Legs black, coxae yellow, as also the inner surface 
of the anterior pair of femora ; armed as for genus. Wings 
hyaline, often slightly tinted with saffron at bases ; nodal 



. , . , . 10-12 

mdex 01 two specunens ,„ „ 



13-9 10-14 



9-9 11-9 



12-11 

"gZlO ; Ptero- 



stigma yellow between black nervures ; 4 rows of postanal 
cells in Mnd-wing. Abdomen black, marked with yellow 
as follows : — Segment 1 with a triangular mark on dorsum 
at apex and a broad baso-lateral spot ; 2 with a lanceolate 
dorsal stripe not quite reaching apical border, and a very 
broad spot on sides ; 3 to 8 with narrow basal rings, rather 
broader on 7 and very narrow on 8, where, however, it is 
produced laterally as an elongated spot on the basal half of 
the segment ; 3 also with a large baso-lateral triangular spot 
confluent with the dorsal ring ; 8 often with an additional 
apico-lateral spot ; 9 with nearly its apical half yellow, but 



BUBMAGOMPHirS. 215- 

laterally this mark much narrower and confluent with a ventral 
yellow border at its apex ; at the mid-dorsum a very robust 
spine, also yellow (this spine was mentioned by Martin in his 
short description of B. vermiculatus, but escaped the notice 
of Laidlaw and of Williamson ; it appears to be a group 
character of the species aUied to B. vermiculatus) ; 10 entirely 
black. Anal appendages black ; superiors as long as 
segment 10, divaricate, tapering to a point, to the outer side 
of which is a stunted spine which gives a bifid appearance 
to the apices when viewed a little to one side ; inferior deeply 
cleft into two widely divaricate branches, which are rather 
longer than the superiors and taper to a fine point, the apex 
of which curls rather abruptly upward. Genitalia : lamina 
depressed, broadly arched ; anterior hamules short, stiletto- 
shaped, with an inconspicuous backwardly turned point ; 
posterior hamules very robust, broad, projecting markedly, 
pyriform, with a robust forwardly directed spine at apex ; 
lobe tumid, roimded, shallowly grooved in front. 
Female. — ^Abdomen 33 mm. Hind-wing 27 mm. 
Similar to male, differing as follows :— Nodal index usually 
sHghtly higher ; the basal ring on segment 2 more regular 
and the yellow on its sides more extensive ; on the sides 
of 3 an elongate yellow spot, not confluent with the basal 
triangular spot ; 9 with only its apical fourth yellow ; 10 with 
a pair of small dorso-apical spots. AtwJ, appendages smaU, 
conical, black, the protuberance between them yellow. Vulvar 
scale glossy black, its apical third broadly bifid, the whole 
scale broadly triangular. 

Dis«n"6w«w»i.— Confined to Westeen India from south- 
west of the Deccan to Malabar, Coorg, Nilgiris, Kanara, and 
Coimbatore district. 

Specimens fi:om Poona, Deccan, have the ground-colour 
bright citron- yellow, whilst from the moister zones of Malabar 
and Coorg specimens have the ground-colour more grass-green. 
The measurements given are of those from Poona (tj^e- 
locality), those from the Western Ghats are from 3 to 4 mm. 
larger. 

They emerge from May to July in the Western Ghats and 
from August to September at Poona. At the latter place 
I took most specimens settled fairly high up on evergreens 
near the river-side, whilst in the Western Ghats they are 
rarely seen except settled on rocks in mid-stream, and then 
only during bursts of sunshine. It is a shy creature, but 
not uncommon. 

Type in the Indian Museum, allotype female and other 
specimens in the British Museum and the Author's collection. 



;216 GOMPHTD^. 

2q1. Burmagomphus williamsoni Fraser, 

Burmagomphus vermiculatus WilEamson (neo Martin), Proc. 

U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xxxiii, pp. 298-303, text-fig. 29 (1907); 

Laidlaw, Rec. Ind. Mus. vol. xxiv, p. 399 (1922); Eraser, 

J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soo. vol. xxix, pp. 62, 331 (1923). 
Burmagomphus williamsoni Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 

vol. xxri, pp. 410, 411, pi. i, fig. 2 (1926); Laidlaw, Trans. 

Ent. Soc. Lond. vol. Ixxviii, p. 189 (1930) ; Needliam, Bee. Ind. 

Mus. vol. xxxiv, pp. 226, 227 (1932). 

Male. — ^Abdomen 28 mm. Hind-wing 23 mm. 
Closely resembles B. pyramidalis Laid, and B. vermiculatus 
Mart. Differs from the former as follows : — ^Nodal index 

TnZs "sZs ' l^t)ium not bordered with black ; labrum black, 

with two large transversely elongate greenish spots at base ; 
mesothoracic collar slightly interrupted ; segment 2 with 
a long trilobed dorsal stripe ; narrow mid-dorsal lines on 
segments 3 to 5 confluent basally with the basal rings ; 
segment 6 with a fine triangular dorsal spot at base ; genitalia 
.specialized, posterior hamules broader, the spine more forward 
and smaller, and, in addition, two smaller spines on the outer 
border, lobe more prominent and more deeply notched. 

Female unknown. 

Distribution. — ^Buema. Described by WiUiamson from 
"three males collected by Mr. R. A. Earnshaw ; the specimens 
were recorded as B. vermiculatus Martin, but this I consider to 
he a distinct species. The type of B. vermiculatus was from 
TonHn. 

Type in Williamson's collection, Michigan University 
Museum. 

258. Burmagomphus hasimarieus Fraser. 

Burmagomphiis hasimarieus Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 
vol. xxxi, p. 411 (1926); Laidlaw, Trans. Ent. Soo. Lond. 
vol. Ixxviii, p. 189 (1930) ; Needham, Beo. Ind. Mus. vol. xxsiv, 
p. 226 (1932). 

Male.— Abdomen. 32 mm. Hiad-wing 27 mm. 

Closely similar to B. pyramidalis Laid., but differs markedly 
by its genitalia. I note also the following difierences : — 
Middle lobe of labium entirely black ; labrum black, with 
two elongate basal spots, as in B. williamsoni, epistome 
with a mere vestige of the central spot and the large 
lateral spots against the eyes entirely absent ; occiput and 
vertex entirely black, the large yeUow spot entirely absent, 
borders of occiput flat, not cmrled up as in B. pyramidalis ; 
mesothoracic collar very finely divided ; the mid-lateral 
black stripe longer and nearly confluent with the short 
oblique stripe wMch runs towards the hinder stripe above ; 



BUEMAGOMPHTTS. 217 

pterostigma darker, pale brown ; a trilobed dorsal stripe 
on segment 2 and a fine mid-dorsal line on 3 and 4, 8 entirely 
black ; superior anal appendages longer and finer, and without 
the outer spine, the outer side bevelled for its apical two- 
thirds ; inferior appendage with the apices of branches 
scarcely upturned. Posterior hamules very bulky, base 
a little constricted, apical portion produced squarely back 
with distinct angles, its anterior spine more robust and 
directed more forward. 

Female. — ^Difiers less in some respects and more ia others 
than does the male from B. pyramidalis. The labrum is 
similar to that of B. pyramidalis and the large triangular 
lateral spots of epistome are present. The median spot 
on this organ is present as two fine transversely linear spots. 
The occiput is entirely black. The thorax is much less 
broadly black than in the male and approximates to that of 
jB. pyramidalis, the lateral stripes being very narrow and the 
median short and not nearly reaching to the upper segmental 
stripe. Abdomen : the dorsal surface of segment 2 entirely 
without the mid-dorsal stripe and with only a basal ring and 
the sides broadly yellow ; segments 3 to 6 have the basal 
rings produced slightly apicalwards, and in addition to the 
lateral elongate spot on segment 2 there is a similar but 
smaller one on 3 ; segment 8 is unmarked as in the male. 
The protuberance between the anal appendages is black. 
Lastly, the vulvar scale is longer and is cleft very deeply, 
ending in two long fine spine-hke processes, very different 
from what is seen in B. pyramidalis. 

Distribution. — One male, the type, and two females from 
Mr. H. V. O'Donel, from Hasimara, Duars, Bengal, at present 
in the Author's collection. 



259. Burmagomphus sivalikensis Laidlaw. 

Burmagomphus sivaUkensis Laidlaw, Reo. Ind. M\is. vol. xxiv, 
pp. 401, 402 (1922) ; Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soo. vol. xxix, 
pp. 62, 331 (1923) ; id., ibid. vol. xxxi, p. 414, pi. i, fig. 4 (1926) ; 
Laidlaw, Trans. Ent. Soo. Lond. vol. Ixxviii, p. 189 (1930); 
Needham, Boo. Ind. Mus. vol. xxxiv, pp. 226, 227 (1932). 

Male. — ^Abdomen 34 mm. Hind-wing 25 mm. 

Head : labium pale greenish- white, the middle lobe narrowly 
bordered with black ; labrum black, marked with two very 
large, broad, greenish-white spots ; bases of mandibles 
■coloured similarly ; anteelypeus black, with a median linear 
spot and a large spot on each side palest green ; frons black 
ia front, greenish above, its base narrowly black, this colour 
prolonged forwards at the middle as a very short triangle ; 
vertex black ; occiput greenish-white, slightly notched 



218 GOMPHID-S). 

at its middle and convex on either side, fringed with pale- 
hairs. Prothorax black, with an anterior collar, a large 
lateral spot, and a small median dorsal spot citron-yellow. 
Thorax black, marked with greenish-yellow as follows : — 
A mesothoracic collar finely divided by the dorsal black 
carina ; very oblique long antehumeral spots, well separated 
from the collar below and the alar sinus above ; a long irregular 
humeral stripe, constricted just below its upper _ part and 
continued below on to the base of the middle pair of legs ; 
laterally two narrow black lines on sutures, rather narrower 
than the black stripe separatiag the humeral stripe from the- 
yellow stripe following it ; the first lateral stripe sinuous 
above and the second constricted above and angulated back- 
wards below ; a fine black line on the upper and back part 
of metepimeron. Legs black, inner surface of the anterior 
pair of femora yellow, armature of hind femora as for genus. 
Wings hyaline ; pterostigma pale yellowy brown between 

, , . , 7-12 1 13-8 
thick black nervures, over 3 to 4 cells ; nodal mdex g^g" 1 nj ■ 

Abdomen black, marked with pale citron-yellow as follows : — 
Segment 1 with a triangular spot on dorsum, its base against 
the apical border of segment ; 2 with a lanceolate mid-dorsal 
stripe extending from base to apex ; sides of these two segments 
broadly ; 2 with an extension of black behind the oreillet 
and a narrow black apical ring ; 3 to 7 with a narrow basal 
ring, rather broader on 3, and, on all, constricted at middle 
by an invasion of black ; 3 also with an elongate lateral spot 
each side ; 8 luxmarked ; 9 with a very large triangular 
spot on its apical three-fourths, more extensive on the dorsum 
than on the sides ; 10 unmarked. AtwI appendages black, 
as long as segment 10 ; superiors nearly parallel, pointed at 
apex and with a stout stunted spine near the apex on outer 
side as in B. pyramidalis, which gives a bevelled appearance 
to this part of appendage ; inferior deeply cleft into two very 
widely divaricate branches with upturned apices. Genitalia : 
laminaslightlyraised,hood-hke, deeply cleft ; anterior hamules- 
short stiletto-shaped organs ; posterior broad and robust, 
longer and narrower than in other species, and tapering out- 
wardly to a blimt point, from the apex of which springs 
a long fine spine ; lobe projecting, shaped like the spout of 
a milk-jug. 

Female unknown. 

Distribution. — ^Dehra Dun, N.W. PEOVmcES, and Hasimara,. 
Duars, Bengal. 

The' above description differs in several respects from that 
of Laidlaw, which was made from an old, broken, and faded 
specimen. The present description has been made from. 



BUEMAGOMPHtrS. 21& 

a fresh specimen sent me by Mr. H. V. O'Donel, who took 
it at Hasimara. 

The character of the genltaUa, as well as its markings, will 
easily distinguish this species from others of the genus. 

Type in the Indian Museum, from Dehra Dun. 

260. Burmagomphus sinuatus Fraser. (Fig. 68.) 

Burmagomphiis simiatus Fraser, Ceylon J. Sei. vol. xviii, pp. 33-35. 
(1933). 

Male unknown. 

Female. — ^Abdomen 34 mm. Hind- wing 27 mm. 

Head : labium pale yellow, middle lobe clouded with 
black ; labrum glossy black, with two larger bright citron- 
yellow spots narrowly separated at the middle luie ; bases 
of mandibles citron-yellow ; anteclypeus black ; postclypeus 
black, with a medial triangular and a larger rounded spot 
on each side bright citron-yellow ; frons black, with a broad 
transverse citron-yellow stripe on its crest, very narrowly 




Fig. 68. — Thoracic markings of Bwmagomphica sinuatus Fraser, female. 

interrupted at the middle ; vertex and occiput black, the 
latter with a large rounded greenish-yellow spot at its anterior 
part ; eyes bottle-green during life. ProtJiorax black, marked 
with citron-yellow as follows : — ^An anterior collar '; on the 
middle lobe a narrow anterior linear spot, a tiny geminate 
spot on the mid-dorsum, and a much broader one on each 
side. Thorax black, marked with citron-yellow as follows : — 
A narrow mesothoracic collar nearly interrupted at the 
middle ; oblique antehumeral stripes, strongly divergent 
below and not confluent with the mesothoracic collar ; an 
upper humeral spot followed by a short stripe below, which 
latter overlaps the upper part of the antehumeral stripe 
en echelon (thus forming a link between the pyramidalis and 
laidlawi groups, in which the two stripes are confluent at the 
middle and widely separated respectively) ; the sides broadly 
yellow, marked with two black stripes, an anterior broadly 
interrupted one, the upper portion of which is obliquely 
displaced so as to nearly join a posterior stripe, which lies- 



220 GOMPHtD^. 

on the poster -lateral suture and is complete. Legs black, 
inner surface of anterior pair of femora and external surface 
of coxse and trochanters yellow. Wings hyaline ; ptero- 
stigma golden-yellow framed in black nervures, braced, 

covering 4 to 5 cells ; nodal index -^-j^ "qlTT " ^bdcymen 

black, marked with bright citron-yellow as foUows : — Segment 1 
broadly so on sides and dorsum, a longitudinal black stripe 
separating these two areas ; 2 with a bilobate mid-dorsal 
stripe, tapering to a point apicaUy, its sides and under surface 
broadly yellow, including the rudimentary oreillets'; 3 with 
a very small basal mid-dorsal point, a large triangular baso- 
lateral spot, and a narrow lateral stripe shghtly separated 
from the former ; 4 to 7 with only the baso-lateral spots, 
which are confluent at a point over the dorsum ; 8 with 
a Hnear spot on each side at the base and a similar spot on 
each side, the two nearly in continuation ; 9 with a small 
subdorsal apical spot ; 10 unmarked. Anal appendages 
shortly conical, black. Vulvar scales very short, triangular, 
emarginate at apex. 

Distribution. — ^Drugalla, Ceylon, during May. 

As mentioned above, B. sinuatus forms a connecting-Unk 
between the two groups of the genus, but seems to be more 
nearly related to B. laidlawi and B. cauvericus. In the former 
the black stripe on the antero-lateral suture of thorax is 
complete, whilst in the latter the upper portion of the same 
stripe is confluent with the stripe on the postero-lateral suture. 

Type, a unique female, in the Author's collection. It was 
found resting on an evergreen bush near the side of the river, 
and was the only one seen. 

261. Burmagomphus laidlawi Fraser. (Fig. 69.) 

Qomphus sp. Fraser, Reo. Ind. Mus. vol. xxiv, pp. 419 (1922); 

id., J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soo. vol. xxix, pp. 62, 330 (1923). 
Burmagomphus Imdlaxvi Fraser, Reo. Ind. Mus. vol. xxvi, pp. 427, 

475, 476 (1924); id., J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soo. vol. xxxi, 

pp. 412-413, pi. i, fig. 5 (1926); Laidlaw, Trans. But. Soc. 

Lond. vol. Ixxviii, p. 189 (1930); Fraser, Eec. Ind. Mus. 

vol. xxxiii, p. 447 (1931); Needham, Reo. Ind. Mus. vol. sxxiv. 

pp. 226, 227 (1932). 

Male. — ^Abdomen 33 mm. Hind-wing 27 mm. 

Head : labium with middle lobe black, lateral lobes greenish- 
Tvhite ; labrum black, marked with two transversely oval yellow 
spots ; bases of mandibles yellow ; ante- and postelypeus 
black, with or without a smaU hnear spot at lower border 
of latter ; irons bright greenish-yellow, rest of head black ; 
occiput slightly raised at the middle, fringed with long black 
hairs; eyes bottle-green. Prothorax black, with a large 



BUEMAGOMPHTJS. 221 

lateral spot and an anterior collar of yellow. Thorax marked 
with greenish-yellow or greenish- white as follows : — ^A complete 
mesothoracic collar ; oblique antehumeral stripes extending 
from alar sinus but not meeting the mesothoracic collar ; 
a minute upper humeral point and traces of a lower humeral 
stripe ; and on alar sinus. Sides greenish-yellow, marked 
with two narrow black stripes on the sutures. (These two 
stripes are occasionally confluent above and below, thus 
enclosing an elongate yellow spot, but usually only the upper 
parts are confluent. In one specimen, from South Kanara, 
the stripes are so confluent as to almost obliterate the included 
yellow, and the labial spots are also absent.) Wings hyaline, 
sUghtly tinted with yellow at base ; 4 rows of postanal cells 
in hind-wing ; pterostigma dark brown, covering 4 to 5 cells ; 




Kg. 69. — Thoracic markings of Burmagomphus laidlawi Fraser, male. 

J , . _, ^, . 13-16115-12 10-14 12-10 

nodal mdex of two specimens TTZTq i Tnlia ' iq-q ia_ii - 

Legs black ; inner side of anterior femora yellow ; hind 
femora armed as for genus. Abdomen black, marked with 
yellow as follows : — Segment 1 with a dorsal spot extending 
from base to apex, and its sides broadly ; 2 with a biiobed 
mid-dorsal stripe extending from base to apex, and the sides 
broadly, the subdorsal black descending as a vertical stripe 
behind the oreillets; 3 with the mid-dorsal carina finely 
yeUow, but usually only at the base, and a large baso-lateral 
spot ; 4 to 6 with basal dorsal triangular spots and baso- 
lateral lunules confluent with the former ; 7 with a broad 
basal ring occupying about one-fourth the length of segment ; 

8 umtnarked or with a minute basal dorsal triangular spot, 
and, in some specimens, with a still smaller apical spot ; 

9 with its apical half yellow, this colour sometimes extending 
irregularly along the dorsal crest ; 10 unmarked. Anal 
appendages black, both the superiors and especially the 
branches of the inferior markedly divaricate ; apices oi 
superiors long and thin and twisting inwards and a little 
downwards ; branches of inferior curling upwards ; shghtly 
shorter than segment 10. Genitalia : lamina very narrow, 



222 GOMPHID^. 

very depressed ; anterior hamules short stylets with an 
inconspieuous hook at apex ; posterior hamules very robust, 
projecting, squared, and with a robust spine on the anterior 
corner projecting forward, a smaller one on the hinder angle 
projecting vertically. In some specimens there are two or 
three such posterior spines, but usually only one ; lobe very 
tumid and prominent, rounded, deeply cleft. 

Female. — ^Abdomen 32 mm. Hind-wing 29 mm. 

Very similar to the male ; markings better defined ; the 
humeral spot larger and continued as a broken line below, 
or similar to that of the male ; often a small spot on each 
■side of the postclypeus. A very prominent horn on each side 
of head just behind the lateral ocelli ; occiput simple, nearly 
straight. Abdomen : baso-lateral spot on sides of segment 3 
continued after a shght interval by a broad lateral stripe, 
which extends nearly to apex of segment ; 8 with a very 
fine basal yellow ring ; the yellow on 9 more restricted ; 
10 with its apical border lined with yellow. Superior anal 
■appendages small, conical, pomted, black with a yellow 
spot above. Vulvar scale very broad, of even width, slightly 
notched at its middle, glossy black. (The KaUar female 
has segment 10 unmarked and the horns on the vertex poorly 
developed.) Wings, when mature, enfumed pale brown, 
in immature examples rather deeply safEronated at the base. 

Distribution. — ^Wbstbest Ghats only. The original pair 
was taken in copula, flying along the bed of the KaUar River, 
NUgiris, 2,000 ft., August 13, 1922. A female was taken 
at Gudalur, NUgiri-Wynaad, 3,500 ft., . and several males 
in Coorg and South Kanara during September 1923. It is 
also not uncommon in the Bolovumpatti Forest, Coimbatore 
■district. 

Its habits are similar to B. pyramidalis, with which it is 
occasionally found in company. 

Type in the British Museum. 

262. Burmagomphus cauvericus Fraser. 

Burmagonvphus cauvericus Praser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soe. 
vol. xxxi, p. 413, pi. i, fig. 6 (1926); Laidlaw, Trans. Ent. Soo. 
vol. lorviii, p. 189 (1930); Fraser, Eeo. lad. Mus. vol. xxxiii, 
p. 447 (1931) ; Needham, Rec. Ind. Mus. vol. xxxiv, pp. 226, 227 
(1932). 

Male. — -Abdomen 35 mm. Hind-wing 28 mm. 

Very similar to B. Uidlawi, differing as foUows :— Middle 
lobe of labium greenish narrowly bordered with black ; 
3, small triangular spot of greenish-yellow on each side of 
postclypeus; upper humeral spot usually entirely absent, 
or, if present, then a mere point. Lateral markings on thorax 
similar to those of B. pyramidalis ; the stripe on the first 



BTTBMAGOMPHtrS. 223 

suture is incomplete above, but extends higher than it does 
in B. pyramidalis, and is ahnost confluent with a short oblique 
stripe -which runs back from below the forewing to join the 
upper part of the stripe on the second suture, enclosing a small 
spot above. (In some specimens this short stripe is so broadly 
confluent that the stripe on the second suture appears to be 
expanded above, and marked with a tiny point of citron- 
yeUow.) Hinder border of metepimeron narrowly bordered 
above with black. Segment 2 with a dorsal lanceolate spot 
extending to about the middle of segment 8 unmarked ; 
10 with a fine vestigial line along its mid-dorsal ridge. 
■Genitalia : posterior hamules less broad than in B. laidlawi ; 
the anterior spine smaller and with two smaller spines situated 
close together at the hinder angle ; lobe smaller, less deeply 
notched. 

Female. — Abdomen 35 mm. Hind-wing 31 mm. 

Very similar to the male, differing as follows : — ^Blaek 
markings on sides of thorax more restricted, the enclosed spot 
■above front of second lateral suture very large and the black 
stripe on the suture at this level reduced to a fine line ; basal 
ring on segment 3 produced laterally as a broad triangular 
spotj followed by a large elongate lateral isolated spot ; 
segment 4 with a similar lateral but smaller spot. Occiput 
notched in the middle and rounded on either side of the notch. 
Vertex with a pair of horns as in B. laidlawi, but these shorter, 
with a broader base, and situated a httle to the outer side of 
the hinder oceUi, instead of directly behind them. Vulvar 
scale more broadly notched than in B. laidlawi, so that 
its border exhibits two broad triangular processes. Anal 
appendages entirely black. 

Distribution. — Cooeg only, along the banks and tributaries 
of the River Cauvery. 

This handsome species may be immediately recognized 
by the combination of the anterior thoracic markings of 
B. laidlawi with the lateral thoracic markings of B. pyra- 
midalis. 

Type in the British Museum. 

263. Burmagomphus V-flavum Fraser. (Fig. 70.) 

BurmagorryphiijS V-flavum Praser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 
vol. xxxi, pp. 414, 416, pi. i, fig. 7 (1926) ; Laidlaw, Trans. Ent. 
Soc. Lend. vol. Ixkviu, p. 189 (1930) ; Needham, Reo. Ind. Mus, 
vol. xxxiv, pp. 226, 227 (1932). 

Male unknown. 

Female. — ^Abdomen 31 mm. Hind-wing 30 mm. 

Head : labium pale greenish-white ; labrum black, marked 
with two large basal transversely oval citron-yellow spots ; 
bases of mandibles yeUow ; anteelypeus black ; postclypeus 



224 GOMPBDCD^. 

glossy black, narrowly bordered below with citron- yellow, 
and with a large spot of the same colour on each side 
against the eyes ; frons black, with a broad citron-yellow 
stripe above, which is cut by a median black line into two 
large oval spots; vertex black ; occiput yellow encircled 
vnth black, the hinder border narrowly black, posterior 
surface yellow, sUghtly concave. Proihorax black, broadly 
marked with citron-yellow on the whole posterior lobe, 
a small geminate spot in front of it, a very large lateral 
spot nearly confluent with the yellow on the posterior lobe, 
and a broad anterior collar. Thorax black, marked with 
citron-yellow as follows : — ^A complete mesothoracic collar, 
shghtly notched behind at its centre ; antehumeral and humeral 
obhque stripes, which converge and become broadly confluent 
below so as to form a large yeUow V-shaped spot on each side 
of dorsum of thorax ; a small spot in the front angle of the 
alar sinus ; laterally broadly yellow, with an incomplete 
black stripe on the first suture extending up as far as the 




Kg. 70. — ^Thoracic markings of Burmagomphus V-flamum Fraser, male. 

spiracle and a narrow complete black liae on the second 
suture. L&gs black, inner sides of fore femora greenish- 
yellow ; hind femora with a row of 9 to 10 short robust spines 
gradually lengthening distally and numerous smaller spines 
at the proximal third ; the femora overlapping the base of 
segment 2 when apposed. Wings : hyaline ; pterostigma 
pale yellow between black nervxires, rather large, more than 
one-fourth the distance between node and proximal end of 

pterostigma, covering 4 to 5 cells ; nodal index ,, ,. „ ,, ; 

Guii and I A rather divergent in hind- wing from a little more 
than halfway to wing-border ; no basal incomplete antenodal 
nervures. Abdomen black, marked with citron-yellow as 
follows : — Segment 1 with a small subdorsal apical black spot, 
otherwise entirely yellow ; 2 with a broad mid-dorsal trilobed 
stripe and the sides very broadly ; 3 with a basal ring confluent 
with a fine dorsal stripe which extends to apex of segment, 
and laterally with a very broad stripe nearly interrupted 



DAVIDIOIDBS. 225 

at the jugal suture and not extending to apex of segment ; 
4 to 7 somewhat similar, but the sides broadly black, only- 
segments 4 to 5 having a small oval lateral yellow spot ; 

8 with a small yellow triangle on its dorsum at the base ; 

9 with its apical half bright citron-yellow ; 10 with its apex 
narrowly bordered with three triangular yellow spots. Anal 
appeTidages short, conical, black. Vulvar scale very short 
and broad, less than one-fourth the length of segment 9, 
very shallowly notched at apex. 

Distribution. — ^Maymyo, IsT. Shan States, Uppbe BuiuvtA, 
June 16, 1924, two females coUected by Col. F. WaU, I.M.S. 

This species is not quite typical of the genus Bwrmagompkus, 
as the pterostigma is too large and the legs too short, and 
the armature of the hind femora differs a little. The large 
swollen pterostigma recalls that of Cyclogomphus, but there 
is no incomplete basal antenodal nervure present in any of the 
wings of the two specimens. The formation of yellow Vs 
on the dorsum of thorax, by the fusion of the humeral and 
antehumeral stripes below, is sufficiently characteristic to 
distinguish B. V-fiavum from any other Indian species of the 
^enus. 

Type in the Author's collection. 

Genus DAVIDIOIDES Eraser. (Fig. 71.) 

Bamdkndes Praser, Ree. Ind. Mus. vol. xxvi, p. 472 (1924); id., 
J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. xxxi, p. 419 (1926); Laidlaw, 
Trans. Bnt. Soc. Lond. vol. Ixxviii, p. 188 (1930); Needliam, 
Rec. Ind. Mus. vol. xxxiv, pp. 217, 218 (1932). 

Closely similar to Burmagomphus ; size moderate ; eolotu? 
mat or glossy black, marked with bright citron-yeUow. 

Head rather small, triangular ; frons weU angulated ; 
occiput simple, concave. Wings broad and long, nearly 
as long as abdomen, tomus markedly angulated, base of 
hind-wing deeply excavated ; membrane obsolete ; anal 
triangle 3-ceUed ; arc situated between the second and third 
antenodal nervures ; 3 transverse nervures between the 
sectors of arc from arc to bifurcation of JRs in fore-wing, 
only 1 in hind-wing ; only 1 row of postanal cells in fore- wings, 
but occasional double cells, 4 rows in hind- wing ; first postanal 
cell in hind-wing extending nearly to the proximal end of 
base of subtrigone, this cell very broad ; anal loop absent ; 
Tjasal incomplete antenodal nervures absent ; nodal index 
moderately high ; primary antenodals the first and sixth ; 
diseoidal cell in fore-wings nearly equilateral, but the basal 
side sHghtly shorter than the two others, the cell distinctly 
separated from the lower sector of ajo by a very short stalk, 
entire ; diseoidal cell of hind- wing traversed by a nervure 
Tunning from the middle of costal side to the distal, which 

VOL. n. Q 



226 GOMPHID^. 

two sides are equal and nearly double the length of the basal, 
the cell separated from the lower sector of arc by a much 
longer stalk than in the fore-wings ; pterostigma short and 
swollen at its middle, less than one-third as long as the 
distance between the node and proximal end of pterostigma, 
braced ; lA in fore-wing pectinated ; lA and Cuii running 
parallel to hinder border of wing ; only 1 cubital nervure 
in all wings ; sub trigones and hypertrigones all entire. Legs 
moderately long, hind femora extending to base of segment 2, 
but not overlapping that segment, furnished with a group 
of numerous, closely set, short spines on the proximal two- 
thirds of the flexor surface, which later form into two rows 
of longer more robust spines at the distal third of the hmb ; 
tibial spines moderately long and closely set. Abdomen 
tumid at base, then very narrow and cylindrical from segment 3 




Fig. 71. — Wings of Daioidioides martini Praser, male. 

to apical end of segment 7, where it again becomes abruptty 
broadened, segment 8 especially broad and almost winged, 
as in Phtygomphus. Anal appendages short, equal in length 
to segment 10, conical, pointed at apex, sHghtly divaricate, 
the branches of the inferior equal to the superior appendages 
and equally divaricate. Genitalia : lamina shghtly projecting, 
arched ; anterior hamules long slender processes ; posterior 
hamules very broad robust sinuous processes, projecting 
markedly and ending in a recurved point ; lobe moderately 
large and prominent, scoop-shaped and strongly lipped. 

Genotype, Bavidioides martini Eraser. 

Distribution. — Malabab only. A monotypic genus. 

The species is remarkable on account of the traversed 
discoidal cells in the hind-wing, resembling in this the genus. 



DAVIDIOIDES. 227 

Davidius, but it differs in most other respects from the latter. 
The venation is similar to that of Burmagomphiis, with the 
exception of the traversed discoidal cells and the stalking 
of the latter, especially of that of the hind-wing, in which 
the venation resembles that of Merogomphus. The shape 
of the abdomen also recalls that of the latter genus. It is 
imfortunate that the female of D. martini is imknown, so that 
we are at present ignorant of the character of the armature 
of the femora in this sex, which might go far to determine 
the true position of the genus. 

264. Davidioides martini Fraser. (Fig. 71 and PI. II, fig. 4.) 

Davidioides martini Fraser, Eec. Ind. Mus. vol. xxvi, pp. 427, 472,. 
473, text-fig. 2 (1924) ; id., J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. xsxi, 
pp. 419, 420, text-fig. 3, vi, pi. ii, fig. 1 (1926) ; Laidlaw, Trans. 
But. Soo. Lond. vol. Issviii, p. 188 (1930) ; Fraser, Bee. lad. 
Mus. vol. xxsiii, p. 447 (1931); Needham, Reo. Ind. Mus- 
vol. xxxiv, p. 226 (1932). 

Male. — ^Abdomen 38 mm. Hind-wing 33 mm. 

Head : labium dirty yellow ; labrum black, with a large 
yellow basal spot on each side, the pair widely separated - 
bases of mandibles and anteclypeus yeUow ; postclypeus 
black ; frons black on the lower part of front, yellow on the 
upper part and above, its base above broadly black especially 
at the middle ; vertex and occiput black, the latter simple, 
slightly concave. Prothorax black, marked with yellow 
as foUows : — A minute spot on the centre of the posterior 
lobe ; a large lateral spot on each side of the middle lobe ; 
a twin spot on the mid-dorsum and an anterior collar. Thorax 
black on dorsum, yellow on the sides, a slightly interrupted 
yellow mesothoracic collar, sHghtly oblique antehumeral 
stripes separated widely from the collar below and not quite 
reaching the alar sinus above, a miaute upper humeral spot. 
Laterally two narrow parallel black stripes on the sutures- 
enclosing an equally narrow yellow Une ; a narrow black 
posterior border to the metepimeron, confluent above and 
below with the posterior black stripe. Yellow beneath. 
Legs black, anterior and middle pairs of femora yellow 
on the inner side, armed with a row of very closely set, short, 
even spiaes. Wings hyaline ; pterostigma blackish-brown, 

16-12 



12-14 
braced, covering 3 to 4 cells ; nodal index 



10-13' 



12-10 

Abdomen black, marked with yellow as follows : — Segment I 
with a large spot on the dorsum and the sides broadly ; 2 with 
a mid-dorsal fusiform spot not extending to base or apex, 
the ventral and lower part of apical borders narrowly ; 3 to 7 
with basal rings, narrow on 3 to 6, occupying the basal half 

q2 



228 GOMFHID^. 

of 7, where also there is a small apico-lateral spot on each side ; 
8 to 10 unmarked. Aiml appendages : superiors as long 
as segment 10, bright yellow, narrowly black at base, widely 
divaricate, conical, tapering to a point, with 5 or 6 minute 
black spines on the ventral surface ; inferior deeply cleft, 
its branches widely divaricate and equally so as the superiors 
but shorter, curled sUghtly up at apex, black. Genitalia 
described under generic characters. 

Distribution. — Westeen Ghats : Kunnoth, N. Malabar, 
May 18, 1923. 

Type in the Author's collection. 

Genus MESOGOMPHUS Forster. (Mg. 72.) 

Mesogomphus Forster, Wiesbaden Jahr. Ver. Natk. vol. lis, p. 323, 
(1906) ; Eis, Aim. S. Afr. Mus. vol. xviii, p. 343 (1920) ; Fraser, 
J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soo. vol. xxiy, p. 991 (1924) ; Laidlaw, 
Trans, Ent. Soc. Lond. vol. hcxviii, p. 192 (1930) ; Needham, 
Reo. Ind. Mus. vol. sxxiv, pp. 217, 218, 221 (1932). 

Size medium, colour for the most part sandy yellow marked 
with shades of brown and black, more rarely black marked 
with bright yellow ; characterized by the long curled anal 
appendages, the short inferior appendage having its branches 
very closely apposed as in Onychogomphus and Lamelli- 
gomphiis. 

Head moderately large, triangular, frons angulated, occiput 
simple, usually slightly and shallowly concave. Wings : 
reticulation close ; tornus angulated and base of hind-wing 
moderately excavated ; membrane very narrow, almost 
obsolete ; anal triangle ^-celled ; arc situated midway between 
the first and second antenodal nervures ; only 2 transverse 
nervures between the sectors of arc from arc to bifurcation 
of Rs in the fore- wings, 1 in the hind- wing ; 2 rows of postanal 
cells in fore-wings, 6 in the hind-wing ; anal loop absent, 
the first postanal cell extending proximaUy to about the middle 
of base of subtrigone ; nodal iadex high ; primary antenodal 
nervures the first and fifth ; discoidal cells entire, that of 
fore-wing almost equilateral, but the distal side very slightly 
longer than the two others, that of the hind-wing elongate 
in the length of wing, the distal side longer than the costal 
and the costal at least one-third longer than the basal ; 
pterostigma rather long, expanded at its middle, well braced, 
slightly longer than one-third the distance from node to 
proximal end of pterostigma ; I A in fore-wings pectinate, 
with a maximum of four cells between it and the margin 
of wing ; Cuii and I A parallel to margin of hind- wing ; only 
a single cubital nervure in all wings ; subtrigones and hyper- 
trigones entire in all wings ; discoidal field with 2 rows of cells 
to the level of node or to sKghtly distal of that point. Legs 



MBSOGOMPHTJS. 



22» 



short, Mnd femora extending only to posterior margin of 
thorax and furnished with a dense group of short spines 
on proximal half of flexor surface ■which become more or less 
arranged iato two rows at distal end of femur ; tibial spines 
moderately short and closely set. Abdomen of male tumid 
at base, narrow and cylindrical from segment 3 to base of 
segment 7, from which point the abdomen is again dilated, 
especially at segments 8 and 9, which bear broad lateral 
wing-like projections very similar to those found in species 
of the genus Ictinus. Abdomen of female more or less cyHn- 
drical throughout, segments 8 and 9 without lateral dilatations. 
Anal appendages : superiors nearly double the length of 




Kg- 72. — Wings of MesogompJms henry i Laidlaw, male. 

segment 10, tapering to apex, the terminal half curled regularly 
downwards and very closely apposed ; inferior less than half 
the length of superiors, strongly curled in a downward and 
then an upward direetion, bifid nearly to base, the two branches- 
closely apposed like the superiors. Genitalia : lamina very 
broadly and deeply arched, depressed; anterior hamules 
rather short, narrow, pointed processes ; posterior hamules 
much broader, longer, and more robust processes, ending in an 
incurved spine ; lobe spout-like, projecting, deeply emarginate. 

Genotype, Oom'phus cognatus Eamb. 

Dts<n6Miww.— Tropical Africa and Madagascar, Ikdia, 
BtTEMA, and Ceylos:, Malaysia, Java, and the Celebes ; four 
or five species are found within Indian Umits. 



■2A 



■330 GOMPHID^. 

Species of the genus breed in open rocky streams, the males 
haunting shallow runnels where the water ilows swiftly over 
a clean sandy or pebbly bottom, or they may be found settling 
on sandy beaches beside streams, indulging in frequent rapid 
flights up and down stream ; M. henryi usually settles on 
rocks in mid-stream, and I have seen several occupying adjacent 
rocks. 

The larvse resemble those of Burmagompkus and Onycho- 
gomphus, and have similar habits. 

The genus is closely related to Onychogomphus, from which 
it is distinguished by the dilated and winged lateral borders 
of segments 8 and 9, as well by the absence of an anal loop 
in the hind-wing. The larvae burrow in sand and are stream- 
dweUers. 

Key to Indian Species of Mesogomphus. 

^ fAnal appendages yellow lineatus (Selys), p. 230. 

1 Anal appendages black 2. 

Mesothoraoie collar confluent with ante- 
humeral stripes Undgreni Pras., p. 235. 

Mesothoraeio collar separated from ante- 
humeral stripes 3. 

Occiput yellow above ; hind femora black : 
smaller species (abdomen with append- 
ages not more than 27 mm.) risi Fras., p. 237. 

Occiput black or dark brown ; hind femora 
broadly marked with yellow: larger 
species (abdomen with appendages 30 to 

39 mm.) 4. 

°Faee, including labrum, entirely yellow. . frontalis (Selys), p. 238. 
, J Labrum with a black basal triangular 
■ j spot ; postclypeus black, rest of face 

yellow henryi (Laid.), p. 234. 

285. Mesogomplms lineatus (Selys). (Pig. 73.) 

Qomphus lineatus Selys, Rev. Odon. p. 386 (1850). 

Onychogomphus lineatus Selys, Bull. Acad. Belg. vol. xxi, pt. 2, 
p. 36 (1854) ; id.,Mon. Gomph. p. 48 (1857); Williamson, Proo. 
U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xxxiii, pp. 309, 310(1907); Morton, Trans. 
Ent. Soc. Lend, part ii, Sept. p. 305 (1907) ; Praser, Reo. Ind. 
Mus. vol. xvi, p. 463 (1919) (larva) ; LaidJaw, ibid. vol. xxiv, 
pp. 371, 404, 405 (1922) ; Fraser, ibid. vol. xxiv.p. 426 (1922) ; 
id., J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. xxix, pp. 65, 333 (1923). 

lAndenia Uneata Kirby, Cat. Odon. p. 69 (1890). 

Mesogomphus Knecaus Fraser, Reo. Ind. Mtie. vol. xxvi, pp. 427, 
477 (1924) ; id., J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. xxix, pp. 991- 
994, text-fig. xii, pi. i, fig. 1 (1924) ; Laidlaw, Spolia Zeylanica 
{M. henryi, neo Uneahis), vol. xii, pp. 340, 341, text-fig. 1 (1924) ; 
id.. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. vol. Ixxviii, p. 192 (1930); Fraser, 
Rec. Ind. Mus. vol. xxxiii, p. 448 (1931); Needham, Rec. Ind. 
Mus. vol. xxxiv, p. 221 (1932). 

Mak. — ^Abdomen (with appendages) 32-37 mm. Hind- 
"wing 24-27 mm. 



MESOGOMPHUS. 231 

Head : labium pale yeUow ; labrum, face, and frons sandy 
yellow, the latter -with a more or less ill-defined brownish- 
black line across the crest ; vesicle and occiput yellow, 
a narrow transverse dark brown streak separating them ; 
in some specimens a narrow diffuse basal brown line on upper 
surface of frons, and base of labrum may be clouded with the 
same colour. Occiput raised into a slight point at its centre 
and usually bearing a line of from two to four minute spines 
on either side of this emiaence. Prothorax blackish-brown, 
posterior lobe narrowly and a large spot on either side yellow. 
Thorax sandy yellow, marked with dull or dark brown or 
even blackish-brown (according to age of specimens) as 
follows : — A dorsal line bordering the mesothoracic collar 
closely and turning abruptly up on either side of the mid- 
dorsal carina, which is black in its upper part ; an oblique 
antehumeral line beguuiing from lower end of dorsal line and 
running upwards and inwards to join this line in its upper 
part, thus enclosing a thin stripe of the ground-colour ; 
a line on the humeral suture and two lateral hnes close 
together, all three parallel, of the two latter one crosses 
the spiracle and the other maps out the postero-lateral sutm-e. 
Legs yellow, marked with black ; a stripe on inner side of 
all femora, an outer stripe on distal half of middle fem.ora, 
and a rounded distal spot or stripe on outer side of hind 
femora ; tarsi black. Two rows of robust, evenly-spaced, 
short spines on hind femora which converge to form a group 
of spines proximally ; middle femora with more mxmerous 
and more closely set spines. Wings hyaline ; costa yellow 
as far as pterostigma, which is pale reddish-lbrown heavily 
bordered with black especially on the costal border, covering 
•4-6 cells, usually well braced ; nodal index rather variable : — 



10-16 1 16-9 8-15 



15-7 8-13 
9-7' 7-9 



14-7 
10-11 1 10-9 ' 8-9 9-7 ' 7-9 "9=8 ■ ^'^ ^°^' °^ P<^'*^^^^ 
cells ; 2 nervures between the sectors of the arc in fore-wing, 
only 1 in hind- wing ; 2 rows of discoidal cells as far as node ; 
outer border of discoidal cell in hind-wing well angulated. 
Abdomen black marked with yellow, or yellow marked with 
black, the two colours occupying a variable space according 
to the age of specimens ; in old specimens the yeUow reduced 
to basal rings, in young specimens, the black present as apical 
rings. Segment 1 with the sides broadly yellow and a large 
dorsal apical spot of the same colour ; 2 with a subdorsal 
black line on each side enclosing a dorsal bilobed yeUow spot, 
the black curving down on each side narrowly behind . the 
oreiEets, and an apical black ring of variable width ,; 3 to 7 
usually with broad black apical rings occupying a variable 
length of the segments, but generally less on 7 than on the 



232 



GOMPBID^. 



others ; a lateral black line runs from the apical ring on each 
side and extends ahnost to the base ; the dorsal carina and 
jugal sutures finely black ; in some specimens the lateral 
stripe shortens as traced from 3 to 7, in others the jugal 
suture is so broadly black that it cuts off two dorsal yellow 
spots, one in front and the other behind ; 8 and 9 with wide 
dilatations at their sides, black on the dorsum except for a fine 
basal ring, and an irregular spot of the same colour on the 
mid-dorsum, more evident on segment 8 than 9 ; 10 sandy 
yellow, with the basal half or two-thirds of the dorsum black. 
The terminal three segments show considerable variation; 
thus the foHate lateral processes may be broadly edged with 
black, or almost entirely blackish-brown, and the dorsal surfaces 
may be entirely deep black save for a fine basal ring on 
segment 9 and an apical ring on 10, the latter sendmg a slight- 
prolongation along the dorsal carina. There are many 




Fig. 73.— TenBinal abdominal segments and anal appendages of Meso- 
gomphus hneatus Selys, male, viewed from the left side. 

variations of this pattern, but the differences appear to he 

fr L.'^^T''^''''^ '^**^^'' *^^" racial- ^^i appendages 
^T"J^ ®^'^y y®l^°^- (^e.nitalia very similar to those 

otMa)gnatus; lamina pale yellow, very shaUow, broadly 
notched ; mner hamules long and narrow, shghtly convergent 
the apices ending in a short, sharp, and slightly outwardly-' 
turned hook, black ; outer hamules much longer and stouter 
broadish_ at base but rapidly tapering to a pomt, turning 
directly in and nearly meeting at their apices, each bearmS 
on the inner side, somewhat below the apex, a short robust 
spme, black, yeUow at the base ; lobe deeply excavate 

^^iCS^iXT^ '""'-^'^ ^^^^*^' ^-*^^ ^^--^ 

JemaZe.-Abdomen 31-36 mm. Hind-wing 24-27 mm. 

Uosely resembles the male except for shape of abdomen ■ 
colour as a rule much paler than in male and less marked 
with brown or black. The lateral prolongations of black 



MESOGOMPHXrS. 233 

extend on to the second segment, segments 8 and 9 are usually 
deep black and unmarked, but in some specimens the abdominal 
markings are much restricted and 8, 9, and 10 are entirely 
yellow ; segments 3 to 6 ventral to the lateral black stripes 
are pure shining silvery white, a colour rarely met with in 
other members of the genus. Occiput bearing four spines 
on either side of the middle liae, very evenly disposed in all 
specimens I have examined. (Laidlaw states that they are 
entirely absent in one of my Poona female specimens.) Wings 
palely enfumed or saffronated at the base and even more 
faintly along the costal margia ; costal and many of the 
nervures, especially the nodal, light yellow ; nodal index 



.^ . 6-13 

01 two specimens ■■ „_q 



12-5 7-14 16-8 
9-6' 8-10 10-8' 

Larva. — ^Length 25 mm., abdomen 17 mm., hind femur 5 mm. 

Cyhndrical. Head moderately large ; antennse of four 
segments, clubbed, the last segment very minute. Mask 
very broad, almost square, the base a little constricted, 
its outer surface coated with short hairs ; middle lobe straight, 
not projecting, fringed with fine bristles ; lateral lobe furnished 
with a long movable hook, somewhat squat, saw-shaped, 
its inner border with a row of blunt molar-like teeth. 
Abdomen tapering gradually to the end, tenth segment 
short, not hollowed out above and not furnished with spines. 
All segments except the ninth and tenth furnished with 
a blunt mid-dorsal spine. Legs very short, femora fringed 
with long coarse hairs. The larva thus differs strikingly 
from that of LamelligompJms nilgiriensis in its narrow and 
cylindrical shape and ia the clubbed antennae. 

Distribution. — ^Poimd throughout India. I have specimens 
from BtrsMA, Bengal, Dehra Dun, Poona, Bangalore, 
IChandala (Deccan), Madeas, Palghat (Malabar), Trichin- 
opoly, CooKG, and the Nilgibis. 

M. lineatus breeds both ia still and running waters. In 
Poona and Coorg the females deposit their eggs in shallows 
either at the edge of a sandy beach or over ripples flowing 
over a gravelly bottom ; the males await them there, settled 
on the sandy foreshore, where by reason of their colour they 
are well nigh invisible, occasionally rising and patroUing 
backwards and forwards over the shallow ripples. In Coorg, 
at Hoskoti, I found numerous specimens emerging in a dense 
reedy swamp, and can only conjecture that ova had been 
deposited in a tiny brook with a sandy bottom which flowed 
into the marsh ; the site was quite imusual, and may have 
been forced on the females by the extraordinarily swollen 
state of the rivers, or larvae may possibly have been swept 
from the rivers and left stranded in such marshy retreats. 



234 GOMPHICiE. 

M. linmtiis is a very wary and shy insect and somewhat 
dif6.eult to catch. It occurs almost throughout the year 
but is most common from September to November. 

M. lineatus varies greatly in colour according to the climatic 
conditions under which it occurs, pale forms occurring in the 
arid zones and dark forms in regions of heavy rainfall. 

Type in the Selys collection, Brussels Museum. 

266. Mesogomphus henryi Laidlaw. 

Mesogomphits lineatus Laidlaw {henry i Laid., nee lineatus Selys), 
Spolia Zeylanioa, vol. sii, pp. 340, 341, text-fig. 1 (1924). 

Mesogomphus henryi Laidlaw, Proc. Zool. Soc. Loud. pp. 131, 
132(1928); Needham, Rec. Ind. Mus. voL sxsiv, p. 221 (1932); 
Eraser, Ceylon J. Sei. vol. xviii, p. 33 (12^3). 

Male. — ^Abdomen 32-36 mm. Hind-wing 24-27 mm. 

Head : labium bright yeUow, middle lobe dark brown ; 
labrum citron-yellow, narrowly bordered with black and with 
a rounded black area at middle extending from base halfway 
across the Hp ; ante- and postclypeus and lower third of 
anterior surface of frons bright citron-yellow, with an elongate 
black spot on the centre of postclypeus ; frons black, with two 
large transversely oval citron-yellow spots above ; bases of 
mandibles yellow ; eyes bottle-green during life ; vertex 
and occiput black, the latter concave and fringed with short 
black hairs. Prothorax black, with a tiny yellow point on 
each' side. Thorax black, marked with citron-yellow as 
follows : — ^A rather broadly interrupted mesothoracie collar ; 
short pointed antehumeral stripes ; a tiny upper humeral 
■ spot ; two broad oblique stripes on each side, one on mesepi- 
meron, the other on metepimeron, with one or three small 
spots on the black area between them, a large oval spot just 
above posterior trochanters. Underside and extreme posterior 
border of thorax bright yellow. Legs black, the anterior 
two pairs of femora striped on outer sides with citron-yellow, 
coxae and trochanters also yeUow. Wings hyaline ; ptero- 
■stigma black, with a dark ochreous centre, braced, covering 

, „ , ,. , -, . 8-14114-7 6-13jl2-7 

4 cells ; nodal mdes of two specimens g-g- -5-5 , „ -5-= ; 

y~~y ' y~"y / — y y-"/ 

4 cells in anal triangle. Abdomen black, marked with citron- 
yellow as follows :— Segment 1 with an obscure mid-dorsal 
apical spot and a large triangular latero-apical spot on each 
side ; 2 with a quadrate latero-apical spot on each side 
which extends basaUy to include the oreiUets, and with 
a narrow trilobate mid-dorsal stripe, the median lobe of this 
clubbed ; 3 to 6 with paired subdorsal basal spots, on 3 
extending to apical side of jugal suture ; 7 with an elongate 
subdorsal spot covering the basal two-thirds of the segment, 



MBSOGOMPHUS. 235 

interrupted by the black jugal suture and well separated 
from its fellow spot on the opposite side ; 8 and 9 unmarked, 
bearing well developed but narrow black lateral foliations ; 
10 with an obscure lateral spot and a bright geminate apical 
dorsal spot. Anal appendages blackish or dark reddish-brown, 
almost similar in shape to those of M. lineatus, but the inferior 
more extended and nearly half the length of superiors instead 
•of only one-third or less. 

Female. — Abdomen 30-34 mm. Hind-wing 26-28 mm. 

More robust than the male and differing in a few particulars : 
labium entirely yellow ; black area on labrum more restricted ; 
a well-defined humeral stripe present, consistiag of a large 
upper spot and a more or less well-defined stripe below sHghtly 
separated from it ; the yellow spots on the medial black band 
on sides of thorax fused to form an almost complete stripe, 
or two large slightly separated elongated spots ; legs more 
extensively yellow, the femora entnely yellow save for the 
distal extremities of the two posterior pairs on the outer 
side ; wings sometimes palely enfumed ; pterostigma almost 
black, longer, covering 6 to 6 cells ; markings of abdomen 
similar, but the ventral borders of segments 1 and 2 yellow 
and the subdorsal apical stripe on segment 2 prolonged to the 
base. Anal appendages yeUow or dark brown, tapered, 
cylindrical ; vulvar scale similar to that of M. lineatus. 

Distribution. — Ceylon only. It is the commonest Gomphine 
found in the island, and is met with in numbers on most streams 
in submontane areas. At Madugoda I saw specimens every 
few yards perched on prominent rocks in mid-stream ; it was 
also common around Kandy. 

The species is very closely related to M. li'iieatus, but is 
easily distinguished by the great preponderance of the black 
ground-colour over the yellow markings, the opposite condition 
obtaining in M. lineatus. It is the only species of the genus 
Mesogomphus found in Ceylon. 

Type in the British Museum; specimens in the Colombo 
Museum and my own collection. 

267. Mesogomphus lindgreni (Fraser). 

Onychogomphus lindgreni Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soe. 

vol. xxix, pp. 65, 332 (1923). 
Mesogom/phus lindgreni Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soo. 

vol. xxix, pp. 995, 996 (1924:) ; Laidlaw, Trans. Ent. Soo. Lend. 

vol. Ixxviii, p. 193 (1930) ; Needham, Rec. Ind. Mus. vol. xxxiv, 

p. 221 (1932). 

Male. — ^Abdomen with appendages 39 mm. Hind- wing 
29 mm. 

Head : labium whitish-green ; labrum greenish-yellow, 
broadly black at base ; mandibles similarly coloured ; ante- 



236 GOMPHIDiE. 

clypeus and postcljrpeus greenish-yellow, the latter clouded 
■with black on either side of the middle line ; frons greenish- 
yellow, with a black streak along its crest and the base above 
broadly black ; vertex black ; occiput very dark brown, 
its border bearing no spines, entirely smooth save for a few 
hairs at each end. Prothorax black. Thorax greenish- 
yellow, the black markings similar to those of M. lineatus 
but much more extensive ; antehumeral and humeral stripes 
coalescent, obhterating the ground-colour between them 
save for a small upper spot ; similarly the two lateral stripes 
coalescent, formiag one broad black stripe and leaving a mere 
vestige of the ground-colour above. Wings evenly enfumed, 
casta and pterostigma black ; reticulation black ; 3 nervures 
between the sectors of arc in fore-wing, 1 or 2 in hind-wing ; 
discoidal field of even width till well beyond the node ; nodal 

8—13 1 13—8 
index -g^ -g-g . Legs black save for a yellow spot behind 

the proximal end of each femur, coxse and trochanters yellow. 
Abdomen black, marked with yellow as foUows : — Segment 1 
entirely black save for a small postero-lateral spot ; 2 with 
a broad line on the mid-dorsal carina and the sides including 
the oreillets, the black sending a prolongation down behind 
the latter structures as in M. lineatus ; 3 to 7 with the basal 
half yellow, the lateral border of this colour running obliquely 
from the mid-dorsum to reach the venter of each segment 
just proximal to the jugal suture ; 8 with only a largish baso- 
lateral spot and a fbie apical yellow ring, the large, lateral 
fohate dilatations with an apical yellow spot ; 9 with the 
lateral dilatations entirely yellow and an angulated spot on 
the ventro-lateral and baso-lateral border ; 10 with a greenish- 
yellow diamond-shaped spot on the mid-dorsum, otherwise 
deep black. Anal appendages black ; superiors as long as 
segments 9 and 10 together, exactly similar to those of 
M. lineaius as seen in profile, but seen from above there 
is a distinct linear gap between them for rather more than 
the basal half, the apical portions closely apposed, the apposed 
surfaces quite flat, thus resembling a pair of closed forceps ; 
inferior smaller than in M. lineatus, more curled, and passing 
up between the superiors and enclosing a tiny round foramen. 
Genitalia : lamina shallow, more depressed than in M. li-nea- 
tus, its border not curling outwards, black ; inner hamules 
more conical, broad at base and tapering to a terminal 
hook ; outer hamules stout hooks, more robust than in 
if. lineatus, and without the svba/pical spine ; lobe directed 
outwards at right angles to axis of body, more prominent, 
its outlet more closed in and less indented at the apex than 
in M. lineatus, black. 
Female unknown. 



MBSO&OMPHTJS. 237 

Distribution. — ^Turzum, Daejeeling Dist. {0. Lindgren). 

Very easily distinguished from M. lineatus, to -which it is 
very closely related, by the great extent of black markingSj 
by the black costa and pterostigma, by the absence of spines 
on the occiput and by the lack of specialization in the neuration 
between the sectors of arc, by the genitalia (lamina black, 
stout hamules, and projecting lobe), and lastly by the anal 
appendages. 

Type, a unique male, in the Author's collection. 

268. Mesogomphus risi Fraser. 

Mesogomphus risi Fraser, J. Borabay Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. xxix, 
pp. 996, 997, pi. ii, fig. 3 (1924) ; Laidlaw, Trans. Ent. Soe. Lond. 
vol. Ixxviii, p. 193 (1930) ; Needham, Beo. Ind. Mus. vol. xxxiv, 
p. 221 (1932). 

Male. — ^Abdomen (with appendages) 27 mm. Hind-wing 
26 mm. 

Head : labium pale yeUow, middle lobe blackish ; labrum 
pale yellow, its base and lateral borders deep black ; ante- 
•clypeus and postclypeus pale yellow, the latter with a broad 
black border at its central third ; mandibles pale yellow ; 
frons deep black in front, bright citron- yellow above, its base 
deep black and sending a fine medial prolongation forwards 
in the sulcus to join the black on front of frons ; vertex and 
occiput black, the latter with a broad yellow stripe traversing it, 
fringed with whitish hairs and a few minute black spines. 
Prothorax blackish-brown, yellow on the sides. Thorax 
black, with bright citron-yellow markings as follows : — 
A mesothoracic coUar broken in the middle line ; oblique 
pyriform dorsal spots, pointed below and not joining the 
mesothoracic collar ; a minute humeral spot on each side 
above and a vestige of a stripe below separated from it, but 
in the same straight line ; laterally a broad medial black stripe 
dividing up the sides into three areas of even width, two yellow 
and one black. Legs black, anterior femora yeUow on the 
inner side, hind femora with a row of very small, very closely- 
set, numerous black spines, mid- femora with a row of much 
more robust, less closely-set, less numerous spines. Wings 
(badly damaged and shrivelled in the type) hyaUne ; costa 
finely yellow, reticulation and pterostigma black, the latter 
braced ; 2 nervures between the sectors of arc ia fore- wing, 
only one in hind- wing ; discoidal field of even width to beyond 

7—12 13—6 
level of node ; nodal iadex -=-g- , - . Abdomen shaped 

as in M. linmAus but much shorter, jet black marked vividly 
with bright yellow rings ; segment 1 with the apico-lateral 
border yellow ; 2 with a mid-dorsal stripe expanding apically 



238 GOMPHID^. 

but not quite meeting the apex of segment, its ventro-lateral 
borders rather broadly yellow ; 3 to 7 -with the basal halves 
yeUow, this colour running obhquely from the mid-dorsal 
carina to meet the ventral border just proximal to the jugal 
suture ; 8 and 9 with only the fohate dilatations bright 
yellow ; 10 black, with a smaU mid-dorsal subapioal spot. 
Anal appendages black, superiors yellow near base on outer 
side ; very similar ia shape to those of M. lineatus. Superiors 
as long as segments 9 and 10 together, rather straighter, 
the apex curled more abruptly and the final point directed 
back towards the abdomen ; seen from above they are 
separated ia rather more than the basal half, the ends being 
closely apposed. Inferior rather more than one-third as long, 
rather less eurledj and the apex longer than in M. lineatus. 
Genitalia : lamina very shallow, very depressed, its border 
barely concave, yellow ; imier hamules comparatively short, 
broad at base, and rapidly tapering to a point, black ; outer 
hamules very long, almost twice the length of inner, very 
robust, their ends converging and curled in a very robust 
spine just below the apex on its inner side (much more easily 
seen than in M. lineatus), black ; lobe very similar to M. livd- 
greni, black, directed somewhat outwards, deeply indented 
at apes, outlet squarish but not nearly so deep as in M. lind- 



Female imknown. 
Distribution. — ^Kalaw, S. Shan States, Bfema ((?. Dingavctn). 
The species is very distinct from others by its small size 
and by its brightly contrasted markings, black pterostigma, etc. 
Type, male, unique, in the Author's collection. 

269. Mesogomphus frontalis (Selys). 

Onydltogomph'os frontalis Selys, Bull. Acad. Belg. (2) vol. xM, 
p. 428 (1878); Williamson, Proo. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xxxiii,. 
p. 309 (1907); Laidlaw, Ree. Ind. Mus. vol. xxiv, pp. 371, 
409-410 (1922); Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Sec. vol. 33ix, 
pp. 65, 333(1923) ; Needham, Bee. lud. Mus. vol. xxiv, p. 223 
(1932). 

Zdndenia frontalis Kirby, Cat. Odon. p. 60 (1890). 

Mesogomphus frontalis Laidlaw, Trans. Eut. Soo. Lond. vol. Ixxviii,. 
p. 192 (1930). 

Male unknown. 

Female. — Abdomen 29 mm. Hind-wing 25 mm. 

Head : labium, labrum, and epistome pale yellow ; frons 
black in front, yellow above, a black area at base running 
forwards and cutting the yellow area into two halves ; vertex 
black ; occiput yellow, its crest dark, sinuous, fringed with 
long hairs. Thorax black, marked with yellow as follows : — 
A mesothoracie eoUar interrupted in the middle line by the 
black dorsal carina ; an antehumeral stripe, squared above 



ONYCHOGOMPHTTS. 239' 

where it fails to reach the alar sinus, pointed below and well 
separated from the mesothoracic coUar ; a vestigial humeral 
stripe ; laterally two broad yellow bands, one at the level 
of fore-wing, the other covering the middle of the metepimeron, 
Legs very robust, short, yellow, outer sides of femora striped 
with black, hind femora with short sptaes. Wings hyaline ; 
reticulation black, pterostigma brown or blackish brown, 
4 mm. in length, covering 5 cells ; discoidai cell of fore-wing 
followed by a row of 3 cells, then rows of 2 ; fore- wing 
with 13-14 antenodals, 7-8 postnodals. Abdoynen black, 
marked with yellow as foUows : — Segment 1 with a dorsal 
and a lateral spot ; 2 with a mid- dorsal trilobed stripe and 
two parallel superimposed stripes on each side ; 3 to 7 with 
broad basal rings occupying rather less than the basal half 
of each segment (probably considerably less than half except 
on segment 7), all these rings nearly cut in half by an invasion 
of the black of dorsal carina ; 8 with a lateral basal spot ; 
9 and 10 wholly black, very short. Anal appendages slender, 
yellow tipped with black, separated by a conical yellow 
tubercle. Vulvar scale about half the length of segment 9, 
lanceolate, cleft at apex. 

Distribution. — Moolai, Buema. Karby, ia his Catalogue, 
gives the Nicobars as a locality, but this is an obvious error, 
as the type is the only specimen known. 

I have modified Selys's description, to allow for the develop- 
ment of full adult colouring, as the original description 
would be very misleading. 

Until the male has been discovered the correct generic 
position of this insect is uncertain. It resembles the female of 
Nepogomphus modestus rather closely, but its larger size, 
longer pterostigma, etc., will serve to distinguish it. 

Type, a teneral specimen, in the Selys collection. 

Genus ONYCHOGOMPHUS Selys. (Fig. 74.) 

Lindenia (paxs) De Haan, Bijd. Nat. Wetensoh. vol. i, (2) p. 47 

(1826); Hoeven, ibid. vol. iii, p. 338 (1828); Kirby, Cat. Odon.. 

p. 57 (1890). 
Diastatomma (pars) Burmeister, Handb. Ent. vol. ii, p. 831 (1839); 

Chaxpentier, Lib. Eur. p. 15 (1840). 
Onychogomphus Selys, Bull. Acad. Belg. vol. xxi, pt. 2, p. 30 (1854); 

id., Mon. Gomph. p. 15 (1857) ; Williamson, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 

vol. xxxiii, pp. 275, 308-312 (1907); Ris, Ann. S. Afr. Mus. 

vol. xviii, p. 343 (1920); Laidlaw, Ree. ind. Mus. vol. xxiv, 

pp. 402, 403 (1922) ; Eraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. xxix,. 

pp. 64, 332, 997-999 (1923); Needham, Zool. Sioica, ser. A, 

vol. si, faso. 1, pp. 19, 38 (1930) ; Laidlaw, Trans. Ent. Soe. Lond. 

vol. Ixxviii, p. 194 (1930) ; Needham, Reo. Ind. Mus. vol. xxxiv,. 

pp. 217, 218, 222 (1932). 

Size medium ; colour yellow marked with black, or black 
marked with bright yeUow ; anal appendages long, strongly 



240 



GOMPHID^. 



curled and forcipate, the branches of the inferior closely 
apposed. 

Head of moderate size, frons angulated, occiput usually 
simple and sUghtly concave posteriorly. Wings : reticulation 
close; tomus angulated; base of hind- wing oblique and 
deeply excavate ; membrane obsolete ; anal triangle 4-ceUed ; 
arc situated between the first and second antenodal nervures, 
or more rarely opposite the second ; only 2 transverse nervures 
between sectors of arc from arc to bifurcation of Bs in fore- 
wing, 1 in hind-wing ; a single row of postanal cells in fore- 
wings, with occasional double cells, 4 rows in hind-wings ; 
a rudimentary anal loop present, formed by a splitting of the 
first postanal cell into two cells, the loop extending slightly 
proximal to base of subtrigone ; no incomplete basal antenodal 
nervures present ; nodal index high ; primary antenodal 




Fig. 74. — ^Wings of Onyohogompkus saund&rai Selys, male. 



nervures the first and the fifth ; discoidal cells entire, on 
fore-wings with costal and basal sides equal, distal side but 
shghtly longer and sUghtly angulated, on hind-wings but 
moderately elongate in the length of the wing, with the distal 
side slightly longer than the costal and both one-third again 
as long as the basal ; pterostigma rather short and swollen 
at its middle, braced, equal to slightly less than one-third 
the distance from node to the proximal end of pterostigma ; 
lA in fore-wing pectinated, 3 rows of cells between it and 
border of wing ; Cuii and I A in hind-wing closely parallel 
to the border of wing or rarely sUghtly divergent ; only 
1 cubital nervure ia all wings ; subtrigones and hypertrigones 
entire in all wings ; discoidal field with 2 rows of cells to 



ONYCHOGOMPJBnrS. 241 

level of node. Legs short, hind femora extending to apical 
border of abdominal segment 1 and furnished -with a group 
of numerous very short, closely-set spines which, near the 
distal end of limb, become arranged into two rows ; hind 
tibial spines moderately long and fine. Abdomen tumid 
at basal segments, thin and cylindrical from segment 3 to 7,. 
from which point it becomes somewhat dilated again, 
segments 8 and 9 often having pseudo-lateral dilatations. 
Anal appendages : superiors about double the length of 
segment 10, forcipate, the apices curled strongly downwards ; 
inferior bifid almost to base, the two branches very closely 
apposed and the apical ends curled strongly up to meet the 
superiors. Genitalia : lamina depressed, narrowly arched ; 
anterior hamules rather short and sUm ; posterior hamules 
very robust, compressed, projectiag markedly from the 
genital sac and ending in a robust spine ; lobe flask-shaped, 
rather small, beaked. 

Genotype, Libellula forcipata Linn. 

Distribution. — ^Europe, N. Africa, India, Buema, Nicobaes, 
Malaya, Sumatra, Java, Indo-Ghina, and China. The genus 
is a large one, and no fewer than fourteen species are known 
from within Indian limits. Several other species, formerly 
included in the genus, have since been removed to the new 
genera Lamelligomphus and Nepogomphus. 

The larvae breed in streams at all altitudes below 6,000 feet ; 
they are similar to those of BurmagompJms and Mesogomphus, 
and have similar habits. 



Key to Indian Species of Onychogomphus. 

Pace and frons not marked with black; 

thorax grass-green, marked with warm [p. 267. 

reddish-brown puloherrimus Fras., 

Face and frons marked with black; 

thorax greenish-yellow or yeUow 

marked with black 2. 

I Yellow humeral stripe absent 3. 
YeUow hmneral stripe present, but vesti- 
gial or interrupted 5. 
The humeral stripe present and oomplete. 8. 

' Only a single broad black stripe on sides [p. 266. 

of thorax maolachkmi Selys, 

Two narrow black stripes on each side of 
thorax, separated or joined at inter- 
vals 4. 

f Occiput black; segments 3 to 5 with 

basal triangular dorsal spots, but [p. 257. 

4. ■< without mid-dorsal oval spots echmoecipitaUs Fras., 

Occiput yeEow; segments 3 to 5 with 
i^ basal rings and mid-dorsal oval spots, ciroidaris Selys, 'p. 261. 
VOL. n. E 



242 GOMPHIDJE. 

A single broad black stripe on each side 

of thorax annularis Selys, p. 265. 

Two narrow black stripes on each side of 
thorax, of which the first may be incom- 
plete or interrupted 6. 

Antero-lateral black stripe on thorax 
interrupted and made up of three 

elongate spots eamshawi Fras., p. 263. 

Antero-lateral black stripe on thorax 
nearly obsolete, represented by a mere 

upper vestige aureiis Laid., p. 254. 

Antero-lateral black stripe not inter- 
rupted 7. 

Inferior anal appendage without an upper 

basal spine saundersi Selys, p. 242. 

1 Inferior anal appendage with a dis- 

I tinot but obtuse upper basal spine . . . diMricvs Kras., p. 245. 

f Antehtmaeral stripes not confluent with 

o J naesothoracic collar 9. 

■ 1 Antehumeral stripes confluent with meso- 

I thoracic collar 10. 

f Antehiiineral stripes long and very nar- 
j row ; abdominal segments 3 to 6 with 

J mid-dorsal oval yellow spots cerastes (Selys), p. 260. 

Antehumeral stripes short and oval in 

shape; abdominal segments 3 to 6 [p. 266. 

without mid-dorsal oval yeEow spots . grammicvs (Bamb.), 
Antehuraeral and humeral stripes separa- 
ted above; two narrow black stripes 

on each side of thorax 11, 

Antehumeral and himieral stripes con- 
fluent above ; only a single black stripe 
on each side of thorax, the antero- 
lateral one obsolete or present as a mere 

upper vestige dingavani Fras., p. 258. 

Many of the transverse nervures proximal 
to node and on anterior part of 

wings bright yellow histrigatm Selys, p. 247. 

Transverse nervures black throughout . . 12. 
"Superior anal appendages with a black 
line on dorsum of apical third; 
humeral stripes separated from the 

12. •/ yellow on lower part of thorax striatvs Fras., p. 249. 

Superior anal appendages entirely yel- 
low; humeral stripes confluent with the 
yellow on lower part of thorax M-flavwm Selys, p. 260. 

270. Onyehogomphus saundersi Selys. (PI. Ill, fig. 3 ; text- 
figs. 74 & 75, c.) 

Onyehogomphus saundersU Selys, Mon. Gomph. p. 22 (1851),- id.. 
Bull. Acad. Belg.vol.sxi,pt.2,p. 31 (1854); id., Ann. Mus. Civ. 
Geneva, (2) vol. x (xxx), p. 474 (1891); Krager, Stett. Ent. 
Zeit. Ixix, p. 318 (1898); Martin, Mission Pavie, Neuropt. 
vol. iii, p. 212 (1904); Williamson, Proo. U.S. Nat. Mus. 
vol. xxxiii, pp. 311, 312, text-flg. 36 (1907); Fraser, J. Bom- 
bay Nat. Hist. Soo. vol. xxix, pp. 65, 333 (1923); Campion, 
J. F.M.S. Mus. vol. viii, p. 163 (1926) ; Fraser, J. Siam. Soo., 
Nat. Hist. Suppl. vol. ix, pp. 139, 141 (1933). 



10 



11..^ 



ONYCHO&OMPHtrS. 243 

Lindenia saundersii Kirby, Cat. Odon. p. 58 (1890). 
Onychogomphus geometrictis var. nigrescens Laidlaw, Proc. Zool. 

Soo. Lond. (1) p. 80 (1902^. 
Onychogomphus nigrescens Williamson, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 

vol. xxxiii, p. 310 (1907). 
Onychogomphus saundersi Laidlaw, Ree. Ind. Mtis. vol. xxiv, 

pp. 371, 405, 406 (1922); Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soo. 

vol. xxs, pp. 106-108, text-fig. 1, pi. i, fig. 2 (1924) ; Ris, Zool. 

Meded. Leiden, vol. x, pp. 23, 30, 45-46 (1927) ; Laidlaw, Trans. 

Ent. Soe. Lond. vol. Ixxviii, p. 194 (1930) ; Needham, Bee. Ind. 

Mus. vol. xxxiv, p. 222 (1932). 

Male. — ^Abdomen 40 mm. IIind--wing 31 mm. 

Head : labium bro-wnish-yellow ; labrum citron-yellow, 
bordered narrowly with black and traversed by a vertical 
line of the same colour at its middle, this splitting the yellow 
area into two large spots ; anteclypeus yellow ; postclypeus 
black, with a large triangular spot on each side ; bases of 
mandibles yellow ; frons black below anteriorly, its crest 
and upper surface yellow, with a vestige of black at the base 
of the sulcus ; eyes bottle-green during life ; occiput and 
vertex black, the former slightly convex and fringed with 
short stiff hairs. Prothorax black, with an anterior collar 
and a small lateral spot of yellow. Thorax black on dorsum, 
marked with yellow as follows : — ^A broad sKghtly interrupted 
mesothoracic collar, very broad and short antehumeral stripes 
which are broadly confluent with the collar, a narrow hunaeral 
stripe broadening into a triangular spot above, beneath 
which it is interrupted for a short distance, the alar sinus, 
and some spots on the tergum. Sides yellow, with a thick 
black stripe on each lateral suture, these stripes being thicker 
than the included stripe of the ground-colour. Legs black, 
rather short, inner surface of fore femora yeUow, a spot 
of the same coloTir on the inner sides of the two posterior 
pairs. Wings hyahne ; pterostigma black, about 3 mm. 
in length, braced ; anal triangle 3- to 4-ceUed ; anal field 

4 cells deep ; nodal index ,„_, , tttZq > costa finely yeUow. 

Abdomen black, marked with yellow as follows : — Segment 1 
with an apical dorsal spot and the sides broadly ; 2 with 
a lanceolate dorsal stripe not extending quite to apical end, 
the whole of the sides except the base, which is narrowly 
black ; 3 to 6 with rings covering the basal fourth of each 
segment and prolonged along the ventral border, whilst 
dorsaUy the black dorsal carina almost divides them into 
two ; in addition to these, each segment bears an oval mid- 
dorsal spot which grows progressively smaller from segment 3 
to 6 ; 7 with the basal half yeUow ; 8 and 9 with lateral 
basal spots, larger on the former segment ; 10 unmarked. 
Segments 8 and 9 are greatly broadened, far more so than 

e2 



244 



GOMPHID^. 



in the related 0. duaricus. Anal appendages : superiors 
yellow, with black apices ; inferior black ; structure as shown 
in fig. 75, e. Genitalia : lamina roimded, hood-like, projecting 
but slightly ; anterior hamules long, narrow hooks bent 
at their middle and again at extreme apex, where the bent 
portion forms an acute spine ; posterior hamules broadly 
conical, the apex slightly recurved ; lobe bulliy, narrowly 
emarginate, projectiog rather markedly. 

Female. — ^Abdomen 37 mm. Hind-wing 32 mm. 

Closely similar to the male ia colour and markings, but 
differs in the following points : — Yellow area on frons de- 
scending to a greater extent on to face ; no vertical median 
black line on labrum ; a small rounded ochreous spot on 
vertex ; back of occiput yellow at its middle ; posterior 




Fig. 75. — ^Anal appendages of (a) Onychogomphus duaricus Fraser,. 
male, right lateral view; (b) the same, dorsal view; (e) Onycho- 
gomphMs aaundersi Selys, male, right lateral view. (Camera 
lucida studies from, the types.) 

lobe of prothorax finely bordered with yellow ; segment 2 
of abdomen with basal half yellow, 3-6 with mid-dorsal 
spots on larger, 10 with a yellow point on sides. Anal append- 
ages yellow, shortly conical ; vulvar scales short, deeply 
emarginate. 

Distrihviion. — ^India, locaUty of type unrecorded ; William- 
son has reported a pair from Bhamo, Btjema. 

Selys considered this species to be closely related to 
0. geometricus fi:om Java, and it is also a near relative of 
0. duaricus, differing principally by the absence of any trace 
of an upper subbasal spine on the inferior anal appendage 
of the male. An atypical specimen from Sumatra, described 
by Ris, has such a spine, and would therefore appear to be- 
more nearly related to 0. duaricus. 



ONYCHOaOMPHTTS. 245 

The type is a male in the Brussels Museum which I have 
been able to examine ; the allotype female is in the 
Saunders collection in the British Museum and was referred 
to 0. M-flavum by Selys. 

271. Onyehogomphus duaricus Fraser. (Fig. 75, a, b.) 

Onychogomphus duariaiis Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soo. 
vol. xsix, pp. 1001-1003, pi. ii, fig. 5 (1924) ; Ris, Zool. Meded. 
Leiden, vol. x, p. 46 (1927); Laidlaw, Trans. Ent. Soe. Lond. 
vol. Ixxviii, p. 195 (1930) ; Needham, Rec. Ind. Mus. vol. xxxiv, 
p. 222 (1932). 

Male. — ^Abdomen 39-41 mm. Hiud-wing 31 mm. 

Head : labium pale whitish-yellow ; labrum greenish- 
yellow, base narrowly, anterior border broadly black and 
sending up a point which may nearly or entirely cut the 
yellow area in two by reaching the black base (in the majority 
of GoMPHiNiE a black tongue runs down from the base, the 
opposite condition found in this species being quite excep- 
tional) ; anteclypeus and base of mandibles greenish-yellow, 
postcljrpeus black, with a small triangular greenish-yellow 
spot on each side against the eyes ; frons greenish-yellow, 
its lower part black in front, this confluent with the black 
of poStelypeus, its base very finely black and a number of fine 
black points scattered about its crest ; vertex and occiput 
black, occipital border nearly straight, not raised, fringed 
with long black hairs. Proihorax black, with a small lateral 
yellow spot. Thorax black on dorsum, marked with yellow 
as follows :— A mesothoraeic collar narrowly broken by the 
black dorsal carina, which is narrowly yellow at its middle ; 
oblique antehumeral stripes connected with the coUar below ; 
humeral stripes variable, widened above, tapering to a fine 
point below (tapered part in some specimens cut off from upper 
part of stripe, in others broken up into a chain of fine points) ; 
laterally greenish-yellow, sutures boldly mapped out in black, 
anterior stripe connected to the black of dorsum by a line 
descending from latter. Legs black, hind femora with a broad 
yellow stripe on inner side, furnished with a row of closely-set, 
robust, short black spines, the mid-femora with a similar row. 
Wings distinctly tinted with greenish-yellow, especially 
towards the base ; costa finely yeUow to nearly as far as the 
pterostigma, which is deep brownish-black, well-braced, 
covering 5 ceUs ; antenodal nervures and are yellow ; jSrst 
postanal cell divided ; 2 to 3 rows of cells between Rii and IRii 
at level of outer end of stigma ; nodal index of two specimens 



10-15 
11-12 



17-10 12-16 



12-11 ' 12-13 



18—11 

,a ,, ; only 2 cells between Cuii and 



246 GOMPHID^. 

lA at wing-margin in hind-wing. Abdomen black, marked 
as follows : — Segments 1 and 2 with a broad continuoua 
yellow dorsal stripe, tapering at apical end of 2 and bordered 
with a broad subdorsal black stripe, which is confluent with 
a narrow apical ring on 2 ; a short apical black mark occasion- 
ally runs along border of 1 and another behind the oreillets 
on 2 ; 3 to 6 with clear yellow basal rings covering rather 
less than one-fourth the length of segments ; on 3 to 5 mid- 
dorsal oval spots of yellow, almost obsolete on 5, absent 
entirely on 6 ; 7 with the basal half yellow, its crest finely 
black ; 8 and 9 with lateral yellow spots, bifid posteriorly ; 
10 entirely black. Ventral border of segment 2 furnished 
with a row of small black spines. Legs black except for 
a stripe on the ioner side of first femora. Anal appendages : 
superiors bright yellow, the apical third or more abruptly 
black ; inferior black, with the upper surface sometimes 
paler. S^'ucture as shown in fig. 75, a,b; no apical tooth. 
Genitalia difEering rather from those of other species,, 
most resembling those of 0. striatus. Lamina black, keeled 
only in its posterior half, depressed, but shallowly notched ; 
inner hamules forming long tapering black spines, with 
apices only shghtly everted, outer of the same length but 
much stouter, directed straight outwards, with apex curled 
and finally directed forwards, yellow at base, black at apex ; 
lobe rather prominent, borders tumid, similar in shape to 
0. striatus. 
Female. — Abdomen 40 mm. Hind-wing 33 mm. 
Very similar to the male, differing as follows : — ^Yellow 
on labrum not quite bisected by black ; black at base of frons 
extending a short way on to floor of sulcus ; occiput black 
and similar to male in shape ; yellow on mid-dorsal carina 
meeting the mesothoraeio collar, which is uninterrupted ; 
humeral stripe complete below and connected with the 
elbow formed by the junction of the mesothoracic collar and 
antehumeral stripe. Abdomen with sides of segments 1 and 2. 
more broadly yellow, the black subdorsal bands narrower 
and with straight borders ; no dorsal spots on 4 ; basal 
yellow area on 7 more restricted ; spots on sides of 8 and 9 
absent. Anal appendages pale yellow, almost white, conical, 
pointed, rather longer than segment 10, the protuberance 
between them pale yellow. Legs : all femora with yellow 
stripes on inner sides ; spines on hind femora much less 
numerous, longer, more widely- spaced, and more robust 
than in the male. Wings with the greenish tinting more 
marked, especially towards base ; 2 to 3 rows of cells between 
5w and IRii, usually only 2 rows ; 2 rows of cells in the anal 
area of forewing. Vulvar scale only perceptible as two 
rudimentary rounded shiny tubercles. 



ONYOHOGOMPHTTS. 247 

Distribution. — ^Hasimara, Duars, Bengal (H. V. O'Donel). 

The following combination of characters will distinguish 
this species from all others : — ^The unusual distribution of 
black on the labrum, the black occiput, the wide space between 
Bii and IRii, the shape of the genitaha in both sexes, the 
striking coloration of the superior anal appendages, and the 
presence of only one tooth on the inferior. 

Type male and allotype female in the British Museum. 

272. Onychogomphus bistrigatus (Selys). (Fig. 76, b.) 

Gomphus bistrigaUts Selys, Bull. Acad. Belg. vol. xxi, pt. 2, p. 4S 
(1854). 

Onychogomphtis bistrigatus Selys, Mon. Gomph. pp. 24, 392 (1857) j 
id.. Bull. Acad. Belg. (2) vol. xxviii, p. 173 (1869) ; Williamson, 
Proc. TJ.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xsxiii, pp. 309, 311 (1907); Laidlaw, 
Keo. Ind. Mus. vol. xxiv, pp. 371, 410 (1922) ; Fraser, J. Bom- 
bay Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. xxix, pp. 66, 333, 999, 1000, pi. ii, fig. 4 
(1923-1924) ; Needham, Rec. Ind. Mua.vol.xxxiv.p. 222 (1932). 

Lindenia bistrigaMbS Kirby, Cat. Odon. p. 58 (1890). 

Onychogomphus sp. Laidlaw, Eeo. Ind. Mus. vol. xxiv, pp. 411, 412 
(1922). 

ilfaZe.— Abdomen 39 mm. Hind-wing 31 mm. 

Head : labium pale whitish-yellow ; labrum yellow, very 
finely margined with black anteriorly and at base ; clypeus, 
base of mandibles, and frons yellow, a fine black liae between 
frons and postclypeus, incomplete laterally and sending 
down two fcie points on either side of middle line ; base 
of frons narrowly black with but the slightest prolongation 
in the middle line ; vertex black, a small yellow spot between 
posterior ocelli ; occiput slightly convex, yellow, with the 
postero-lateral angles black, fringed with yellow hairs ; behind 
occiput and eyes yeUow, a narrow black line margining the 
latter above. Prothorax black, its anterior and posterior 
borders narrowly and two fine approximated points yellow. 
Thorax black on dorsum, marked with yellow as follows : — 
Median part of dorsal carina narrowly, a mesothoracic collar 
shghtly interrupted in the middle line, obKque antehumeral 
stripes joined to the mesothoracic collar, complete humeral 
stripes shghtly constricted just below their upper end ; 
laterally yeUow, with two fine black lines mapping out the 
sutures. Legs yellow, fore femora broadly black on outer 
side, middle femora with a fine black line, hind pair with but 
a vestige of same on outer side ; tibiae black on the flexor 
surface ; femora armed with a row of robust, short, closely- 
set black spines and a single larger one at the distal end. 
Wings hyaline, with a greenish-yellow tinge ; neuration 
black, &Mi a large number of cross-nervvres 'proximal to 
node and on fore part of wings bright yellow ; the ptero- 
stigma dark brown, well-braced, covering 3-4 cells ; costa 



248 



GOMPHID^, 



to halfway over stigma pale yellow. Nodal index 



10-13 



8-10 



14-9 
10-10 ' 



2 cross nervures between the sectors of are 



in the fore-wing, only 1 in hind- wing ; first postanal cell 
undivided in both hind-wings (but this is probably an aber- 
ration, as the network is very irregular in the type). Abdomen 
black and yeUow, segment 1 with a quadrate subdorsal 
black spot not reaching the apex ; 2 with broad subdorsal 
black stripes barely reaching the apical border and enclosing a 
dorsal lobed yellow spot, a tongue of black running down behind 
each oreillet ; 3 yeUow, with a broad black stripe on each side 
falling well short of the base, the pair coalescing beneath 
and with a subbasal and a subapical tongue running up over 
the dorsum, almost coalescing over the carina, and enclosing 
a median yellow spot ; 4 to 6 with similar markings, but 




Kg. 76. — Anal appendages of (a) Onycfiogonvphus 
(b) Onyehogomphus bistrigatm (Selys), male, 
side. 



Fraser, male ; 
from, the right 



the black prolongations coalesce dorsally and the apical 
band extends right up to the apical border ; 7 yeUow, with 
a black dorsal stripe, very broad apically, where it sends 
a tongue-like process back along sides of segment, tapering 
rapidly on dorsum and extending to extreme base ; 8 to 10 
yellow, broadly black on dorsum, the yellow, however, 
constricting the black on segment 10 so as to almost cut 
it in two at the apical border ; apical borders of last three 
segments finely black and bordered with black spines. Anal 
appendages (fig. 76, b) yellow. Genitalia: lamina yeUow, 
depressed, its border angulated outwards so that it appears 
rather deeply cleft; nmer hamules broad at base, deeply 
<;left into two branches, an outer short spine and an inner 



ONYCHOGOMPHXTS. 249 

long one which is everted sinuously at its apex, seen from 
the front converging rapidly on each other, black ; outer 
hamules very stout, short, yellow tipped with blackish-brown, 
robust, forwardly-directed spines ; lobe frmnel-shaped, with 
a broad opening, pale yellow narrowly margined with black. 

Female. — ^Abdomen 39 mm. Hind-wing 31-34: mm. 

Very similar to the male, with slight differences in the extent 
of the black markings, probably due to the varying age of 
the three specimens. 

The type female does not appear to have a basal black line 
to the labrum, whilst on the other hand the specimen from 
Kumaon has no similar border anteriorly. The occiput 
in the type female is bordered with a row of six tiny spines, 
which are absent in the Kumaon specimen. Prothorax 
of tj^e and of the male similar, but the two small dorsal 
spots absent in the Kumaon specimen. Wings hyaline, 
many pale yeUow nervures in both females similarly situated 
as in the male ; 13-16 antenodal nervures in fore-wings, 
10 in hind-wing, 10 postnodals in fore-wings, 12 in hind-wings. 
Abdomen : segment 1 entirely yellow in the Kumaon specimen, 
marked with black in the type female and male ; 2 variable, 
the subdorsal black stripes not meeting the apical border 
in the type, confluent with an articular black ring ia the 
Kumaon female ; 3 to 6 similar in the two sexes (4 to 6 missing 
in the Kumaon specimen), but the black extensions not quite 
meeting over the carina in the type ; 7 very similarly marked 
to the others. Anal a^endages as long as segment 10, conical, 
pointed, separated by a shorter conical protuberance, yellow. 
Vulvar scale short, about half the length of segment 9, deeply 
notched at apex into two subtriangular processes. 

Distribution. — Type female in the Selys collection from 
" India," allotype from " North India " in the British 
Museum ; there is also a male in my collection from Gopald- 
hara, Assam (JEf. Stevens, 21. ix. 20), Laidlaw's female is 
from Kiunaon, Westekn Hbialayas. 

273. Onyehogomphus striatus Fraser. (Fig. 76, a.) 

Onychogomphus histrigatus Fraser, Reo. Ind. Mtis. vol. xsiv, p. 424 

(1922). 
Onychogomphvs striaius IPraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soo. 

vol. xxix, p. 1000, text-fig. 2, vi (1924) ; id., Rec. Ind. Mus. 

vol. xxrvi, pp. 428, 478 (1924) ; id., ibid. vol. xxxiii, p. 448 (1931) ; 

Needham, Rec. Ind. Mus. vol. xxxiv, p. 223 (1932). 



-Abdomen 37 mm. Hind-wing 28 mm. 
•Very similar to 0. histrigatus, differing as foUows : — Size 
shghtly smaller ; labrtmi more broadly bordered with black 
anteriorly ; postclypeus entirely black at its centre, with 



250 . GOMPHID^. 

a very large yellow spot on each side ; occiput with its border 
quite straight and turned forwards, so that its posterior 
surface can be seen when the head is viewed from above, 
black with a narrow yellow border, fringed with long black 
hairs. Proihorax without the mid-dorsal spots. Thorax : 
humeral stripes tapering to a point below, black hnes on lateral 
sutures rather thicker. Wings with black reticulation , 

no pale yellow nervures present ; nodal index q_q TfuTo »^ 

2 rows of cells between Bii and IBii ; first postanal cell 
divided ; pterostigma pale brown, rather weakly braced. 
Legs as in 0. bistrigatus, but tibiae black except at proximal 
ends. Abdomen : segment 1 black, with a large lateral 
yellow spot ; 2 with a narrow complete basal black ring 
and broad subbasal black stripes broadly confluent with the 
apical black ring ; 3 to 6 with the yellow reduced to a complete 
but irregular basal ring and a median dorsal spot ; 7 with 
its basal half yellow ; 8 and 9 black, with a large yellow spot 
on each side ; 10 entirely black. Anal appendages yellow, 
the inferior rather darker coloured and the superiors with 
a fine black line along the upper surface of the apical third. 
Almost exactly similar to those of bistrigatus, but with the- 
apices of superiors almost cylindrical, not flattened out 
lancet- wise as in that species (fig. 76, a). Genitalia : lamina 
blackish-brown, with a longitudinal dorsal keel, its border 
concave, neither everted nor angulated ; inner hamules 
more shaUowly notched, the inner branch not much longer 
than the outer and much shorter than in 0. bistrigatits, its 
apex tipped with yellow ; outer hamules dark brownish- 
yellow, similar in shape to those of 0. bistrigatits ; lobe black, 
prominent but not markedly so, its border thickened, hollowed 
out medially, the extremities of the notch forming rounded 



Distribution. — A single male from Kallar, Nilgibis, about 
1,000 ft., May 1917. 

The species differs from 0. bistrigatus in the greater extent 
of black markings, in the shape and colouring of the superior 
anal appendages and genitaha, and in- the reticulation being 
entirely black. 

Type in the Author's collection. 

274. Onychogomphus M-flavum Selys. (Fig. 77.) 

Onyohogomphus bistrigatus Selys, Mon. Gomph. p. 22 (adult 
female), p. 392 (teneral male) (1854); id., BxOI. Acad. Belg. (2) 
vol- ^iii» P- 173 (adult male) (1869) ; Kirby, Cat. Odon. p. 38- 
(Xo90). 

Onychogomphus M-flavum Selys, Aim. Soo. Ent. Belg. vol. xxxviii, 
p. 169 (1894) ; Williamson, Proo. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xxxiii„ 



ONyCHOGOMPHTJS . 



251 



p. 309 (1907); Laidlaw, Reo. Ind. Mus. vol. xxiv, pp. 371, 410, 
4U (1922) ; Fraser, J. Bombay Kat. Hist. Soo. vol. xxix, pp. 66, 
333, 1003-1005, pi. ii, 6g. 6, & text-fig. 2, v (1923-1924) ; 
Needham, Beo. Ind. Mus. vol. xxxiv, p. 223 (1932). 

Male. — ^Abdomen 38 mm. Hind-mug 30-33 mm. 

FoBM a. — Head : labium dirty yellow ; labrum greemsh- 
yellow, very narrowly bordered with black at base, more 
broadly along anterior border, a narrow black streak of even 
width, running frora its centre and not quite reaching the black 
anterior border ; base of mandibles, anteclypeus, and a narrow 
border on lower edge of postclj^eus yellow, latter black with 
a large greenish-yellow spot on each side ; lower part of frons 
black, this confluent with the black of postclypeus, the upper 
part and above greenish-yellow, its base narrowly black ; 
vertex and occiput black, but a broad greenish-yellow streak 
on posterior half of latter, its border sUghtly convex in the 
middle, and turned forward so that the hinder surface is 




Fig. 77. — ^Anal appendages of Onychogonvphus M-fiavum Selys, male. 
Eight lateral and dorsal views. 

easily visible when the head is viewed from above ; the 
back of eyes black and of occiput yellow. Prothorax yellow, 
with a large triangular spot of black on each side. Thorax 
black on dorsum, marked with bright greenish-yellow as 
follows : — -A mesothoracic collar broken by the black mid- 
dorsal carina, which is itself bright yellow somewhat higher up ; 
oblique antehumeral stripes confluent with the collar ; com- 
plete humeral stripes constricted a little below the upper 
part ; laterally greenish- yellow, the sutures outlined rather 
finely in black, which on the first suture shows two interruptions 
which isolate a small part of the line opposite the spiracle. 



252 GOMPHID^. 

Legs black, fore femora yellow within, mid-femora similar 
but with a narrow interrupted streak on outer side, hind 
femora with broad streaks of yellow on both sides and furnished 
with a row of short, robust, closely-set black spines. Wings 
hyaline, faintly tinged with greenish at extreme base ; ptero- 
stigma dark brown margined heavily with black nervures 
(much paler in teneral specimens, black when fully mature), 

15-13 
13-M' 



15-14 
covering 4-5 cells, well braced ; nodal index tOo 



12-15 



13-11 



15-12 



; 2 rows of cells in anal area of fore- wing, only 



11-13 ' 

1 row between iJti and IRii except at extreme margin of wing ; 
first postanal cell irregularly divided ; costa finely yellow 
as far as pterostigma, but this colour lost in very adult 
specimens. Abdoymn black, marked with bright yellow, 
becoming ochreous towards tip as follows : — Segments 1 and 2 
with a dorsal lobed stripe extending from base of 1 to apical 
border of 2 and separated from the yellow sides by a moderately 
broad black stripe which sends a stripe down behind the 
oreiUets ; 3 with a complete basal ring, prolonged along both 
venter and dorsum and confluent on the latter with a large 
irregularly angulated spot ; on 4 to 6 the basal rings less 
extensive laterally and partially bisected by an invasion 
of the black along the dorsal carina, the mid-dorsal spots 
smaller, oval, and isolated from the basal rings ; 7 with the 
basal two-thirds yellow ; 8 with the lower half of the sides ; 
5 with only a clouding of black on dorsum ; 10 ochreous, 
its apical margin finely black. All segments from 3 to 10 
with an apical ring of fine black spines. Anal appendages 
(fig. 77) golden yellow, the superiors a httle darker. Genitalia : 
lamina very depressed, its border much everted, arched and 
folded back on itself, dark brown ; inner hamules of great 
length and very attenuated, converging, the outer branch 
also elongate, black ; outer hamules broad, of about the same 
length, yellow with a robust apical spine ; lobe black, 
projecting prominently like an open spout. 

FoBM b (including type male). — ^Differing from form a 
above by the much greater extent of black. Anteclypeus, 
vertex, and occiput entirely black ; no short black median 
stripe on labrum ; prothorax almost entirely black ; humeral 
stripe iaterrupted or entire (entire in the type) ; lateral lines 
of thorax complete ; costa yellow or black (black in the type) ; 
pterostigma blackish-brown ; yellow on sides of abdomiual 
segment 2, nearly or quite cut into two by a prolongation 
of the subdorsal black stripe, medial spot on dorsum of 
segment 3 small and completely isolated, on 4 almost or quite 



ONYCHOGOMPHtrS. 25S 

obsolete ; only narrow basal lunules on segments 5 and 6 ; 
7 with only its basal half yellow and this divided by a narrow 
black dorsal carina ; 8 and 9 broadly reddish-yellow on the 
sides, the smaU lateral wings black ; 10 reddish-yellow, 
finely margined with black along apical border. Legs black, 
only the anterior femora marked with yellow within. 

Female. — ^Abdomen 39 mm. Hind-wing 32-36 mm. 

Very variable individually, differing also from both forms 
of the male described above. Head : labrum finely or broadly 
bordered with black, which may be more extensive than the 
yellow ; anteclypeus dark brown or hght greenish-yellow, 
postclypeus black, marked with a small lateral yellow spot, 
or almost entirely greenish-yellow, marked only with a small 
quadrate black spot at the middle of its posterior border ; 
the black stripe at base of frons and that bordering it below 
in front narrow or broad ; vertex black, with or without 
a small spot of yellow between the posterior ocelli ; occiput 
brownish in the type, black with a small central spot of yellow 
or entirely bright yellow in others, its border almost straight 
and yellow behind as in male ; humeral stripe complete 
or occasionally broken at its upper part, the first lateral 
line on thorax complete or widely interrupted in one specimen 
as in the male described above. Legs black, marked to a 
variable extent with yellow, the hind femora armed with 
a row of very robust, very widely spaced, long black spines. 
Wings shghtly enfumed ; pterostigma dark brown or blackish, 
covering 4|-5i cells ; reticulation as in male, but in one female 
2 rows of cells between Rii and IBii nearly as far as the 
pterostigma ; eosta black in one female, yellow in another. 
Abdomen very sinular in all specimens examined to that of 
the type male, the black on segment 1 reduced to a mere 
subdorsal vestige or entirely wanting ; segment 2 in two 
females examined with a large lateral isolated black spot ; 
on 3 to 6 the basal yellow area very broadly confluent with 
the mid-dorsal spots and extending almost to apical border 
of segments as a broad dorsal stripe ; remaining segments 
as ia male, but the pale portions very dark reddish or oehreous. 
AtmI appendages and the protuberance between them rather 
dark yellow, short, conical. Vulvar scale differing from that 
of any other species of the genus, shaped like an acuminate 
leaf, very long, extending to the middle of segment 10, cleft 
for rather more than its apical half into two closely con- 
tiguous halves, reddish-brown, black at apex, very thin when 
viewed in profile, its surface raised into two longitudinal 
folds. 

Distribution. — ^Dabjebling Disteict. I possess two males 
and three females, and have seen a few others taken at 



254 GOMPHIDiE. 

Gopaldhara by Mr. H. Stevens, and I have others from 
Kurseong taken by Mr. 0. Lindgren. 

At first sight it would appear that the two forms of the 
male differ so markedly that they cannot be conspecific, 
but all the variations met with in the males are reproduced 
in the females and the remarkable shape of the ovipositor 
of these latter leaves no doubt as to their specific identity. 

The male of 0. M-fiavum is less easily distinguished. It 
differs from 0. duaricus in the unioolorous superior anal 
appendages and in possessing two teeth on the inferior 
appendage ; from 0. bistrigatus in the all-black reticulation, 
the greater extent of yeUow on segment 7, and the genital 
mat black lobe ; from 0. striatus in the complete humeral 
stripe, the much narrower lateral lines on sides of thorax, and 
the shape of the superior anal appendages and genital lobe. 

Type in the McLachlan collection. 

276. Onychogomphus aureus Laidlaw, (PI. Ill, fig. 5 ; text: 
fig. 78, b.) 

Onychogomphus aureus Laidlaw, Reo. Ind. Mus. vol. sxiv, pp. 405, 
406 (1922) ; Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soo. vol. xxix, pp. 66, 
333 (1923); id., ibid. vol. xxx, pp. 111-113, text-fig. 2, 4, pi. i, 
fig. 1 (1924) ; Needham, Eee. Ind. Miis. vol. xxxiv, p. 222 (1932). 

Male. — Abdomen 38 mm. Hind-wing 31 mm. 

Head : labium yellow ; labrum black, with a pair of oval 
basal spots bright yellow ; anteclypeus and bases of mandibles 
yellow ; postclypeus black, with a small rounded spot on 
each side ; frons greenish-yellow, bordered narrowly with 
black below in front and again at base above, where this colour 
projects as a small triangular point into the yellow ; rest of 
head black ; occiput with a raised point at its middle ; eyes 
greenish during hfe, black behind, with a large yeUow spot. 
Prothorax black, borders of anterior and posterior lobes, 
a large spot on each side middle lobe, and a small geminate 
dorsal spot bright yellow. Thorax black on dorsum, marked 
with yellow as follows : — ^A narrow mesothoracic collar slightly 
interrupted at its middle ; antehumeral stripes broadly con- 
fluent with the eoUar below, but not quite extending to the 
alar sinus above, an incomplete humeral stripe made up of 
an upper rounded spot and a narrow line below. Laterally 
broadly yellow, the postero-lateral suture bearing a narrow 
black stripe, and vestiges of a similar stripe on the anterior 
suture consisting of short upper and lower portions. Legs 
blackish or dark reddish-brown, anterior two pairs of femora 
yellow on the inner side, hind femora entirely yeUow. Wings 
hyaline ; pterostigma dark ochreous framed in black ner- 



ONYCHOGOMPHTJS . 



265 



■VTixes, braced, covering 3 to 4J cells ; anal triangle 4-celled ; 
anal field in hind-'wing 4 cells deep ; nodal index ttito i g ii • 

Abdomen : segments 1 and 2 bright yellow, with a broad 
continuous subdorsal black stripe on each side, enclosing 
a trilobate stripe of the ground-colour on the mid-dorsum of 
segment 2 ; oreiUets finely margined with black ; 3 to 7 yeUow, 
with broad apical black rings and an oval black spot on mid- 
dorsum ; 7 without this spot, but the black at apex prolonged 
slightly along the mid-dorsal carina ; 8 and 9 black ; 10 bright 
ochreous, with its apical border finely black and with a mid- 
dorsal black quadrate spot at its base. Anal appendages 
(fig. 78, b) bright yeUow. Genitalia : lamina projecting 
markedly, broadly arched and cupped behind ; anterior 




Fig. 78. — ^Anal appendages of (a) OnychogompJms dingavani Fraser, 
male; (b) Onychogomphus aureus Laidlaw, male. Bight lateral 
views. 



hamules very long and slender, remarkably angulated back- 
wards, and ending in a spiae ; posterior hamules broader and 
projecting straight out, crossing the anteriors and ending in 
a minute reciu^ved black spine ; lobe narrow, spout-like, 
with a two-pronged process pointing firom its apex. 

Distribviion. — Tura, Gajo Hills, Assam. Three pairs taken 
in June and July between 1200 and 1500 ft. altitude, all 
in the Indian Museum, Calcutta, one being the type. I have 
a single male in my own collection also from these hills. 

The very broad extent of the yellow ground-colour has 
no parallel amongst Indian species of the genus, and this 
character wiU serve to distinguish the species at a glance. 



256 GOMPHID^. 

276. Onychogomphus grammicus (Rambur) . 

Gomphus grammyyus Rambur, Ins. Nevrop. p. 164 (1842). 
Onychogomphus grammicus Selys, Bull. Acad. Belg. vol.xxi, pt. 2, 

p. 35 (1854) ; id., Mon. Gomph. p. 45 (1857) ; Williamson, Proc. 

tr.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xxxiii, p. 309 (1907) ; Laidlaw, Reo. Ind. 

Mus. vol. xxiv, pp. 371, 403 (1922) ; id., Trans. Ent. Soo. Lond. 

vol. Ixsviii, p. 195(1930). 
Lindenia grammicus Kirby, Cat. Odon. p. 59 (1890). 
Mesogomphus grammiciis Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 

vol. xxix, pp. 994, 995 (1924); Needham, Reo. Ind. Mus. 

vol. xxxiv, p. 221 (1932). 

Male. — ^Abdomen 33-39 mm. Hind-wing 29-30 mm. 

Head : eyes bottle-green ; labium yellowish ; labrum, face, 
and frons sandy yellow, a fine black line below frons, another 
between the ante- and postclyepus, and an equally fine Hne 
at base of labrum ; base of frons, vertex, and occiput black, 
vesicle and back of occiput yellowish ; behind eyes bright 
yellow, bordered with glossy black above. Proihorax black ; 
posterior lobe, two small points just in front of it, a narrow 
anterior collar, and the sides yellow. Thorax yellow, m.arked 
with black as foUows : — Two dorsal bands converging above, 
widely divergent below, markedly convex towards one another 
(the mid-dorsal carina and collar below are yellow and con- 
fluent, the former tapering into the latter), a humeral stripe 
on each side connected with the dorsal bands above and 
below so as to enclose an oval spot of the ground-colour, 
a posthumeral stripe connected with the humeral at its upper 
part only. Both lateral sutures finely black. Tergum 
spotted with yellow. Legs yellow, femora marked with black 
or brownish-black on the extreme distal end of outer side of 
hind, the distal half of outer side of middle, and the whole 
length of outer side of front pair ; tibiae narrowly yellow on 
extensor surface. Wiyigs hyaline, pale saffron, costa yellow ; 
pterostigma yellow between black nervures, covering 5 cells, 
4 mm. long, braced ; 1 cubital nervure to all wings ; nodal 



mdex ^^^ 



14-9 



■tq^q; 3 to 4 rows of postanal cells in hind- 
wing ; no vestige of an anal loop ; 2 rows of postanal cells 
in fore-wing ; membrane almost obsolete. Abdomen tumid 
at base, cyhndrical and slender as far as segment 8, the latter 
and 9 dilated, 10 very small. Markings as follows : — Seg- 
ment 1 yellow, with a basal black spot on each side separated 
by the dorsal carina ; 2 with a trilobed yellow dorsal band 
tapering apically and lying between narrow black stripes, the 
sides broadly yeUow ; 3 to 6 yellow, with broad black apical 
rings and a median spot on the jugal suture tapering laterally, 
basally, and apically ; on segments 4 to 6 the apical ring 
sends a prolongation forwards on either side which meets 



ONYCHOGOMPHUS. 257 

"the jugal spot and encloses a yellow subdorsal spot ; 7 to 10 
oohreous or reddish-yellow ; basal articulations finely black. 
Anal appendages yellow, superiors as long as segments 9 and 10 
taken together, subcylindrical, tapering apically, where they 
curve downward, apices flattened, sHghtly bifid ; inferior 
shorter, broad and flat at base, curling abruptly up in its 
basal half, where it bifurcates into two slender contiguous 
"truncate branches. 

Femah. — Abdomen 37 mm. Hind-wing 30 mm. 

Similar to male except for sezual differences in shape. 
The abdomen differs slightly in colouring as follows : — 
The mid-dorsal band on segment 2 is broader ; the jugal spots 
are more restricted and not connected to apical rings on 
segments 4 to 6 ; segment 7 has a diffuse apical dorsal spot 
tapering basally ; 8 to 10 are reddish-yellow and the sides 
of 8 and 9 are only shghtly dilated. Anal appendages short, 
conical, pointed, yellow. Hind femora armed with a row 
of rather widely spaced, robust, gradually lengthening spines, 
mid-femora with similar but more closely-set and smaller 
spines, black, both pairs with a close group of spines on inner 
side. 

Distribution. — CentkaI; and Noeth India. Laidlaw records 
a male from Agra and I have examined a female taken at 
Pusa, 16. vii. 20, which is quite complete. (In Pusa Mus.) 
Rambur's type is an incomplete female labelled " India, 
Stevens." 

Type and paratypes in the Selys collection ; specimens in 
Indian Museum and Pusa collections. 

-277. Onychogomphus echinoecipitalis IVaser. 

Onychogomphus ecMnoccipitalis Fraser, Mem. Dept. Agric. India, 
vol. vii, no. 7, pp. 74, 75 (1922) ; id., J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soo. 
vol. xxix, pp. 65, 333 (1923) ; id., ibid. vol. xxs, p. 117 (1924) ; 
Laidlaw, Trans. Ent. Soo. Lond. vol. Ixxviii, p. 196 (1930); 
Needham, Bee. Ind. Mus. vol. xxxiv, p. 223 (1932). 

Male unknown. 

Female. — ^Abdomen 34 mm. Hind-wing 35 mm. 

Head : labium dark yeUow ; labrum similar, but its base 
narrowly black ; bases of mandibles yellow, anteclypeus 
and posteljrpeus oUvaceous-green ; frons black, its crest 
bright yellow, its base black, from which springs a medial 
prolongation cutting the yeUow in halves ; rest of head black, 
including occiput, which is slightly iadented at its middle and 
bordered with a row of about twelve smaU spines. Prothoratc 
black, spotted with yeEow on dorsum. Thorax black, marked 
with yellow as follows : — An interrupted mesothoracic collar, 
obKque antehumeral stripes separated from the mesothoracic 
collar [humeral stripe entirely wanting) ; tergum spotted with 

vol. n. s 



q_2i 
nodal index 



258 GOMPHID^. 

yellow. Laterally yellow, traversed by two rather diffuse 
black stripes, one medial, the other lining posterior border of 
metepimeron. Le,gs black, very short and robust, femora 
yellow on the outer side. Wings hyaline ; pterostigma 
black, rather long (venation in left hind-wing of type 
aberrant ; hypertrigone traversed twice, and there are vesti- 
gial nervures in the discoidal cell and subtrigone of same wing) ; 
5 to 6 rows of postanal cells in hind- wing, 2 in fore- wing; 

10-11 12-10 • -^^<^<'»W6'* "^ery stout, compressed, 
of even width throughout, but segments 7 and 8 slightly 
dilated. Colour black marked with yellow as follows : — 
Segment 1 with a triangular apical spot on its dorsum and the 
sides broadly ; 2 yellow on the sides, traversed obliquely 
by a black stripe, dorsally marked with a trilobed lanceolate 
stripe ; 3 to 6 with large basal, subtriangular, dorsal spots 
covering about half of 3 and rather less of segments 4 to 6 ; 

7 with its basal half occupied by a large quadrate spot ; 

8 and 9 with the base finely yellow, and small subdorsal 
basal lunules on either side ; 10 whoUy black. Anal appendages 
very small, conical, black. 

Distribution. — A single female from the Shillong-Gauhati 
road, Assam, m. 1,000 ft., 2. vtii. 1919 {T. Bainbrigge Fletcher). 
Type in the British Museum. 

278. Onychogomphus dingavani Praser. (Fig. 78, a.) 

Onychogomphus dingavani Praser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soo. 
yol. sxx, pp. 1005-1006, pi. ii, fig. 7 (1924); Laidlaw, Trans. 
Ent. Soo. Lend. vol. Ixxviii, p. 195 (1930); Needham, Keo. 
Ind. Mus. vol. xxxiv, p. 223 (1932). 

Male. — Abdomen 35 mm. Hind-wing 28 mm. Ptero- 
stigma 3 mm. 

Head : labium palest yeUow ; labrum greenish-yellow, its 
anterior border narrowly black and with an obscure central 
black hue not quite reaching its base ; anteclypeus yeUow, 
postclypeus black with a large greenish-yellow spot on each 
side ; frons greenish-yeUow, margined below the front with 
black which is confluent with the black of postclypeus, its 
base broadly and evenly bordered with black ; vertex black, 
with a small spot of yellow between the posterior ocelli ; 
occiput bright greenish-yellow, broadly yellow behind, its 
border quite straight and fringed with long brownish hairs ; 
eyes black behind. Prothorax black, with an anterior collar, 
the posterior lobe, a small duplicated spot on dorsimi, and 
a Mnear one on sides yellow. Thorax black on dorsum, 
marked with greenish-yellow as follows : — ^A mesothoracic 
collar, broadly interrupted by the black dorsal carina, which 
is narrowly bright yellow above for about its middle third i 



ONYCHOaOMPHTJS. 259 

oblique antehumeral stripes confluent with the collar ; com- 
plete humeral stripes curling in above, where they become 
confluent with the antehumeral stripes, but sHghtly dis- 
connected from the yellow of thorax below. Sides greenish- 
yelloWj with the remnants of an anterior lateral line on the 
upper part of the first lateral suture and a complete narrow 
black line mapping out the postero-lateral suture. Legs 
yellow marked with black, fore and mid pairs of femora 
entirely black on the outer side, hind pair with only a narrow 
stripe not extending to the base. Flexor surface of hind 
femora thickly covered with small but robust spines, the middle 
femora with a row of widely spaced, more robust, longer 
spines. Wiyigs faintly and diffusely tinged with greenish- 
yellow : nodal index ,„ , . tttTo 5 only one row of cells 

between Rii and IRii to within two cells of wing-margin ; 
2 rows of cells in anal area of fore-wings ; first postanal cell 
in hind-wings undivided ; Cuii and lA with a single row of 
cells between, to within 4 cells of wing-margin ; pterostigma 
well-braced, covering 4 to 5 cells, dark brown ; eosta yellow 
as far as pterostigma, as also are many of the cross -nervures 
in fore part of wings, the antenodals, the arc, and in the spaces 
running out from it. Abdomen black, marked with yellow 
as follows : — Segments 1 and 2 with broad subdorsal black 
stripes of even width enclosing a lobed dorsal stripe of yeUow, 
sides of both segments broadly yeUow, including orefllets, 
a black articular ring on 2 ; 3 with a narrow basal ring con- 
fluent with a short ventral stripe and a broad dorsal strip© 
with crenulate borders which extends to the apical border ; 
4 to 6 similar, but the basal rings Hmited below and the ventral 
stripes absent ; 7 with the yellow extending apically along 
the dorsum for two-thirds the length of segment and black 
for the same length along the sides, the venter yellow ; 8 and 
9 with the sides broadly and the apical border of 9 narrowly 
yellow ; 10 with its basal fourth black, the rest yellow ; 
9 and 10 with a fine apical border of black, fringed with minute 
spines. Anal appendages (fig. 78, a, p. 255) yellow ; inferior 
deeply cleft, basal third cylindrical and then abruptly thick- 
ened to nearly as far as the apical tooth (the thickening begins 
at the site of the basal tooth in 0. M-fiavum and is really a con- 
tinuation of this tooth). Genitalia : lamina low, shaped like 
that of O. M-flavum, deeply arched, brownish ; inner hamules 
fine, divergent (this may be because the penis is erect between 
them), of great length, passing down between the outer 
hamules nearly as far as lobe ; outer hamules robust, yellow 
at base, black at apex, perpendicular to the body axis, ending 
in a robust forwardly directed spine ; lobe mat black, pro- 
jecting prominently like the spout of a tea-pot. 

s2 



260 GOMPHIDiE. 

F&male iniknown. 

Distribution. — A single male (in slightly damaged condition) 
from Kalaw, S. Shan States, Buema, coUegted by Mr. G. 
Dingavan. 

The shape of the inferior anal appendages and the genitalia, 
and the confluence of the humeral and antehumeral stripes, 
■wiU serve to distinguish this species from all others of the 
genus. 

Ty^e in the author's collection. 

279. Onyehogomphus cerastes (Selys). 

Ophiogomphus cerastis Selys, Bull. Aead. Belg. vol. xxi, pt. 2, p. 41 

(1854). 
Onychogomphus cerastes Selys, Mon. Gomph. pp. 63, 398 (1854); 

id.. Bull. Acad. Belg. (2) vol. xxviii, p. 173 (1869); Fraser, 

J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soo. vol. xxix, pp. 65, 333 (1923). 
Lindenia cerastis Kirby, Cat. Odon. p. 60 (1890). 
Onychogomphus cerastis "WiUiamson, Proo. TJ.S. Nat. Mus. vol. 

xxxiii, pp. 309, 311 (1907); Laidlaw, Eeo. Ind. Mus. vol. sxiv, 

pp. 371, 411 (1922). 
Indogomphtis cerastes Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soo. vol. xxx, 

pp. 404, 405, pi. i, fig. 5 (1925); Needham, Rec. Ind. Mxm. 

vol. xxsiv, p. 224 (1932). 
Merogomph/us cerastes Laidlaw, Trans. Ent. Soc. vol. bacviii, p. 184 

(1930). 

Male. — Abdomen 40 mm. Hind-wing 32-34 mm. 

Head : labium dull reddish-yeUow ; labrum yellow, bordered 
"snth black along anterior border and base, a tongue of black 
projeetiagfrom the base and cutting the yellow into two spots; 
antecljrpeus yellow ; postclypeus black, with a large yellow 
spot on each side against the eyes, also a small median yeUow 
spot which is confluent with the yeUow on anteclyepus ; 
frons broadly yellow, its anterior surface and the base narrowly 
black ; vertex black, with a small point of yellow just posterior 
to the ocelli ; occiput yellow, bordered finely with black, 
fringed with long brown hairs, shghtly notched at its centre. 
Prothorax black, with two small points at its middle, the 
posterior lobe and the sides broadly yellow. Thorax black 
-on dorsum, yellow at sides. The following yellow marks on 
dorsum : — ^The mid-dorsal carina finely yellow ; oblique ante- 
humeral stripes, slightly separated from an uninterrupted 
mesothoracic collar ; narrow humeral stripes and the tergum 
spotted with yeUow. Lateral sutures finely mapped out in 
black, that on the last expanding into a black spot behind the 
hind legs and beneath the thorax. Legs black, femora yellow 
externally, their apical ends showing the beginnings of two 
brown lines ; hind femora long, but not overlapping the third 
segment, furnished with 5 or 6 very long robust spines. Tibise 
black, flexor surfaces finely yellow. Wings hyaHne, slightly 
tinted with yellow at the bases, costa finely yellow, as also 



ONYOHOGOMPHTJS. 261 

are many of the transverse nervures. especially at base and 

, , . , 12-14116-12 
near costa ; nodal index ,,_jp lo-n ' pterostigma reddish- 
brown bordered with black nervures, 3-5 mm. in length, 
over 5 cells ; membrane pale, short, and narrow. (The 
condition and colour of the wings points to the specimen 
being somewhat teneral.) Abdomen : segment 1 yellow, 
its base above and a medio-lateral spot black ; 2 yeUow 
laterally, including the oreillets, black above, with a trilobed 
stripe of yellow on the dorsal carina tapering as far as the 
apical border ; 3 with a subbasal ring nearly divided by the 
black dorsal carina, a large yellow spot on mid-dorsum and 
a lateral spot at the same level (4-10 missing in allotype) . 

Female. — Abdomen 43-45 mm. Hind-wing 35-37 mm. 

Differs from the male as follows : — ^Yellow stripe on irons 
nearly divided into two by a tongue of black rimning from 
the base ; occiput armed with two closely apposed medial 
spines which converge towards one another. Abdomen 
compressed, the last segments shghtly dilated, proportionate 
length of segments 8 and 9 as in Merogomphus ; first three 
segments marked as in the male ; 4 to 6 similar to 3 ; 
7 with its basal half yellow ; 8 and 9 black, with a triangular 
yellow spot on the sides ; 10 yeUow, its base and apical 
border narrowly black. Anal appendages yellow, sHghtly 
longer than segment 10, slender, pointed. 

Distribution. — ^Nepal and Noeth India. 

Type a female in the Selys collection; allotype male and 
two females in the British Museum. 

280. Onyehogomphus circularis Selys. (Kg. 79.) 

Onychogomphus circularis Selys, Arm. Soo. Eat. Belg. vol. xxxviii, 
p. 165 (1894); Martin, Mission Pavie, sep. p. 212 (1904) 
WilHamson, Proe. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xxsiii, p. 312 (1907) 
Laidlaw, Reo. Ind. Mus. vol. xziv, pp. 371, 412 (1922) ; Teaser, 
J.Bombay, Nat.Hist.Soe.vol.xxis.pp. 65, 333, 997 (1923-1924) 
id., ibid. vol. xsx, pp. 115, 116, pi. i, fig. 4 (1924); Neediam, 
Rec. Ind. Mus. vol. xxsdv, p. 223 (1932). 

Aorogonvplvus circularis Laidlaw, Trans. Ent. See. Load, vol.lxxviii, 
p. 191 (1930). 

Male. — Abdomen 41 mm. Hiad-wing 32 mm. 

Head : labrum yellow, bordered and traversed with black ; 
anteolypeus yellow, encircled with black ; postelypeus 
yellow, with a medial black spot ; frons yellow, bordered with 
black below at its junction with the olypeus, its base above 
finely black ; rest of head black save for a small yellow spot 
on occiput, the latter slightly raised at its middle and fringed 
with brown hairs. Prothorax yellow, black at its middle. 
Thorax black in front, marked with yellow as follows : — 



262 



GOMPHID^. 



The dorsal carina finely, a mesothoracic collar narrowly 
broken at its middle, an oblique isolated antehumeral stripe 
(which may be joined to the collar but is not confluent in the 
type), a small upper spot, the remnants of a humeral stripe. 
Xiaterally and beneath yellow, with two medial black bands. 
Legs short, femora yellow, armed with short spines, fore pair 
brown on the outer side, the hind pair black on the outer side ; 
tibiae and tarsi black. Wings hyaHne, pale saffron, reticulation 
brown, oosta finely yellow, pterostigma blackish-brown, 3-5 mm. 
in length, covering 5 cells, irregularly braced ; incomplete 




Kg. 79. — ^Anal appendages of Onychogomphus droularis Selys, male. 
Dorsal and left lateral views. 



basal antenodal nervure absent ; nodal index 



9-16 
10-12 



16-10 



12-10 ' 



anal triangle with 4 ceUs ; tornus prominent. Abdomen 
moderately slender, black marked with yellow (probably 
very similar to that of the female described below, but faded 
in type) ; segments 8 and 9 shghtly dilated, 10 very short. 
Anal appendages (fig. 79) yellow. (Inferior appendage absent 
in the type.) 

Female. — Abdomen 41 mm. Hind- wing 38 mm. 

Head and thorax similar to those of male ; humeral spot 
better defined and antehumeral stripes coMuent with the 
mesothoracic collar ; first lateral black line nearly obsolete 
in its upper part. Legs and wings as in male ; nodal index 
shghtly higher. Abdomen compressed, a little tumid at its 
base, paraUel-sided thereafter, except the borders of 8 and 9, 
which are perceptibly dilated. Colom- black, marked with 



ONYCHOGOMPHUS. 263 

yellow as follows : — The whole of segment 1 ; segment 2 with 
a trilobed mid-dorsal stripe not extending as far as the apical 
border, its sides broadly ; 3 to 7 with complete basal rings, 
broadest on 3 and 7 and followed on 3 to 5 by a lanceolate 
mid-dorsal spot. Segment 8 with small dorsal and lateral 
spots ; 9 and 10 wholly black. Vulvar scale of medium size, 
made up of two contiguous tubercles. Anal appendages 
yellow, tipped with black, slender, tapering, separated by 
a conical yellow prominence which terminates the abdomen. 

Distribution. — One pair in the McLachlan collection from 
Uppee Btjema, the male being the type. 

A complete and well preserved male in my collection from 
Maymyo, Upper Burma, differs slightly from the type. In 
this insect the labrum is black, marked with two transversely 
oval yellow spots near the base, the yellow crest of the frons 
is confined to its upper surface, and the base is broadly black ; 
the occiput is entirely black. The prothorax has an anterior 
collar and a large spot on each side of the middle lobe citron- 
yeUow ; the mid-dorsal carina of the thorax is unmarked 
with yellow ; the hind pair of femora are striped with yellow 

on the outer side ; the nodal index differs slightly, -joZTT fgIT2 " 

The abdomen varies rather more widely from the type as 
follows : — Segment 1 has a mid-dorsal spot and its sides 
broadly yellow ; segment 2 has the sides broadly yellow and 
a mid-dorsal stripe which tapers very abruptly apically ; 
segments 3 to 5 have paired basal dorsal spots which are 
shghtly confluent over the dorsum, and there are also oval 
mid-dorsal spots -which decrease in size from segment 3 to 5, 
being very small on the latter segment ; segment 6 has the 
basal but not the mid-dorsal spot ; segment 7 has its basal 
half yeUow and segment 8 has only a small baso-lateral spot. 
The anal superior appendages are similar to type except that 
only the extreme apices are yeUow ; the inferior is about 
half the length of the superiors and is deeply bifid, its two 
branches being widely separated, directed straight back, 
but with the apices curved shghtly outwards, a shape quite 
unique in the genus. 

281. Onyehbgomphus earnshawi Fraser. 

Onychogomphus ,sp. Williamson, Proo. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. ssxui, 

pp. 313-315, text-fig. 37 (1907). 
Onychogomphiis earnshawi Praser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 

vol. xxx, pp. 113-114 (1924); Needham, Bee. Ind. Mus. 

vol. xssxv, p. 222 (1932). 
Acrogomphus earnshawi Laidlaw, Trans. Ent. Soc. Loud. 

vol. Ixsviii, p. 192 (1930). 

Male. — ^Abdomen 38 mm. Hind-wing 33 mm. 



264 GOMPHID^. 

Head : labium pale yellow ; labrum yellow, bordered in 
front and behind and traversed with black ; anteclypeus- 
yellow, bordered below on either side with black ; post- 
clypeus black, with a narrow margin below at its middle 
and a large spot on either side yellow ; frons yellow, its lower 
part in front black, whilst above there is a triangular medial 
basal black spot almost dividing the yeUow ; occiput simple,, 
nearly straight, yellow at its centre, black on either side against 
the eyes ; back of head black. Proihorax black, margined 
with yeUow. Thorax black in front, marked with yellow as 
foUows : — The lower part of the mid-dorsal carina, an uninter- 
rupted mesothoracic collar, obUque antehumeral stripes 
jotaed to the mesothoracic collar below and forming inverted 
7's, a vestigial humeral stripe on either side, represented by 
an upper spot and a smaller lower one ; laterally yellow, the 
sutures mapped out in black, that on the anterior suture 
interrupted in two places. Wings hyaline ; costa yellow ; 



ptercstigma black ; nodal index 



13-10. ^ „ . 

4 cells m 



10-9 



9-10 

anal triangle ; 4 rows of postanal cells in hind- wing, the first 
cell divided ; a single row, or occasional double-cells in anal 
area of fore-wing, Cui and lA widely divaricate at the wing- 
margin, 5 cells between them at their distal ends, only a single 
row of cells between Bii and IRii nearly to apex of wings. 
Abdomen : segment 1 with a dorsal interrupted crescent 
of brown, the ends of the crescent running backwards and 
downwards ; 2 yeUow, with subdorsal bands of brown which 
are confluent at the apical border and enclose a tapered stripe 
of yeUow on the mid-dorsal cariaa ; 3 and 4 yellow marked 
with black, a narrow basal ring, an interrupted median ring^ 
and a lateral apical triangular spot which is confluent with its 
feUow dorsally ; 5 to 7 similar, but the apical spots larger, 
confluent, and covering the apical half of segments ; 7 has the 
median ring almost obsolete ; 8 to 10 black, the former 
with a large lateral basal yeUow spot and a trace of a dorsal 
basal spot ; 9 with a mere trace of a similar latero-basal spot. 
Anal appendages brown at base, shading at once into pale 
yellow. Superiors twice as long as segment 10, slender, 
tapering, curved towards each other and downward, the apex 
with a shining black tooth, the lower external edge on the- 
curve before the apex minutely denticulate. Inferior slightly 
more than half the length of superiors, broadly bifid for more 
than half its length, its branches simple, roimded, tapering, 
and continuously divaricate, only sHghtly recurved dorsally, 
and ending at the apex in a minute tooth. 

Female unknown. 

Distribution.— Tovxigoo, Buema (B. A. Eamshaw). 

As Mr. Williamson's description of the type is very detailed,. 



OKYOHOGOMPHTJS, 265 

and is moreover backed up by an excellent photograph of the 
■wings, the species may be considered a good one, and so I have 
taken the liberty of naming it. The anal appendages, like 
those of 0. circularis, are quite foreign to the genus, but 
apart from this the species is a true Onychogomphus, and is 
probably closely alhed to 0. circularis. It differs from 
the latter principally by its nodal index, which is much 
lower. 

Type male (in fragments) in the Michigan University Museum, 
collection ; Mr. WiUiamson refrained from naming it on 
account of its damaged condition. 

282.- Onychogomphus annularis Selys. 

Onychogomphas annularis Selys, Ann. Soe. Ent. Belg. vol. xsxviii, 
p. 166 (1894); Williamson, Proe. XJ.S. Nat. Miis. vol. X T or in, 
pp. 308, 312, 313 (1907); Laidlaw, Reo. Ind. Mus. vol. xxiv, 
p. 411 (1922); Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. xxix, 
pp. 66, 333 (1923) ; id., ibid. vol. xxx. pp. 110, 111, pi. i, fig. 3 
(1924); Laidlaw, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. vol. Irscviii, p. 196 
(1930); Needham, Bee. Ind. Mus. vol. xxxiv, p. 222 (1933). 

Mah. — ^Abdomen 37 mm. Hind-wing 32 mm. 

Head glossy black, marked with citron-yellow as foEows : — 
Labrum with two oval spots, the bases of mandibles, a smaE 
spot on either side against the eyes at level of post-clypeus, 
and a transverse band on upper surface and crest of frons, 
interrupted in the middle. Labium dirty yellow. Rest of 
head black, occiput simple, hinder border nearly straight. 
Prothorax black. Thorax glossy black, marked with greenish- 
yellow as follows : — A mesothoracic collar interrupted at its 
middle, obUque antehumeral stripes not extendii^ upwards 
as far as the alar sinus, but confluent below with the meso- 
thoracic collar ; humeral stripes represented by an upper 
spot followed by a fine line below, at about the middle of tbe 
thorax. Laterally two rather broad bands. Wings hyaline 
slightly tinted with yellow, especially at bases ; costa shghtly 
yellow outwardly ; pterostigma black, 3-5 mm. in length, 

braced ; nodal index .,. „ TTrrm • -^^^o"*®** tumid at base, 

then slender and cylindrical as far as segment 7 (8-10 missing) > 
Colour black, marked with yellow as foHows : — Segments 1 and 
2 with a longitudinal pyriform spot on dorsum, tapering nearly 
to apical border of segment 2 ; the sides of these segments 
broadly, including the oreiUets ; 3 to 6 with broad basal rings 
occupying from one-fourth to one-third the length of seg- 
ments ; 3 and 4 with an oblong oval mid-dorsal median 
spot on the carina. Legs black, short, hind femora 5 mm. 
long, furnished with a row of short spines. 
Female unknown. 



266 - GOMPHID^. 

Distribution. — Uppbe Burma. Described from two males 
sent to Selys by McLachlan, and now in the McLacMan 
collection, one being the type. 

Selys was of opinion that this species might be conspecific 
with 0. madachlani (described below), but in 0. annularis 
the markings on the face are much more extensive ; there is 
also a vestigial humeral stripe on the thorax and mid-dorsal 
spots on segments 3 and 4 which are absent in 0. maclachlani. 
There are some strong points of similarity between this 
species and 0. saundersi which do not appear to have been 
noticed by Selys or subsequent authors. 

In 0. annularis the yellow stripe on the frons is broken, 
in 0. saundersi it is nearly so. The latter is described as having 
the sides of the thorax yellow with t^vo broad black bands 
on the sutures, whilst 0. annularis is described as having 
the sides black with two broad yeUow bands. These two 
descriptions may be but two different ways of describing 
the same markhigs. The legs in 0. annularis are entirely 
black, but marked with yellow in 0. saundersi. Segments 5 and 
6 in the latter have median dorsal spots in addition to those 
on 3 and 4 seen in 0. annularis. With the exception of these 
small differences the two species are ahke, and 0. annularis 
may be merely a variety of 0. saundersi. 

283. Onyehogomphus maclachlani Selys. 

Onychogomphiis madachlani Selys, Arm.. Soe. Ent. Belg. vol. xxxviii, 
p. 167 (1894); WilliamsoD, Proo. "U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xxxiii, 
pp. 312, 313 (1907) ; Laidlaw, Reo. Ind. Mus. vol. xxiv, pp. 371, 
411 (1922); Praser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soo. vol. xxix, 
pp. 65, 333 (1923) ; id., ibid. vol. ssx, pi 114, pi. i, fig. 5 (1924) ; 
Laidlaw, Trans. Ent. Soo. Lond. vol. Ixxviii, p. 196 (1930); 
Needham, Eec. Ind. Mus. vol. xxxiv, p. 222 (1932). 

Male. — Unknown . 

Female. — Abdomen 43 mm. Hind- wing 38 mm. 

Head glossy black, marked with bright citron-yellow on 
bases of mandibles and a transverse band across upper part 
of frons. Occiput simple, fringed with hairs. Prothorax 
black. Thorax black, marked with citron-yellow as follows : — 
A mesothoracic collar interrupted in the middle, oblique 
antehumeral stripes not extending as far upwards as the 
alar sinus, but confluent with the mesothoracic coUar below. 
Laterally two equally broad yellow stripes. Legs short, 
brownish-black, hind femora 6 mm. in length, furnished 
with a row of short closely-set spines. Wings hyaline, oosta 
yellow outwardly ; pterostigma pale yellow between black 
nervures, 4 mm. in length, covering 5 cells ; no basal ante- 
nodal of the second series present ; nodal index ,„ ,^ ,„_,„ ■ 



OlfYCHOGOMPHTTS. 267 

Abdomn slightly tumid at base, compressed, segments 8 and 9 
slightly dilated lateraEy. Colour black, marked witk yellow 
as follows : — Segment 2 with a tapered dorsal stripe not quite 
extending to the apical border, its sides, including the oreiUets, 
broadly ; 3 to 7 with limules occupying about the basal fifth 
and confluent over the dorsum ; 8 with only a small basal 
spot on each side ; 9 and 10 wholly black, the latter very short. 
A7ial appendages small, conical, brown. Vulvar scale rudi- 
mentary, not discernible. 

Distribution. — Upper Buema. 

As mentioned above, Selys remarks that this species may 
be the female of annularis, but the differences pointed out 
above preclude this possibiKty. 

Type female, unique, in the McLachlan collection. 

284. Onychogomphus puleherrimus Fraser. (PI. Ill, fig. 4; 
text-fig. 80.) 

Onychogomphus pulcherrima Fraser, Keo. Ind. Mus. vol. xxix, 
pp. 78, 79 (1927); Laidlaw, Trans. Ent. Soe. Loud. vol. Ixxviii, 
p. 196 (1930); Needham, Beo. Ind. Mus. vol. sxxiv, p. 222 
(1932). 



-Abdomen 40 mm. Hind-wing 30 mm. 
Head : labium yellowish, the anterior border narrowly 
xeddish-brown ; labrum pale green ; face and frons vivid 
pea-green above as well as in front ; vesicle and vertex dark 
blaekish-brown ; occiput grass-green, brownish at the sides. 
Prothorax dark reddish-brown, marked with yellow on posterior 
lobe, a large geminate spot in the middle Une confluent with it 
and a narrow anterior coUar. Thorax dark mahogany-brown, 
with two very broad green antehumeral stripes, confluent with 
a narrow mesothoracic collar, which latter is continuous 
with a narrow yellow mid-thoracic suture, merely separated 
from the antehumeral stripes by a clouding of warm reddish- 
brown. Sides greenish except for a moderately broad reddish- 
brown stripe on the second lateral suture, broadening anteriorly 
below. Legs blackish-brown, the extensor surfaces of fore- 
femora yeUow, of the two posterior pairs reddish-brown. 
Wings hyaline, palely safironated and distinctly tinted with 
yeUow at the extreme base. Pterostigma dark reddish-brown, 
fi:amed in blackish-brown, but with a fine yellow streak 
between the ground-colour and black frame, strongly braced, 
covering Z\ to 4^ cells ; 4 cells in anal triangle ; first post- 
anal cell entire, not extending basaUy beyond the centre of 

subtrigone ; nodal index th^tT) iTpjTj 

ochreous and blackish-brown ; segments 1 to 2 marked with 
yellow ; 1 with the sides broadly light greenish-yellow below ; 



14-9 

Abdomen dark 



268 



GOMPHID^. 



2 witli the same area, including the oreillets, yellow tinged 
with ochreous, the dorsum brown, this colour passing down 
on each side as a narrow stripe behind the oreillets ; 3 with 
the base and dorsum broadly dark ochreous ; 4 to 7 dark 
reddish-brown deepening to black apically : 8 to 10 gradually 
piling in colour from dark to bright reddish-brown ; apical 
borders of all segments narrowly black. AtiuI appendages^ 
(fig. 80) yeUow, reddish at apices. Genitalia : lamina pro- 
jecting markedly, its border shghtly emarginate and concave ; 
anterior hamules long, fine, stylet-like hooks ending in a fine 
recurved spine, directed backwards and converging ; posterior 




Fig. 80. — ^Anal appendages of Onychogomphus pulcherrimm Fraser, 
msde. Dorsal and left lateral views. 



hamules much stouter structmres, broad, abruptly narrowed 
near apex, where they form a very robust shghtly recurved 
spine ; lobe deeply cleft into quadrate, shghtly bifid branches,, 
with a shallow groove on the outer surface, its base tumid. 

Female unknown. 

Distribution. — Three males taken by Col. F. Wall, I.M.B.,. 
at Maymyo, Upper Buema, 31st May, 1925. 

The bright apple-green markings on a mahogany-red 
background are so unique in the genus as to distinguish it easily 
from all other species. 

Type in the British Museum; paratypes in the Author's, 
collection. 



LAKELUGOMPHtrS. 269 

Genus LAMELLIGOMPHUS Praser. (Figs. 45 ra(C) & 81.) 

LamelUgoinphus Praser, Ree. Ind. Mus. vol. xxiv, p. 426 (1922); 

Laidlaw, Trans. Ent. Soe. Lond. vol. Ixxviii, p. 193 (1930). 
LameClogomphus Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. xxix, p. 983 

(1924); Neediam, Rec. Ind. Mus. vol. xxxiv, pp. 217, 218, 223 

(1932). 

Size large, body glossy black, sparingly marked with brigiit 
greenish-yellow ; anal appendages highly curled. 

Head large, triangular ; frons prominent and markedly 
angiilated ; occiput simple, slightly concave, short. Wings : 
reticulation very close ; tomus markedly angulated ; base of 
hind- wing deeply excavate ; membrane obsolete ; anal 
triangle 4-celled ; arc situated between the first and second 
antenodal nervures or opposite the second ; only 2 transverse 
nervures between the sectors of arc in fore-wing from arc 
to bifurcation of Rs, 1 in hind-wing ; 2 rows of postanal 
cells in fore-wiag, 4 in hind-wing ; a rudimentary anal loop 
present, formed by a spUttiag of the first postanal cell which 
extends well proximal of the base of subtrigone ; nodal index 
high ; primary antenodal nervures the ffst and the fifth ; 
discoidal cells entire, that of fore-wing with the distal side 
longer than the costal and basal, which are approximately 
equal, that of the hind- wing not elongated in the length of 
wing, the sides of the same dimensions as those of fore- wing 
or the costal and distal, but slightly longer than the basal ; 
pterostigma moderately short, about one-third the distance 
from, node to proximal end of pterostigma, braced ; I A in 
fore-wing markedly pectinate, 3 rows of cells between it and 
margin of wing ; Cuii and I A in hind- wing barely divergent 
a,t wing-border ; only 1 cubital nervure in all wings ; sub- 
trigones and hypertrigones all entire ; 2 rows of cells in dis- 
coidal field as far as sKghtly proximal of the node. Legs 
short, hind femora extending to the base of segment 1 and 
furnished with a group of closely-set numerous spines at the 
proximal half, which become arranged into two rows of very 
olosely-set short spines at the distal half ; hind tibial spines 
shm, moderately long and closely-set. Abdomen of male 
robust, variable in length as compared to the length of wings, 
tumid at base, moderately narrow and cylindrical as far as the 
"base of segment 7, then again expanding as far as segment 10, 
"which is somewhat squared. Anal appendages : superiors 
forcipate, remarkably cm-led, so that the tips are directed 
forwards (except in L. aciTM-ces) ; the inferior bifid almost to 
base, the two branches very closely apposed and curled almost 
as much as the superiors, which they overla,p at the apices, 
so that the two sets of appendages come to enclose a large 
cordate space. Genitaha : lamina projecting hood-like, 



270 



GOMPSIDJE. 



angularly arched ; anterior Lamules slim sinuous processes 
ending in a minute spine ; posterior hamules broad, long, 
compressed processes, ending in a short, robust, incurled spine ; 
lobe small, very inconspicuous, flask-shaped. 

Genotype, Onychogomphus biforceps Selys. 

Distributicm. — The Western Ghats, at altitudes of about 
3,000-4,000 ft., Bengal, Sikkim, Bttema, Indo-China, Malaysia, 
and Java. Most of the species mentioned from China by 
Needham as belonging to the genus Onychogomphtis also 
evidently belong to this genus, for they bear the liighly 
characteristic appendages and the very marked black colouring. 

Six species are found within our Umits, all confined to dense 
evergreen jungles and keeping in close proximity to the 




Fig. 81. — Wings of LamdligonvpJms mlgiriensis (Fraser), male. 

montane streams in which they breed. The larvse (fig. 45 a, C) 
are to be found in deep pools lurking amongst leafy debris, 
and are curiously flattened, dark brown in colour, and closely 
resembling the decaying leaves amongst which they live. 
The genus derives its name from the pecuUar flattened short 
lamellate antennae of the larvae, the latter differing entirely 
from those of Onydhogomphus. 



Key to Indian Species of Lamelligomphus. 

AnteKameral stripes confluent with the 
mesothoraoio collar; hxtmeral stripes 
1. ■{ absent 2. 

Antehumeral stripes well separated from. 
the mesothoraoio collar 3. 



2.-1 



LAJIELLIGOMPHUS. 271 

A single interrupted lateral black stripe on 

thorax; abdominal segments 9 and 10 [p. 275. 

yellow laterally cacharicus Fras., 

A single broad uninterrupted lateral black 

stripe on thorax; segments 9 and 10 [p. 278. 

without markings nilgiriensis (Fras.), 

Humeral stripe present and complete; 

abdominal segments 3 to 6 with yellow [p. 271. 

oval mid-dorsal spots biforceps (Selys), 

Htmieral stripe absent or represented only 

by a tiny upper spot 4. 

'The two lateral black stripes on thorax 

confluent at one or two points only; 

abdomiDal segments 3 and 4 with mid- [p. 279. 

dorsal oval yellow spots • malabarensis Fras., 

The two lateral black stripes fused to form 

a single broad stripe on the sides of thorax ; 

segments 3 and 4 without mid -dorsal oval 

5. 



4.-^ 



Superior and inferior anal appendages but 
slightly curved and directed nearly 
straight backwards; legs black; ante- 
humeral stripes short and pointed below; [p. 280. 

superior humeral spot absent acinaces (Laid.), 

5. -^ Superior and inferior anal appendages 
markedly curled, so as to enclose together 
a broad cordate space ; legs black marked 
with yellow ; antehumeral stripes long and 
not pointed below; superior humeral spot 
present risi (Fras.), p. 273. 

285. Lamelligomphus biforceps (Selys). (Figs. 82, a, & 83, c.) 

Onyahogomphus biforceps Selys, Bull. Acad. Belg. (2) vol. xlvi,. 

p. 420 (1878); Martin, Mission Pavie Indo -Chine, vol. iii, 

p. 212 (1904); Williamson, Proo. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xxsiii, 

p. 308 (1907); Laidlaw, Reo. Ind. Mus. vol. sxiv, p. 407, 

text-flg. 19 (1922). 
Lindenia biforceps Kirby, Cat. Odon. p. 60 (1890). 
Lamellogomphus biforceps biforceps Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. 

See. vol. xxix, pp. 64, 332, 983, 984 (1923-1924). 
Lamelligomphus biforceps Laidlaw, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lend. p. 193 

(1930). 
Lamellogomphzis biforceps Needham, Bee. Ind. Mus. vol. xxxiv, 

p. 224 (1932). 

Male. — ^Abdomen 41 mm. Hind-wiag 32 mm. 

Head black ; labium dark brown ; labrum marked -with 
a transverse yellow oval spot on each, side ; base of mandibles, 
anteclypeus, and a broad band across the upper surface of frons 
bright yellow ; base of frons black, this colour extending 
as a short tongue into the floor of sulcus ; occiput black, with, 
a small median yellow spot, sUghtly rounded, ciliated along 
its free margin. Prothorax black, with a lateral yellow spot. 
Thorax black, marked with greenish-yellow as follows : — 
A complete mesothoracic collar confluent with a stripe on 
lower part of mid-dorsal carina ; a dorsal oblique stripe not. 



272 



GO'MFKLBM. 



joined to the mesothoracic collar ; and a humeral stripe 
Laterally yellow, marked with two broad black stripes on the 
sutures, the black converging and becoming confluent at the 
middle of the stripes. Underside black. Legs black, the 
four posterior femora with an outer yeUow band. Abdomen 
tumid at base, thin and cylindrical as far as segment 8, which 
IS abruptly dilated, 9 and 10 narrowiag again sHghtly • black 
marked with bright yeUow as follows :— Segment 1 on sides 
and a triangular spot on dorsum ; 2 with two large spots 
(mcJuding the oreillets) on sides and a bOobate stripe on dor- 
sum ; 3 to 8 with narrow basal rings nearly divided by the 
black of the dorsal carina, occupying about one-third of the 
segments, and with an oval spot at the middle ; basal half of 
7 and a smaU rounded spot near the base of both sides of 8 




Fig. 82.— Body markings of (a) LameUigomphus biforceps (Selys), male • 
(D) LameUigomphus risi (Fraser), male. 

Anal apf engages (fig. 83, e) : superiors yeUow, changing to 
black at the tips, thick at base, where they are rather widely 
separated, converging, tapering, and finaUy meeting at the 
apices; branches of inferior black. Tf im^s shghtly enfumed 
venation black, costa finely yeUow; pterostigma deep blackish' 

brown (3 mm.), nodal index ^^ -^-^ 

13-11 11-13- 

Female.— M.@^m states that the female is very Uke the male 
but the yellow spots on the abdomen are much larger ■ he 
gives no detailed description. ' 

DjMnbuticm—DABJ^-Ejj^Q disteiot ; also recorded by 
Martm from Tonkm, where it is apparently not uncommon 

Type m the Selys coUection : a male in the Indian 
Museum eoUeetion, taken in May 1913, and a male in my own 
coUection. These, so far as I am aware, are the only Indian 
specimens known, •" 



LAMELLIGOMPHXJS. 273 

586. Lamelligomplius risi (Fraser). (Fig. 82, b.) 

Gomphus risi Fraser, Mem. Dept. Agric. India, vol. vii, no. 7, 

pp. 73, 74 (1922). 
Heterogomphus risi Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soe. vol. xxix, 

pp. 331, 678, 679 (1923). 
Lamellogomphtos inglisiFraseT, 3. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. xxix, 

pp. 984, 985, pi. i, fig. 4 (1924) ; Needham, Rec. Ind. Mus. 

vol. xxxiv, p. 224 (1932). 
Lamellogomphus drummondi Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soe. 

vol. xxix, pp. 985, 986 (1924). 
MegcUogomphus risi Laidlaw, Trans. Ent. Soo. London, vol. Ixxviii, 

p. 197 (1930). 

Male. — Abdomen (with appendages) 45 mm. Hind-wing 
36 mm. 

Head : labium pale yellow, the border of median lobe 
narrowly brown ; base of mandibles broadly greenish-yellow ; 
labrum glossy black, with a large transversely oval greenish- 
yellow spot on each side ; anteclypeus and a large spot on 
each side of postclypeus against the eye, citron-yellow ; 
frons black, greenish-yellow above, this colour slightly over- 
lapping the fore border, base of irons narrowly black, which 
colour projects for a short distance into the sulcus ; rest of 
head mat black except for an obsolete spot on occiput, which 
appears to be due to the translucenoe of a greenish-yellow 
spot on its posterior surface ; border of occipital scale rather 
sinuous, fringed with long black hairs. Eyes bottle-green. 
Prothorax black, with a small citron-yellow spot on each side. 
Thorax black, marked with yeUow as follows : — ^A mesothoracic 
collar narrowly interrupted in the middle Hne ; oblique 
antehumeral stripes extending from the alar sinus, but not 
meeting the mesothoracic collar ; a vestigial humeral spot 
above ; the whole of the sides except for a very broad median 
black stripe which bears a small transversely oval yellow spot 
immediately below the insertions of the wings. Legs black, 
the posterior pair ofjemora only bearing an outer yellow stripe ; 
coxse and trochanters yellow ; hind femora furnished with 
a row of closely-set, evenly spaced, short but robust spines 
on the outer side ; middle femora with longer, less closely- 
set spines. Wings palely enfumed, costa finely yellow to 

12—17 17—12 
weU beyond the node, nodal index J3_i2 13-14 ' ptero- 

stigma well braced, black, 3 rows of cells between Rii and 
IRii. Abdomen tumid at base as far as segment 2, very 
narrow and cylindrical as far as extreme apex of 7, 8 to 10 
greatly expanded, black, marked with yellow as follows : — 
Segment 1 with a large iaferior lateral spot and a linear 
transverse apical dorsal spot ; 2 broadly yellow on the sides, 
including the robust oreiUets, and a linear mid-dorsal stripe 

VOL. 11. T 



274 . GOMPHID^. 

broadening basally and longitudinally cleft at the base by: 
a brown mark on the dorsal carina ; 3 to 6 with basal rings 
oeoupying about the basal fourth of segments, all nearly cleft 
by an invasion of the black along the dorsal carina posteriorly ; 

7 with rather more thaa the basal half greenish-yeUow, the 
basal half of this marking on the sides squarely pale brown ; 

8 to 10 unmarked. Anal appendages about the length of 
segments 8 and 9 together ; superiors yellow, the posterior 
two-thirds straight as seen in profile, the apical third curhng 
strongly downwards and then actually backwards, so that 
finally its dorsum comes into contact w'th the dorsal surface 
of the inferior appendage ; the latter black, cleft to its base, 
the branches curving at first downwards and then bent at 
a right angle and prolonged to overlap the superiors, a little 
dilated at base, then thin and cylindrical for as fe,r as middle 
third, where they dilate rather abruptly and taper to the end, 
separated at base to enclose a long oval space. Genitalia : 
lamina' broad, depressed and obtusely notched ; inner hamules 
converging, long, sinuous, broad at base and tapering to a fine 
outwardly turned point ; outer hamules broad and conical, 
projecting well beyond the genital sac and bearing a stiff 
pencil of hairs at the apices ; lobe broad and deep, funnel- 
shaped, but not markedly prominent, surface black and coarsely 
corrugated. 

Female. — Abdomen 45 mm. Hind- wing 38 mm. 

Very similar to the male ; markings similar in every respect. 
Wings rather more enfumed, pterostigma well braced, blackish- 
brown, 2 or 3 rows of cells between Rii and IBii, nodal index 

■ ■ Anal appendages yeUow, very fine, and rather 

1^—14 I lo— 13 

longer than segment 10. Vulvar scale very short, triangular, 
deeply encased by the expanded sides of segments 8 and 9. 
Legs coloured as in the male, huid femora with a row of short 
but robust closely-set spines on the proximal half, and 3 to 6 
much longer, more robust and more widely spaced spines 
on the distal half. 

Distribution. — One pair collected by Mr. C. M. IngUs on the 
Eiyang River, Mungpoo, DAEJEEUaifG Disteict, 1,800 ft., 
17.V. 23. A female coUected by Mr. H. V. O'Donel at 
Hasimara tea estate, Duars, Bengal. 

The markings in the Hasimara female, which is distinctly 
teneral, are distinctly broader, and there is some evidence 
of a broken yellow stripe traversing the lateral black stripe 
of the thorax, and there are also small baso-lateral spots, on 
segments 8 and 9. 

This species differs from L. biforceps in the colour of the 
labium,, the presence of lateral yellow spots on the post- 
clypeus, the vestigial character of the humeral stripe, ^the 



LAMBLLIGOMPHTJS. 275- 

absence of mid-dorsal markings on segments 5 and 6, and 
greater number of antenodal nervures ; from L. caTn^us 
(Mart.) in the absence of excrescences on segment 8, in its 
smaller size, etc. ; from L. acinaces in the shape of the anal 
appendages ; and from L. nilgiriensis in its much larger size 
and markings. 

Types of risi (a female), inglisi (a male), and drummondi 
(a teneral female) all in the Author's collection. 

287. Lamelligomphus caeharieus Fraser. 

IiameUogomphus caeharieus Fraser, Mem. Dept. Agrio. India, 

vol. viii, no. 8, pp. 81-83 (1924). 
LamelligomphziS cacharensis Laidlaw, Trans. Ent. Soo. Loud. 

vol. Ixxviii, p. 194 (1930). 

Male unknown. 

Female. — ^Abdomen 42 mm. . Hind-wing 38 mm. 

Head : labium dirty yellow ; labrum black, marked with 
a small comma-shaped spot at each outer end ; bases of man- 
dibles yeUow ; ante- and postclypeus glossy black, latter 
marked with a small yellow spot on each side against the 
eyes ; frons black, marked with a broad yeUow stripe along 
the crest ; vertex and anterior part of occiput black, posterior 
part of latter dark brown, simple, straight, no armature, 
fringed with black hairs. Prothorax black, marked with 
yeUow as follows : — ^A small spot on each side ; the posterior 
lobe narrowly ; two small points on mid- dorsum and a narrow 
anterior collar. Thorax black, marked with yellow as 
follows : — ^A narrowly interrupted mespthoracic eoUar ; ante- 
humeral stripes confluent with the latter and forming inverted 
7's ; humeral stripe entirely absent ; laterally a .broad 
posthumeral stripe ; and the whole of the metepimeron 
yeUow, divided by a broken black stripe. Legs black, eoxse 
and trochanters yellow, anterior femora striped with yellow 
on the inner side ; hind femora with a row of short robust 
moderately closely-set spines. Wings hyaline, pale rays of 
saffron in subcostal and cubital spaces extendmg outwards 
as far as the are ; pterostigma brown, covering 5 to 6 cells, 
braced robustly ; membrane obsolete ; 1 to 2 rows of cells 
between JRii and IBii at distal end of pterostigma ; nodal index 

10—15 14^10 

1 cubital nervure in aU wings ; 1 to 2 rows of 



10-10 11-11' 

postanal cells in fore-wing, 4 rows in hind-wing. Abdomen. 
black, marked with yellow as follows : — ^A narrow mid-dorsal 
stripe taperiag from segment 1 to the transverse suture on 3 ; 
the sides of aU these three segments broadly yellow, but narrow- 
ing progressively from 1 to 3 and not quite extending to apical 
border of latter ; the dorsal and lateral stripes separated by 

t2 



276 GOMPHIDJE. 

a broad black stripe towards either side ; 4 to 7 with broad 
basal rings incomplete below and covering nearly one-fourth 
of the segments ; 8 with a small baso-dorsal spot ; 9 and 10 
laterally. Anal appendages dark brown, minute, pointed. 
Vulvar scale short, rounded, not projecting (this organ 
crushed and not very easily made out in the type ; the 
specimen is slightly teneral, and the black colouring, especially 
of abdomen, not completely matured). 

Distribution. — ^Dilkhoosh, Cachar, Assam. 

This insect is distinguished from L. acinaces and L. nil- 
giriensis by the mesothoracic collar and antehumeral stripes 
being confluent. The same character and the absence of 
a spine on the occiput will distinguish it from L. malabarensis. 
The absence of a humeral stripe will separate it from L. bif creeps 
and L. risi. 

Type in the British Museum. 

288. Lamelligomphus nilgiriensis (Fraser). {Fig. 83, a, b.) 

Onyehogomphtis hiforceps nilgiriensis Praser, Rec. Ind. Mus. 

vol. xxiv, pp. 425, 426, pi. xi, fig. 2 (1922). 
Laimenogomph/us hiforceps nilgiriensis Eraser, J. Bombay Nat. 

Hist. Soo. vol. xxix, pp. 65, 332 (1923). 
Lamellogomphv^ nilgiriensis jraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 

vol.xxix,pp. 986-988, pi. i, fig. 1 (1924) ; id., Rec. Ind. Mus. 

vol. xxvi, pp. 427, 477 (1924); Laidlaw, Trans. Ent. Soo. 

Lend. vol. Ixxviii, p. 193 (1930); Fraser, Eeo. Ind. Mus. 

vol.xxxiii, p. 447 (1931) ; Needham, Rec. Ind. Mus. vol. xxxiv, 

pp. 223, 224(1932). 

Mak. — ^Abdomen (with appendages) 36-41 mm. Hind- 
wing 30-34 mm. 

Head : labium entirely black ; labrum black, marked with 
two oval transverse yellow spots (large or smaU) ; bases of 
mandibles and antecljrpeus greenish-yellow (but in one speci- 
men this latter is quite black) ; postclypeus black ; frons 
greenish-yellow, its base rather broadly black, a prolongation 
of this colour invading the floor of sulcus ; rest of head black, 
often with a rounded yellow spot behind the occiput, only 
visible when the head is tUted forwards. Eyes deep bottle- 
green, or in younger specimens bluish-green. Prothorax 
black, occasionally unmarked but usually bearing a small 
geminate yellow spot at the centre of posterior lobe, and 
outside tbis an even smaller spot. Thorax black, marked 
with greenish-yellow as follows : — ^Upper part of mid-dorsal 
carina only occasionally ; a mesothoracic collar interrupted 
in the middle line ; oblique antehumeral stripes, generally 
connected with the mesothoracic collar, but in a small per- 
centage of specimens more or less widely separated therefrom 
(in such cases the lower end of the stripe is squared off, not 
pointed as in L. acinaces) ; humeral stripe absent (only in a 



lAMELLIGOMPHtrS . 



277 



single male was there a vestigial spot representing the upper 
part of a humeral stripe) ; laterally two broad stripes separated 
by an almost equally broad black stripe, the posterior the 
broadest and covering the greater part of the metepimeron, 
the anterior end slightly narrower, the black stripe nearly 
always with a linear longitudinal yeUow spot at its upper part 
close to the insertions of the wings, but this occasionally absent 
on one or both sides. Wings hyaline ; pterostigma black, 
covering 5-6 cells, not robustly braced ; nodal index variable. 



in two specimens 



10-15 
12-10 



16-11 11-14 



14-10 . 
10-12 ' 



2 to 3 rows 



11-10' 12-10 

of ceUs between Bii and IBii. Legs black, without markings. 
Abdomen black, marked with bright citron- yellow as follows : — 




Pig. 83. — ^Anal appeadages of (a) LameUigomphus nilgiriensis (Fraser), 
male; (b) LameUigomphus nilgiriensis annaimallaiczts Fraser,iaale ; 
(c) Lamdligomphv^ biforceps (Selys), male. All viewed from the 
left side. (Camera luoida sketches drawn to the same scale.) 

Segment 1 with a triangular apical spot on the dorsum and 
a large apioo-lateral spot ; 2 with a dorsal longitudinal stripe 
broadening at the noiddle, tapering at the apex, the oreihets 
and an. apico-lateral spot varying in size ; 3 with a large 
baso-dorsal spot deeply cleft behind by an invasion of the 
black on dorsal carina ; 4 to 6 with two dorsal triangular spots 
situated close to the base ; 7 with nearly the basal half ; 
8 with a basal spot low down on the sides, this sometimes 
very minute or rarely absent ; when very large accompanied 
by a smaller apico-lateral spot ; 9 and 10 unmarked. (In 
one specimen the dorsal spots on 4 to 6 are almost obsolete 
and that on 7 is cut into two by the black of dorsal carina.) 
Anal appendages (fig. 83, a) black, the outer and upper surfaces 



278 GOMPHID^. 

of- the superiors bright citron-yeUow to nearly as far as the 
apex (in one specimen the yellow is restricted to a short 
linear streak on the basal half of the outer side only). 
In shape very similar to those of L. biforceps and L. risi. 
Genitalia scarcely differing from those of L. risi, the outer 
hamules, however, much longer and tapering, projecting 
very prominently from the genital sac. 

Female. — Abdomen 36 mm. Hind-wing 33 mm. 

Very similar to the male, abdomen stout and cylindrical. 
Markings differing ajs follows : — Spots on labrum smaller ; 
band on frons cut ifito two large oval spots by the black 
at base of frons iouiing up with that on front ; antehumeral 
stripe separated from the mesothoracio eoUar (but this may be 
variable) ; first lateral yeUow stripe on thorax with its upper part 
isolated ; the yellow markings on sides of abdominal segment 2 
confluent, basal spots on 3 and 7 separated by the black on 
dorsal carina, baso-lateral spots on 8 very minute and the apical 
spot never present. Occiput armed with a pair of very long 
robust spines at its centre, the apices of which curl outwards. 
Wings enfumed and distinctly saffironated at the base. Anal 
appendages rather longer than segment 10, tapering, black 
with a bright yellow tip, a long triangular protuberance between 
them ; 7 to 10 progressively shortening. Vulvar scale half 
the length of segment 9, cleft to its base so as to form two 
small triangular leaf-hke processes which project backwards 
and soinewhat downwards so as to be easily visible in profile. 

Larva. — ^Total length 23 mm:. Length of hind femur 6 mm. 
•Greatest breadth (at about centre of abdomen) 9 mm. 

Head moderately broad and quadrate, antennae with basal 
segment small and cylindrical, third broad, flattened, triangular, 
fourth rudimentary, exists as a tiny spine at inner lateral 
angle of third. A duplicated tubercle on the prothorax. 
Wing-sheaths broad, extending to segment 6. Abdomen 
depressed, strongly keeled from segments 4 to 8, which bear 
robust spines on the carina, 7 to 10 with stout lateral spines. 
Mask very short, extending to base of first pair of legs, middle 
lobe rounded, fringed with rather long stiff brissse, mentum 
Ebhgulated, the whole mask nearly quadrate. 

Distribution. — South India : NUgiri-Wynaad, Coorg, South 
Kanara, AnnaimaUai, Pahu, and Travancore HiUs, from the 
end of April to the end of June. ' 

■ The insect, which is very local, frequents shady mountain 
streams, generally those with ctean gravelly bottoms, and is' 
found settled on rocks or twigs in mid-stream. When disturbed 
it immediately rises perpendicularly to trees overhanging the 
stream. In Coorg it prefers streams almost entfrely hidden and 
closed in by overhanging cane-brakes, where it may be found 
^eittlesd on rocks or on the gravelly beach, or occasionally 



LAJMELLIGOMPHUS. 279 

hawking to and fro over runnels or rapids, to which places the 
female usually resorts to lay her eggs. Whilst ovipositing, the 
female hovers some 2 feet or less over the surface of the water 
and drops her eggs perpendicularly into the swirling stream.' 

L. nilgiriensis is easily distinguished from L. acinaces, 
which occurs in the same districts, by the shape of its anal 
appendages. These two species stand somewhat apart from 
L. biforceps and risi by their relatively smaller sizej, this" 
being due to the shorter abdomen. L. nilgiriensis, differs 
from L. biforceps in the absence of a humeral stripe and 
of mid-dorsal spots on segments 3 to 6 of the abdomen ; 
from L. risi in its much smaller size, in its confluent ante- 
humeral stripes, and in the absence of a vestigial humeral spot, 
etc. Its female differs from all others in the presence of 
two robust occipital spines. 

Type in the British Museum. 

289. Lamelligomphus nilgiriensis annamallaicus, new race. 

Specimens of L. nilgirierisis found to the south of the 
Palghat Gap are very much larger than those from Coorg and 
the Nilgiris ; the anal appendages also differ shghtly in shape 
(fig. 83, b). 

Type in my own collection from Mudis Hills, S. India. ' 

290. Lamelligomphus malabarensis (Fraser). 

Onychogomphus biforceps Fraser (neo Selys), Reo. Ind. Mus. vol. 

xxiv, pp. 424, 425, pi. xi, fig. 10 (1922). 
Lamellogomphu^ malabarensis Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. See. 

vol. xxix, pp. 990, 991 (1924) ; Laidlaw, Trans. Eat. Soo. Lond. 

vol. Ixxviii, p. 193 (1930) ; Needham, Rec. Ind. Mus. vol. xxsiv, 

p. 224 (1932). 
Lamellogomphus malabaricus Fraser, Reo. Ind. Mtis. vol. xsvi, 

pp. 427, 477 (1924); id., ibid. vol. xxxiii, p. 448 (1931). 

Male unknown. . . i . , 

Female. — Abdomen 42 mm. Hind- wing 35 mm. , > 

Head : labium pale yellow ; labrum yellow, broadly edged 
vrith black, with a prolongation of this colour from ttie base 
joining the anterior black border ; antecl3rpeus yeEow, post- 
olyjpeus black, with a large spot on each side close against 
the eyes ; frons black traversed by a broad yellow stripe on 
the crest, constricted at its, middle by an approximation of the 
black ; vertex and occiput black, the latter with a yello'ttr spot 
at its middle which is raised into a smaU tubercle. Prdthorax 
black with a large yellow spot on each side. Thorax black, 
marked with- greenish- yellow as follows : — ^A meaothoracic 
collar narrowly interrupted in the middle line ; obhque ante- 
humeral stripes falling well short of the mesothoraeic collar ; 
no vestige of a humeral stripe; sides greenish-yellow, traversed- 



280 GOMPHID^. 

by a broad black stripe which includes a yeUow stripe inter- 
rupted above. Legs : femora yeHow mottled "with black, hind 
femora with a row of 9 or 10 elosely-set very short, very robust 
black spines. Wings hyaline ; pterostigma black, covering 
five cells, well braced ; only 1 row of cells between Rii and 
IBii at level of outer end of pterostigma ; nodal index 

Q ,, TTlvi • Abdomen black, marked with yellow as 

follows : — Segment 1 with a dorsal spot and its sides broadly ; 
2 with a dorsal stripe, bilobed and extending from base tO' 
apex and its sides very broadly ; 3 with a broad basal ring, 
and a spot situated on the middle of the mid-dorsal carina ; 
4 to 6 with subdorsal basal spots confluent across the carina, 
and mid-dorsal spots as on segment 3, but progressively smaller 
from 4 to 6, on 6 almost obsolete ; 7 with the basal half yellow ; 
8 with a large baso-lateral spot ; 9 and 10 unmarked. Anal 
appendages yellow, small and pointed, the intermediate process- 
also yellow. Vulvar scale small, deeply cleft to its base 
into two small triangular leaf-hke processes ; a shallow 
depression on segment 9 beneath the vulvar scale very similar 
to that in M. lineatus. 

Distribution. — ^Malabar, a single specimen taken at Palghat 
by Mr. T. N. Hearsey, 16. vi. 21. 

From L. nilgiriensis this species is distinguished by the 
yellow occiput without spines and by the mid-dorsal spots, 
on segments 3 to 6 ; the latter character also serves to separate 
it from L. acinaces, an additional point of difiference being 
the presence of a yellow stripe traversing the medio -lateral 
black stripe of the thorax ; from L. biforceps the entire- 
absence of the humeral stripe wiU at once distinguish it ; 
lastly it differs from L. risi in the presence of mid-dorsal 
yellow spots on segments 3 to 6 and of a lateral spot on seg- 
ment 8 (unmarked in L. risi), and in segments 9 and 10 being, 
without yellow markings. 

Type in Author's collection. 

291. LameUigompIius acinaees (Laidlaw). 

Onychogomphtis acinaces Laidlaw, Rec. lud. Mus. vol. xxiv,. 

pp. 407-408, te3rti-fig. 20 (1922). 
LameUogomphus biforceps cuAnaccs Fraser, J, Bombay Nat. Hist. 

Soc. vol. xsdx, pp. 65, 332 (1923). 
LameUogomphus acinaces Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc» 

vol. xxix, pp. 988-990, pi. i, fig. 2 (1924) ; id.. Bee. lad. Mua. 

vol. xxvi, pp. 427, 477 (1924) ; Laidlaw, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 

vol. Ixxviii, p. 193 (1930) ; Fraser, Rec. Ind. Mus. vol. xxxiii,. 

p. 447 (1931) ; Needham, Reo. Ind. Mus. vol. xxxiv, p. 224 

(1932). , 

MaU. — Abdomen (with appendages) 39 mm. Hind-wing, 
30 jam. 



LAMELUGOMPHTTS. 281 

Head : labium black, yellow at the base ; labrum black, 
marked with a pair of transversely oval greenish-yeUow spots ; 
auteclypeus yellow, postclypeus black ; fcons greenish- 
yellow above, black in front, the base narrowly black, this 
colour sending a prolongation forward into the sulcus which 
meets the black on the front margin and cuts the greenish- 
yellow area into two oval spots ; vertex and occiput black. 
(In some specimens there is a small yellow spot behind the 
occiput as in L. nilgiriensis.) Prothorax entirely black. 
Thorax black, marked with greenish-yellow as follows : — 
The lower part of the dorsal carina (in about half of the speci- 
ments examined) ; a mesothoracic collar, complete where the 
middle line exists but broken when this is absent ; an oblique 
antehumeral stripe not connected with the collar, squared 
above but tapering to a point below (no trace of a humeral 
stripe) ; sides greenish-yellow with a broad median black stripe, 
usually marked above near the insertions of the wings by 
a small linear yellow spot. Legs black, unmarked except for 
a broad greenish-yellow stripe on the flexor surface of the 
anterior femora ; armatiu-e similar to that in L. nilgiriensis. 
Wings hyaline, rays of yeUow tinting in the subcostal and 
cubital spaces ; pterostigma black, covering 5 to 5J cells, 
braced ; usually 2 but sometimes 3 rows of cells between 



■■ r^-. . , ■ , 10-16 

B^^ and IRii ; nodal mdex 



15-11 12-15 



11-11' 13-10 



16-12 
10-12 ■ 



11-10 

Abdomen, black, marked with greenish-yellow as follows : — 
Segment 1 with an apical triangular spot, its base resting on 
the apical border and continuous with a mid-dorsal stripe 
on 2 which expands medially and tapers apically, also with 
an apical lateral spot ; 2 with two large yellow lateral spots, 
the proximal including the oreUlet and its siuTounding area ; 
3 with a large basal spot nearly cut in two by an invasion of 
black along the dorsal carina ; 4 to 6 with smaller spots nearly 
or quite cut in two ; 7 with its basal half yeUow ; 8 with only 
a basal spot on the sides very variable in size, usually quadrate 
and acutely indented on its apical border ; 9 and 10 immarked. 
Anal appendages black ; superiors with the upper and outer 
surfaces bright yellow as far as the apices, in some specimens 
entirely yellow and in such the upper surface of the inferior 
is of the same colour. Differing entirely in shape from those 
of aU other species, the superiors truncate, tapering sinuously 
backwards and sloping shghtly downwards towards the apices, 
equal in length to the two last segments of the abdomen ; 
inferior slightly longer, divided into two closely parallel 
branches almost as far as its base, the distal halves curved 
gently upwards. Genitalia similar to those of L. nilgiriensis, 
the inner hamules much stouter and more robust, the outer 



2S2' .,-iG.OBtPHID^..;' 

shorter and stouter, the pencils of haurs at their apices very 
long and prominent. 

Female. — Abdomen 39-40 mm. Hind- wing 32-35 mm. 

Abdomen tumid at base, stout, parallel-sided, and cylindrical 
as far as the tip ; black, marked exactly as in the male except 
"that the whole side of the second segment is bright yellow, 
this in some specimens confluent with the broad mid- dorsal 
stripe ; segment 8 unmarked. The dorsal carina on segment 7 
usually finely black, so that the basal spot is cut in two. Anal 
appendages yellow, very short and conical. Occiput fringed 
with long black hairs, shghtly notched in the middle, without 
spines. Legs as in male, but the hind femora furnished 
with a row of very long, very robust, very widely-spaced spines 
as in the female of L. nilgiriensis. 

Distribution. — Cooeg, Nobth and South Kanaka. Dr. S, 
Kemp took many specimens on streams flowing down the 
Mangalore Ghat from Coorg to Kanara. Mr. C. Souter, Com- 
missioner of Coorg, found it swarming at Bhagmandala, Coorg, 
and wrote: "After having taken about 50 males I grew tired 
■of taking more and contented myself with capturing females, of 
which I was fortunate enough to take six out of 10 specimens 
seen. All were hovering over a deep pool formed by damming 
up the river below, and were busy ovipositing by dropping 
their eggs plumb into the stream." 

Pound in company with L. nilgiriensis. EasUy distinguished 
from all other species of the genus by its abnormally-shaped 
anal appendages. 

The species is very closely related to L. nilgiriensis, and 
apart from the appendages the only reliable character by which 
to distingmsh them is the pointed lower endof theantehumeral 
stripe in L. acinaces and the absence of occipital spines in 
the female. L. acinaces is a far more static insect than 
L. nilgiriensis, which, as has been noted above, exhibits 
considerable variation. 

The type, in the Indian Museum, was taken by Dr. S. Kemp in 
North Kanara (probably October 1916). Specimens in the 
Laidlaw, Morton, Author's, and British Museum collections. 

Genus NEPOGOMPHUS, gen. nov. (Fig. 84.) 

Onychogomphm (pars) Selys, Bull Acad Belg vol xsi, pt 2, p 30 

(1854); id.,,Moii. Gomph..p. 15 (1857); Kirby, Cat. OdoD. p. 57 

(1890); WiIHamson,Proo.tr.S.2Srat.M-us.vol.xxxm,pp. 310, 311 

(1907); Laidlaw, Bee. Ind. Mus. vol. xxiv, pp. 408, 409 (1922); 

' id.. Trans. Ent. Soo. Lend. vol. Ixxviii, p. 195 (1930). 

" A genus of very small dragonflies ; colour black, marked 
sparingly with greenish- or citron-yellow. 

Head very large for the size of the insect, irons moderately 
a'ngTilated ; face oblique ; occiput very small, its posterior 



NBPOGOMPHUS. 



283 



border simple, concave. Wings : reticulation close ; tornus 
rather strongly angulated ; base of hind- wing deeply excavated, 
very oblique ; anal triangle 3-celIed ; arc situated between the 
first and second or opposite the second antenodal nervure ; 
2 transverse nervures between the sectors of arc from arc to 
bifurcation of Rs in fore- wing, only 1 in hind- wing ; one row of 
postanal cells with a few double cells in fore-wings, 3 to 4 
rows in hind-wiags ; a rudimentary anal loop present, made up 
of the first postanal cell split into two cells ; no incomplete 
basal antenodal nervures present ; nodal index moderately 
high ; primary antenodal nervures the first and the fifth ; 
discoidal cells entire, that of fore-wing with basal and distal 
sides equal and nearly half as long again as the costal, the 




Fig. 84. — ^Wings of Nepogomphtis modestus (Selys), male. 

■distal side angulated, that of hind- wing not elongated, the 
distal side slightly longer than the costal and the costal a Kttle 
longer than the basal, this cell sometimes connected to the 
lower sector of arc by a short but definite stalk as in Mero- 
gomphiis ; pterostigma of moderate length, swollen at its 
middle, nearly as long as one-third the distance from node to 
proximal end of pterostigma, braced ; lA in fore-wing not 
pectinated, only 2 rows of cells between this nervure and the 
wing-border ; Cuii and lA in hind- wing divergent at wing- 
border ; discoidal field with only 2 rows of cells nearly to wing- 
border ; only a single cubital nervure in all wings ; sub- 
trigoiies ■ arid " hypertrigonfes' ■ all ■ entire. Legs short, hind 
femora extending only as far as the apical border of segment 1 



284 GOMPHIDiE. 

and furnished with a group of very small, numerous, and 
closely-set spines, -which near the distal end of Kmb become 
arranged into two rows ; hind tibial spines moderately long 
and slim. Abdomen of male very tumid at base and very 
sUm and cylindrical from segment 3 to the base of 7, from 
which point the abdomen becomes greatly expanded again, 
especially the apical end of segment 8. Anal appendages 
of male : superiors forcipate, conical, the apices curling 
evenly downward, nearly double the length of segment 10 ; 
inferior bifid almost to its base, the two branches very closely 
apposed and extending and cm'ling upwards to beyond th& 
apices of the superiors. Genitalia of male : lamina projecting, 
strongly and evenly arched ; anterior and posterior hamules- 
very similar, rather short, compressed processes ending in 
an acute hook -like point ; the posteriors nearly double the 
width of the anteriors ; lobe scrotal-shaped, of compara- 
tively enormous size, and closely resembling the same structure 
in Cydogomphus, but deep black in colour. 

Genotype, Onychogomphiis modestus Selys. 

Distribution. — ^Assam, Bengal, and Uppeb Buema. Two 
species are known from within our limits which differ in 
markings and the shape of the anal appendages. They breed 
in montane streams and may be found resting on rocks in mid- 
stream or resting on fohage in the neighbourhood. Larvae 
unknown. 

The genotjrpe was considered by Selys to be closely related 
to Onychogom/phus saundersi, but it and N. walli are only 
half the size of 0. saundersi and differ in the venation and 
genitaUa. Thus lA in the fore-wing is not pectinate and 
encloses a maximum of 2 rows of cells between itself and the 
border of the wing, Ouii and I A in the hind- wing are markedly 
divaricate at the border of the wing, the discoidal field is 
continued as 2 rows of cells almost to the border of the wing, 
the anal triangle has only 3 cells, the discoidal cell in the 
hind-wing is not as elongate as in 0. saundersi, the anal 
appendages resemble those of Lamdligomphus more than 
Onychogomphus, and, lastly, the lobe of the genitalia is quite 
unhke anything found in the latter genus, being more akin 
to that found in the genus Cyclogomphvs. These two species, 
are among the smallest known in the family GoMPHiD.aB. 

Key to Species of Nepogomphus. 

Braaches of inferior anal appendage with a robust [p . 285. 

superior subapical spine modestus (Selys), 

Branches of uSerior anal appendage without 

a superior subapical spine w(Mi (Fras.), p. 286. 



NBPOGOKPHUS. 285 

292. Nepogomphus modestus (Selys). 

Onychogomphiis modestvs Selys, Bull. Acad. Belg. (2) vol. xlvi, 
p. 423 (1878); id., Aon. Soc. Ent. Belg. vol. xxxviii, p. 168 
(1894); ■Wiffiamson, JProe. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xxxiii, pp. 310, 
311 (1907); Laidlaw, Ree. lad. Mxjb. vol. xxiv, pp. 371, 408, 
409 (1922) ; Praser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soe. vol. xxix, pp. 65, 
333 (1923); id., ibid. vol. sxx, pp. 108, 109 (1924); Eis, Zool. 
Meded. Leiden, vol. x, pp. 30, 31, 46 (1927); Laidlaw, Trans. 
Ent. Soc. Load. vol. Ixxviii, p. 195, text-figs. 30, 31, 46 (1930); 
Needham, Reo. Ind. Mtos. vol. xxxiv, p. 223 (1932). 

Lindenia modesta Kirby, Cat. Odon. p. 60 (1S90). 

Onychogomphus diminutivus Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soo. 
vol. XXX, pp. 109, 110, pi. i, fig. 1 (1924); Ris, Zool. Meded. 
Leiden, vol. x, p. 46 (1927); Laidlaw, Trans. Eat. Soo. Lond. 
vol. ixxviii, p. 195 (1930) ; Needham, Ree. Ind. Mus. vol. xxxiv, 
p. 222 (1932). 

Male. — Abdomen 27-29 mm. Hind-wing 23-25 mm. 

Head : labium cinereous ; labium black ■vidth a yeUow basal 

spot of variable size on each side ; bases of mandibles yellow ; 

anteclypeus black ; postclypeus black or obscurely brownisli, 

with or without a yellow spot on each side ; rest of head black 

save for a transverse yellow stripe on the crest of frons, which is 

invaded at the middle by the black at base of irons ; eyes green 

during life. Proihorax black. Thorax black, with a narrowly 

interrupted yellow mesothoracic coUar, and oblique yellow 

antehumeral stripes well separated or confluent at a point 

with the mesothoracic coUar ; laterally broadly yellow, with 

the two sutures mapped out in black, these two stripes united 

in the middle by a short black bridge. Legs black, fore femora 

on the inner side and middle pair at the tips yellow. Wings 

hyahne ; pterostigma black or blackish-brown, poorly braced, 

covering 3 to 4 cells ; 1 or 2 rows of postanal cells in 

fore-wing, 4 rows in hind-wing ; anal triangle 3-celled : 

, 1 . , f . . 10-13 1 14-10 8-14 13-9 

nodal mdex of two specunens 



11-10 110-10' 8-10 9-8 
Abdomen black, marked with yellow as follows : — Segment 1 
broadly on the sides ; 2 on the sides (including the oreUlets) 
but not at the base, and with a lanceolate mid-dorsal stripe 
which does not quite extend to the apical border ; 3 to 6 with 
narrow basal rings ; 7 on its basal half, but not laterally 
beyond the subdorsimi ; remaining segments unmarked. 
Anal appendages (fig. 85, a) : superiors bright yellow, changing 
to brownish-black towards the apices ; inferior dark 
reddish-brown, cleft deeply into two branches which are 
closely apposed throughout and which, just before the apex 
above, present a very robust tooth. Genitalia : lamina hood- 
like, broadly arched, fringed with long black hairs ; anterior 
hamules short, narrow, notched at apex, where they end in an 
outer spine ; posterior hamules longer and broader, ending 
in a point which is furnished with a pencil of hairs ; lobe 



■286 GOMPHID^. 

very large and globular, resembling that of a Cydogomphiis, 
very prominent in profile. 

Female. — ^Abdomen 27 mm. Hind-wing 24 mm. 

Closely similar to the male and exactly so as regards the 
markings, save that the ring on segment 7 covers only about 
the basal third. Wings palely tinted with yellow at tli^e bases ; 
pterostigma reddish-brown between black nervures, well 

braced, covering 4 to 5 cells ; nodal index 



11-11 12-11' 

.aTial appendages shortly conical, bright yellow ; vulvar scale 
short, triangular, deeply emarginate. 

Distribution. — ^Bengax, Assam, Burma, and Sumatra ; 
probably widely but sparsely distributed throughout Malaysia. 
I possess two males from Shillong, Assam, and also the tppe 
of 0. diminutivus, which is undoubtedly synonymous with 
N. modestus, and which comes from the Naga Hills, Assam. 
The female described above is a specimen in my own collection 
from Hasimara, Duars, Bengal, about which there can be no 
doubt of the correct relationship as it is exactly similar to the 
male. 

Selys failed to notice the prominent subapieal spines on the 
infex-ior appendage ; I have seen another male from Bengal 
in the McLachlan collection, named by Selys as 0. modestus,. 
which has the spines well developed, and although I have not 
been able to examine the type I feel sure the omission in his 
description was accidental. The female described, with some 
doubt, as that of 0. modestus by Selys is more probably that 
of iV. voalli, wHoh also has oval medial spots on the abdominal 
segments. A teneral female of N. modestus which I possess 
from Hasimara, Bengal, is without these spots, and thus 
resembles the mature form from the same locality. 

Type, a male in the Selys collection from Bengal. 

293. Nepogomphus walli (Fraser). (Fig. 85, 1).) 

Onychogomphus walli Fraser, J, Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. xxx,, 
p. 109 (1924); Laidlaw, Trans. Ent. Soo. Lond. vol. Ixxviii,. 
p. 196 (1930) ; Needham, Reo. Ind. Mus. vol. xxxiv, p. 222 (1932). 

Mah. — Abdomen 27 mm. Hind-wing 23 mm. 

Head : labium pale yellow ; labrum black, with a large 
oval oitron-yellow spot on each side well separated by the 
black ; anteelypeus black, with a transverse yellow spot at its 
base ; postclypeus black, with a small yeUow spot on each side 
against the eyes ; bases of mandibles yellow ; frons yellow 
above, this colour invaded .posteriorly by the black; eyes 
green during life ; rest of head black ; occiput concave, 
fringed with very long blackish- brown hairs. Prothorax black, 
the lower part of its sides and a small point on each side of" 



NEPOGOBtiPHTTS. 287 

the middle lobe citron-yellow. Thorax black on dorsum, 
marked with yellow as follows : — A narrow uninteirupted 
mesothoracic collar ; oblique antehumeral stripes which taper 
below and finally become confluent with the mesothoracic 
collar ; laterally broadly citron-yellow, with a narrow black 
stripe on each suture, stripes not joined at the middle as in 
N. modestus ; underside yellow. Legs black, the fore-femora 
striped with yellow within. Wings hyaliae, bases tiated with 
yellow ; pterostigma dark oehreous, framed in black nerrures, 
well braced, covering 4 cells ; distal side of discoidal cells 
angulated as in N. modestus ; 4 cells in the anal triangle ; 
one row of cells or a few doubled cells in the anal field of fore- 
wings ; nodal index ~ ■ , ~ ■ Abdomen black, marked 

y~~y I xu~'y 
with citron- yellow as follows : — Segment 1 on the sides 
broadly, the yellow area extendiag up along the apical border 




Fig. So. — ^Anal appendages of (a) Nepogomphus modestus (Selys), male,- 
(b) Nepogomphus walli (Fraser), male. Bight lateral views. 

and becoming nearly confluent over the dorsum ; 2 with the 
sides broadly, including the whole of the oreillets, also a trun- 
cate subapical stripe, and a bilobate mid-dorsal stripe, the 
posterior lobe of which is tapered but does not quite extend 
to the apical border ; 3 with a narrow basal ring, incomplete 
below, and a long oval mid-dorsal spot situated midway between 
the ring and the apical end of segment ; 4 to 6 marked similarly,, 
but the mid- dorsal spot becoming progressively smaller until 
nearly obsolete on 6 ; 7 with a broad basal ring which tapers 
away to nearly as far as the apical end of segment ; remaining 
segments unmarked. Anal appendages (fig. 85, b) : , superiors 
yellow; inferior without any vestige of a subapical spine 
above, deeply cleft for its apical two-thirds. Genitalia 
closely similar to those of N. modestus, the lamina fringed 



288 GOMPHID^. 

with coarse black hairs which show prominently in profile, 
the anterior hamules not emarginate at apex. 

Female. — ^Abdomen 25 mm. Hind-wing 21 mna. 

Closely similar to the male in ccloiir and markings ; diflfers 
as foUows : — The yeUow on crest of frons interrupted ; ante- 
humeral stripes not confluent with the mesothoraeic collar ; 
mid-dorsal oval spots on abdomen only present on segments 3 
and 4, and ring on segment 7 of less extent.' Anal appendages 
pale yeUow, shortly conical ; vulvar scale short, triangular, 
deeply emarginate at apex. 

Distribution. — ^Maymyo, Upper Btjbsia, during June. 

As mentioned above, the fenaale described by Selys as that 
of 0. modestus is really that of N. walli. This species differs 
from N. modestus not only in the shape of the inferior anal 
appendage of the male, which has no subapical spine above, 
but in the presence of mid- dorsal oval spots on abdominal 
segments 3 to 6 in both sexes, these spots being absent in 
N. modestus ; also in the separate lateral black stripes on. the 
thorax. 

Type, an adult male, and allotype (rather teneral) from the 
same locality, in my collection. 



Genus STYLOGOMPHUS Fraser. (Kg. 86.) 

/Sij/togomp^itw Fraser, Mem. Dept. Agrio. India (Bnt.), vol. vii, no. 7, 
pp. 69, 70 ( 1922) ; id., J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soe. vol. xxLx, pp. 64, 
332(1923); id.,ibid. vol. xxx.p. 397 (1925); Laidlaw, Trans. Ent. 
See. Loud. vol. Ixxviii, p. 185 (1930); Needham, Reo. Ind. Mus. 
vol. xxxiv, pp. 218, 222 (1932). 

Size very small ; colour glossy black, marked with bright 
greenish-yeUow. 

Head comparatively large ; frons well angulated ; occiput 
simple, posterior border straight, dorsum deeply grooved. 
Wings : reticulation close ; tornus angulated ; base of Mid- 
wing deeply excavate ; anal triangle 3-ceUed ; arc situated 
between the first and second or more commonly opposite the 
second antenodal nervure ; 2 or occasionally 3 nervures 
between the sectors of arc from arc to bifurcation of JRs in 
fore-wings, only 1 in hind-wings ; a single row, with occasional 
double ceUs, of postanal cells in fore-wings, 4 to 5 rows ia 
hind- wings ; anal loop absent, the first postanal cell in hind- 
wing extending back only as far as middle of base of subtri- 
gone ; no incomplete basal antenodal nervures ; nodal index 
moderately high ; primary antenodals the first and the fifth 
or sixth ; discoidal ceUs aU entire, that of fore-wing sul- 
eqmlateral, the distal side shghtly the longer and angulated 
at its middle ; that of hind-wing with the distal side twice the 
length of basal and shghtly longer than the costal, elongate 



STTLOGOMPHXTS. 



28& 



in the length of wing ; pterostigma small and swollen, barely 
or less than one-third the length of distance from node to 
proximal end of pterostigma, strongly braced ; I A in fore- 
wing only pectinate at its distal end ; Cuii and lA in the 
hind-wing divarieate at wing-border ; only a single cubital 
nervure in all wings ; snbtrigones and hypertrigones entire in 
aU wings, the subtrigone of fore- wing occasionally four-sided, 
its costal and distal sides failing to meet at the discoidal cell. 
Legs moderately long, hind femora extending as far as the 
apical border of segment 1 and furnished with 2 rows of short, 
robust spines which are gradually more widely spaced and of 
more robust build towards the distal end of limb ; tibial spines 
sUm, moderately numerous and rather widely spaced. Abdo- 
men tumid at base, very narrow and cylindrical from segment 3 




Fig. 86. — ^Wings of Stylogonvphus inglisi Fraser, laale. 

to the middle of 7, thence dilated considerably. Anal append- 
ages : superiors rather longer than segment 10, broad at base, 
tapering to a fine apex and with two obtuse spines on the outer 
border near base ; inferior closely similar to that of Lepto- 
gomphus, triangular, cleft for only half its length, its two 
branches thick and parallel, the interposing notch very narrow. 
Genitaha : lamina arched, emarginate, projecting but slightly ; 
anterior hamules long slender curved processes (like a rodent's 
incisors) ; posterior hamules broader and spatulate ; lobe 
purse-shaped, its border finely emarginate, but sUghtly promi- 
nent in profile. 

Gtenotype, Stylogomphus inglisi Fraser. 

Distribution. — Bekgal only. 
VOL. n. TJ 



2Q0 GOMPHID^. 

The writer has observed the single species of this genus 
settled on rocks in the beds of smaU mountain streams, but it 
was very shy and arose swiftly to trees in the neighbourhood, 
so that it is probably arboreal by nature, frequenting streams 
■only for the purpose of pairing ; the larva is unknown. 

The genus is probably closely related to the genus Leptogom- 
phus. The anal appendages resemble those of Merogomphus, 
but the small size of S. inglisi and its venation will prevent 
any confusion. 

294. Stylogomphus inglisi Eraser. (PI. Ill, fig. 1 ; text-fig. 87.) 

Stylogomphiis inglisiFrasei, Mem. Dept. Agrio. India(Eiit.) , vol. vii, 
no. 7, pp. 70, 71, pi. vii, figs. 3, 3 a, & 3 6 (1922) ; id., J. Bombay 
Nat. Hist. See. vol. xxix, pp. 64, 332 (1923) ; id., ibid. vol. xxx, 
p. 112, text-fig. 2, viii, ix (1924) ; id., ibid. vol. xxx, pp. 397, 
398 (1925) ; Laidlaw, Trans Ent. Soc. Lond. vol. Ixxviii, p. 185 
(1930) ; Needham, Reo. Ind. Mus. vol. xxxiv, p. 222 (1932). 

Male. — Abdomen 25-5 mm. Hind-wing 21 mm. 

Head : labium yellowish ; labrum black, marked laterally 
with an oval yellow spot ; bases of mandibles yellow ; ante- 
cl3rpeus black, yellow medially, postolypeus black ; frons 
black, its crest traversed with yellow ; occiput black, simple. 
Prothorax black, posterior lobe margined with yellow. Thorax 
black on dorsum, marked with bright yellow as follows : — 
A complete mesothoracic coUar, oblique antehumeral oval 
spots well separated from the alar sinus above and meso- 
thoracic collar below. Laterally yellow, the sutures mapped 
■out in black, the two fine stripes connected by a short stripe 
at their middle. Tergum spotted with yellow. Legs black, 
coxae and trochanters yellow. Wings hyaline, pale safiron 
at base; pterostigma black, covering 2| to 4 cells, strongly 



braced ; nodal index in three specimens - — - 



11-9 &-11 



7-9' 8-9 



11-8 



8-7' 



9-9 
8—12 1 12—10 
8-8 8-10 ' ^^^■^ triangle 3-celled. Abdomen black, marked 

with yeUow as follows : — Segment 1 with the sides broadly 
and a broad dorsal spot ; 2 with the sides broadly, including 
the oreUlets and a mid-dorsal fusiform stripe ; 3 with its base 
laterally and a mid-dorsal oval basal spot ; segments 4 to 6 
Tvith narrow basal rings shghtly interrupted on the dorsum ; 
remaidug segments black. Anal appendages (fig. 87) : 
superiors pale yellow ; inferior black. Genitalia : lamina 
arched, hood-like ; anterior liamules very narrow and very 
long, strongly curled; posterior hamules equally broad, 
1;runcate at end and with a tuft of hairs projecting from the 
middle of the free border ; lobe timiid, globular, emarginate 
at brim. 



MEGALOGOMPHUS. 291 

Female. — ^Abdomen 22 mm. Hind-wing 27 mm. 

Larger and more robust than the male, and differing as 
follows : — Fore and middle femora striped with yellow ; 
black stripes on sides of thorax not joined at the middle ; 
abdominal segment 7 with a pair of basal dorsal spots ; wings 
deeply ttated with yeUow at extreme base, this colour paling 
-as far as the level of are. Occiput broadly and shaUowly 




Pig. 87. — ^Anal appendages of Stylogomphus inglisi Praser, male. 
Eight lateral and dorsal views. 

concave. Anal appendages pale yellow, shortly conical ; 
vulvar scale short, triangular, emarginate at apex. 

Distribution. — The type male in the British Museum is from 
the Teesta Valley, Daejeeling Distbict. A pair in the 
Darjeeling Museum and two other males in my coUection 
are from Mungpoo, in the same district, taken diiring June. 

Genus MEGALOGOMPHUS Campion. (Pig. 88.) 

Heterogomphus Selys, Bull. Acad. Belg. vol. xxi, pt. 2, p. 27 (1854) ; 

id., Mon. Gomph. p. 94 (1857); Earby, Cat. Odon. p. 57 (1890) ; 

Williamson, Proe. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xxxiii, pp. 275, 276, 315, 

316 (1907); Laidlaw, Reo. Ind. Mus. vol. xxiv, p. 412 (1922); 

Praser, J. Boinbav Nat. Hist. Soe. vol. xxix, pp. 63, 331, 673, 674 

(1923). 
Megalogorwphus Campion, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (9) vol. sdi, p. 668 

(1923); Laidlaw, Trans. Ent. Soe. Lend. vol. lxx\'iii, p. 196(1930); 

Needliam, Bee. Ind. Mus. vol. xxxiv, pp. 217, 218, 221 (1932). 
AUogomphiis Needham, Zool. Sinica, ser. A, vol. xi, fasc. 1, pp. 19, 

35 (1930). 

Very large, robust dragonflies, usually glossy or mat black 
marked with bright citron-yellow. 

■u2 



292 



GOMPHID^. 



Head of great size in proportion to that of the body, 
triangular ; frons angulated ; occiput low and simple in the 
male, sometimes spined in the female. Wings : reticulation 
very close ; tomus markedly angulate ; base of hind-wing 
rather deeply excavate ; membrane narrow ; anal triangle 
4-celled, very rarely 3-celled ; arc situated variably, usually 
between the first and third antenodal nervures ; 2 to 3 ner- 
vures between the sectors of arc from arc to bifurcation of 
JRs in fore-wings, only 1 in hind- wing ; 2 rows of postanal 
cells in fore-wings, 5 in hind-wings ; rudimentary anal loop 
present, of two ceUs, which extends widely proximal to base of 
subtrigone ; incomplete basal postoostal nervures very rarely 
present ; nodal index very high ; primary antenodal nervures 
the first and the seventh ; discoidal cells of very similar shape 
in the fore- and hind-wiugs, but that of fore- wing more oblique,. 




Fig. 88. — ^Wings of MegalogompJms superbus Fraser, male. 

costal side much longer than basal, distal side shghtly longer 
than costal especially in the fore-wings, entire (very rarely 
traversed once) ; pterostigma equal in length to one-fourth 
the distance from node to distal end of pterostigma, braced, 
very shghtly expanded at the middle; lA in fore-wing 
markedly pectinate ; Cuii and I A in hind-wing parallel almost 
as far as the termen ; only 1 cubital nervure in all wings ; 
hypertrigones and subtrigones all entire ; Riv+v and MA 
undulated. Legs short, hind femora extending to hinder 
border of thorax only, furnished with a group of short numerous 
spines on the flexor surface in both sexes, but rather more 
robust in the female. Abdomen tumid at base, narrow and 
cyhndrical from segment 3 to the base of 7, thereafter expanded,. 



MEGAIOGOMPHTJS. 293 

markedly so on segments 8 and 9 which have narrow lateral 
wing-like projections. Anal appendages : superiors twice 
the length of segment 10, projecting straight backwards, 
tapering finely to the end ; inferior deeply bifid into two long 
narrow branches, which are themselves deeply bifid at the 
apex and slightly divaricate. Genitalia : lamina depressed, 
emarginate ; anterior hamules narrow, long, their apices 
ending in a fine hooked spine ; posterior hamules very similar, 
but stouter, and the hooked apices facing those of the anterior 
pairs ; lobe moderately large and tumid. 

Genotype, Heterogomphus smithi Selys. 

Distribution. — The Wbstbsn Ghats, Ceylon, the Hima- 
layas, Assam, Indo-China, Java, Sumatra, and China. 

The genus comprises some of the largest and most beautiful 
species of dragonffies, six occurring within our limits. 

The larvae have been described by Needham ; they resemble 
those of Gomphus or Burmagomphus, but are, of course, much 
larger. 

Key to Indian Species of Megalogomphus. 

'Head entirely yellow except at back of eyes; 
abdomen yellow, with broad medial black 
rings on segments 2 to 7 and apical rings [p. 303. 

on 8 to 10 fiavicolor (Fras.), 

Head black, marked with yellow or grass- 
green; abdomen black, marked with 
dorsal and basal yellow spots 2. 

f Segments 8 to 10 unmarked; occiput with [p. 303. 

J two spines on the posterior border bicomutus (Fras.), 

] Segments 8 and 9 with large baso-dorsal 

1^ yellow spots; occiput without spines ... . 3. 

'Abdomen black, with very broad dorsal yel- 
low markings; the lateral black stripe on 
thorax very narrow, covering less than 
the posterior half of mesepimeron ; meso- 
thoraoic collar not interrupted and very 
broadly confluent with the antehumeral [p. 294. 

stripes smithi (Selys), 

Abdomen with very narrow dorso-medial 
markings on segments 1 to 6 ; the lateral 
black thoracic stripe very broad, covering 
the whole of mesepimeron except for some 
small included spots; mesothoracic collar 
more or less interrupted and not eon- 
fluent with the antehumeral stripes or at 
a point only 4. 

'A narrow humeral stripe present ; abdominal 

segments 3 to 6 with the medial third [p. 300. 

bright reddish-brown auperbus Fras., 

■{ Humeral stripe absent, but a small upper 
humeral spot often present; ground- 
colour of all abdominal segments, including 
3 to 6, mat black 5. 



294 GOMPHID^. 

Occiput yellow; femora striped obliquely 
with yellow ; abdominal segments 3 to 6 
with a yellow dorsal stripe tapering from [p. 298^ 

5. -^ ■ base to apex of segments ceylonicus (Laid.), 

Occiput without yellow marks; femora 

. entirely black; segments 3 to 6 with [p. 296. 

a chain of yellow dorsal spots hannyngtoni (Fras.), 

295. Megalogomphus smithi (Selys). (PL IV, fig. 3 ; text-' 
fig. 89, b.) 

Heterogomphus smiihii Selys, Bull. Acad. Belg. vol.xxi,pt. 2, p. 2!) 

(Z854); id., Mon. Gomph. p. 97 (1857); id., Bull. Acad. Belg. 

(2) vol. xxxvi, p. 495 (1873); Kirby, Cat. Odon. p. 57 (1890); 

Poerster, Wien. Ent. Zeit. vol. xxi, p. 21 (1905) ; Williamson, 

Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xxxiii, p. 315 (1907); Laidlaw,. 

Rec. Ind. Mus. vol. xxiv, p. 412 (1922); Fraser, J. Bombay 

Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. xxtx, pp. 63, 331 (1923). 
■ Heterogomphios smithi Praser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. xxix, 
. pp. 677, 678 (1923). 
Megalogomphus smithii Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. xxx, 

pp. 50, 51, fig. B (1924); Needham, Eee. Ind. Mus. vol. xxxiv, 

p. 222 (1932). 
Megalogomphus smithi Laidlaw, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. vol. Ixxviii,. 

p. 196 (1930). 
Allogomphus smithii Needham, Zool. Sinioa, ser. A, vol. xi, faso. 1,. 

pp. 35, 36 (1930). 

Male. — Abdomen (with appendages) 52-55 mm. Hind- 
wing 43-44 mm. 

Hmd : labium greenish-yellow, middle lobe bordered with 
black, lateral lobes black at the extreme base ; labrum and 
face greenish-yellow, the former finely bordered with blackish- 
brown ; postclypeus bordered with ochreous below ; lower 
border of frons narrowly blackish-brown anteriorly ; frons 
above sinuously and narrowly black ; vertex black ; ocoiput 
greenish-yellow above and behind and fringed with long 
coarse blackish-brown hairs ; eyes bottle-green during life. 
Prothorax black, middle lobe with a greenish-yellow geminate 
spot on the dorsum and a larger pyriform spot on each side. 
Thwax black on dorsum, marked with a very broad unbroken 
mesothoracic collar which is broadly confluent with short,. 
broad, oblique antehumeral stripes ; a small yellow cordate 
upper humeral spot on the outer side of each of the former 
stripes ; laterally broadly greenish-yellow, with a moderately 
broad black stripe over the postero-lateral suture which bifur- 
cates below to enclose a small and a large yellow spot above and 
below the spiracle respectively ; underside yellow, with 
a broad lyrate pattern of dark brown. Legs black, femora 
broadly bright yellow on the external surface. Wings 
hyaline ; pterostigma dark ' brown, with a fine pale yellow 
border posteriorly and framed in black nervures, irregularly 
braced, covering 4 to 5 cells ; 3 to 4 cells in the anal triangle ;. 



MEGAIiOGOMPHirS. 



295 



anal loop of hind- wings well formed in some specimens, made 
up of 2 to 3 cells ; nodal index 



12-15 



11-12 



15-12 11-18 



14-14' 13-13 



17-11 



13-10 ■ 



Abdomen black, broadly marked with citron-yellow as fol- 
lows :— Sides of segments 1 and 2 and the base of 3 broadly so ; 
1 with a broad dorsal marking ; 2 with a broad trilobate 
mid-dorsal stripe extending from base to apex, the middle lobe 
the smaller and pointed outwards, the apical lobe seuteUate ; 
oreillets very large, yellow, with a few tiny spines on the free 
border ; 3 to 6 broadly yellow on the dorsal basal two-thirds, 
the jugal suture, which is black, partially dividing the yellow 
into basal and apical areas ; 7 with its basal two-thirds entirely 
ringed with yellow ; 8 and 9 with lateral elongate spots, that 




Pig. 89.— Body-markings of (a) Megalogomphus hannyngtoni (Eraser), 
male; {'b)M6galogomphussimtM{SelyB},m3,le. 

on the former segment interrupted apicaUy ; 10 unmarked. 
Anal appendages (fig. 89, 6) blackish-brown. 

Female.— Ahdomen 50 mm. Hind-wing 50 mm. 

Closely similar to the male, but more robust, with a shorter, 
stouter abdomen, which is of the same length as the wmgs. 
In the single specimen which I have seen the labium is entuely 
golden yellow, the occiput is fringed with very short haurs and 
has on each side a stout conical eminence ahnost amountmg 
to a spine ; the wings are tinted with pale yellow near the base, 
the anal loop being as highly developed as in the genus Ophio- 
qomphus and formed of 3 cells ; the pterostigma is longer, 
covering 6 to 7 cells, and poorly braced, the brace bemg situated 
sUghtly proximal to the proximal end of the pterostigma ; 
nodal index ?!"!! ' f^j^ ; tlie abdominal markings are simi- 

lar to but broader than in the male, except on segment 7, 
where the yeUow area is deeply invaded by the black on the 



296 GOMPHIDJB. 

mid- dorsal and ventral aspects. Anal appendages shortly- 
conical. Vulvar scales short, about one-fourth the length 
of segment 9, triangular, narrowly emarginate at apex, and 
■with two basal black scale-like processes superimposed upon 
them, basal to which is a transverse conical eminence. 

Distribution. — Bengal and Assam. 

The species is easily determined by the broad extent of its 
yeUow markings, excelled only by M. flavicolor. It is the only 
species in wluch the legs are black marked with yellow, 
M. flavicolor having the legs entirely yeUow, whilst other species 
have them entirely black. In its colour and markings it 
appears most nearly related to M. superbus. 

The type is a male from Sylhet, in the British Museum, 
and there is another male in the Darjeeling Museum from 
Sikkim, I possess a pair from Nowgong, Assam, and a male 
from the Duars, Bengal, all taken in April. 

596. Megalogomphus hannyngtoni (Eraser). (PI. IV, fig. 1 ; 
text-fig. 89, a.) 

Heterogomphits hannyngtoni Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 

vol. xxix, pp. 674^676, text-fig. 4, pi. i, figs. 1 & 1 a (1923). 
Megalogomphtis hannyngtoni Fraser, Ree. Ind. Mus. vol. xxvi, 

pp. 428, 478, 479 (1924) ; id., Mem. Dept. Agric. India, vol. viii, 

no. 8, pp. 79-81, text-figs. 1-3 (1924) ; id., J. Bombay Nat. Hist. 

Soo. vol. XXX, pp. 50, 51 (1924); Laidlaw, Trans. Ent. Soo. 

Lond. vol. Ixxviii, p. 197 (1930); Fraser, Bee. Ind. Mus. 

vol. xxxiii, p. 448 (1931) ; Needham, Reo. Ind. Mus. vol. xxxiv, 

p. 222 (1932). 

Male. — ^Abdomen (with appendages) 58 mm. Hind-wing 
48 nam. 

Head very large and massive, triangular ; labium chrome- 
yellow ; labrum bright greenish-yellow margined narrowly 
with black : face black, the lower epistome citron- yellow 
and an apple-green spot on either side against the eyes ; 
frons apple-green above and in front with two small black 
points in the sulcus just in front of the vesicle ; vertex and 
occiput black, the binder border of latter raised and scale- 
like, with a small rounded tubercle on the superior surface, 
fringed with long black hairs. Eyes bottle-green. Prothorax 
black, with a postero-lateral yellow spot and two small spots 
■on mid-dorsum. Thorax black ; markings bright greenish- 
yellow (in some specimens bright citron-yellow above, changing 
to bright apple-green below) as follows : — The outer angles of 
the alar sraus, a broad subtriangular oblique dorsal stripe 
more or less separated from a mesothoracic coUar which 
may be either entire or interrupted (in one specimen the 
separation between these two markings is bright reddish- 
brown), a rudimentary humeral stripe represented by a small 
■upper spot ; laterally two broad apple-green stripes separated 



ME&AlOGOMPHtrS. 297 

by a. broad black band, the upper part of which bears a small 
yellow spot, the posterior stripe coverrag the whole of metepi- 
meron. Wings hyaline, long and rather broad, reticulation 
close ; pterostigma long, blackish-brown, braced ; IBii very 
indistinct, only 2 rows of cells between it and Bii. Only 
1 cross-nervure between the sectors of arc ia all wings ; nodal 

index —I- — !— -Z Legs short and robust, black: fore 

14-14 1 14-14 " 

coxas and trochanters yellow ; hind femora with two rows of 
short robust closely set black spines. Abdomen black, marked 
with bright citron-yellow as follows : — Segment 1 with a small 
a-pical dorsal triangle and the whole of the sides below ; 2 with 
a dorsal stripe, broad at the base and tapering to, but not 
reaching, the apex, laterally a broad stripe, broadest at 
the base and including the oreiUet, interrupted just after the 
latter structure, lastly a narrow stripe bordering the 
genitaha ; 3 with a trilobed dorsal stripe and a lateral 
wedge-shaped spot at the base ; 4 and 5 with a chain 
of tkree dorsal spots, the apical one cordate and larger than 
the two basal ; 6 with a single basal dorsal spot ; 7 -with 
rather more than the basal half yellow, the margins of the 
yellow area concave laterally ; 8 and 9 with small lateral 
basal triangular spots ; 10 entirely black. Anal appendagzs 
(fig. 89, a) black. Genitalia : lamina scuttle-shaped, its sides 
straight and at right angles to the dorsum ; internal hamules 
projecting from under the lamina, long curving robust hooks ; 
•external hamxiles narrow triangular plates projecting per- 
pendicularly from the genital orifice ; lobe with a broad black 
base, narrowing to a truncate neck which projects markedly 
from the genital sac and bifurcates at its apex, the bifurcations 
■curHng inwards. 

Female. — ^Abdomen 56 mm. Hind-wing 55 mm. 

Very similar to the male, but the ratio of wing-length to 
that of abdomen strikingly different. The wings are enor- 
mously lengthened and broadened (probably to give the insect 
a mechanical advantage for carrying the heavy weight of 
the very robust body ; apart from the abdomen being slightly 
shorter, the female is a much more robust and bulkier insect 
than the male). Labrum bright citron-yellow instead of 
•apple-green ; frons with a black semicircle at the base of 
upper surface ; occiput flat, with a robust spine at either 
•end against the eyes. The lateral spot of prothorax much 
larger than in the male. Metepimeron citron-yellow with 
a tinge of green at its centre ; markings of abdomen much 
broader and more crowded than in the male, the dorsal 
marking on segment 2 being trilobed, its basal part square, 
the median large and broadly oval, whilst the apical lobe is 
small and round, the lateral stripe on this segment is unbroken 



298 GOMPHID^. 

at its middle ; the dorsal marking on 3 is partially constricted 
to form four lobes, whilst laterally a broad stripe rmis its 
entire length, broken slightly at the transverse suture ; 4 and 5 
have an additional lateral basal spot ; 6 has this spot and 
another still larger following it ; 9 has a minute lateral basal 
spot. Anal appendages very small, conical, tapering black. 
Vulvar scale very small, deeply cleft, the apices of the two 
lobes thus formed curhng strongly inward towards each other. 
Wings hyaline, nodal index similar to that of male. 

Distribution. — South India : submontane areas of Coorg 
and Vayitri, Malabar Wynaad. Moderately common on 
streams near Bhagmandala, Coorg, but rare in Malabar. 

This species is found haunting the banks of jungle moimtain 
streams, perching on twigs or more rarely settling on rocks. 
The male when settled bears a strong resemblance to Ictinus, 
but may be recognized by its abdomen, which is held stiffly 
and straight outward instead of curved, scimitar-like, as in 
Ictinus. Like the latter iasect it rests with the head lower- 
most, the body inchned upwards. When disturbed it 
plunges downwards as it takes flight. It travels long distances 
up and down stream, but makes long rests, and if followed 
up is soon met with again. A female was taken in the act 
of ovipositing in the deep shade of a tree overhanging the 
stream at a point where the current was very swift and racing 
over a bed of pebbles. It was performing a series of figure- 
of-eight evolutions, striking the surface of the water at the 
waist of each figure-of-eight. This and the first males were 
taken on the Cauvery near Bhagamandala (where the river 
rises), two subsequent males being taken at Hallery, near 
Mercara, on a mountain stream which empties lower down 
into the Hatty River, a large tributary of the Cauvery. The 
streams here are not more than 10 feet across, and I have 
never seen the insect on the main river where it becomes 
much wider. 

Type in the British Museum, specimens in my own collection 
and several other private collections. 

297. Megalogomphus ceylonicus (Laidlaw). 

Heterogomphiis ceylonioits Laidlaw, Reo. Ind. Mus. vol. xxiv,. 
p. 412, text-flg. 21 (1922); Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soe. 
vol. xxix, pp. 63, 331, 676, 677 (1923). 

Heterogomphns sp. Laidlaw, Spolia Zeylanica, vol. xii, p. 342 (1924). 

Megalogcmvphus ceylonicus Laidlaw, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lend, 
vol. Ixxviii, p. 197 (1931) ; Needham, Reo. Ind. Mus. vol. xxxiv,, 
p. 222 (1932) ; Fraser, Ceylon J. Sci., B, vol. xviii, p. 22, fig. 1 
(1933). ^ ' 5 . 

Mafe.— Abdomen (with appendages) 47-48 mm. Hind- 
wing 41 mm. 



MEGAXOGOMPHtrS. 299 

Head : labium brownish-yellow ; labrum. yeUow, with 

a broad frame of black from the base of which a prolongation 

nearly cuts the yellow into two spots ; bases of mandibles 

yellow : anteclypeus and a lateral spot on each side of the 

postclypeus yellow ; frons black in front, citron- yellow above 

where the base is narrowly black ; vertex and occiput black, 

the latter with a median yellow spot ; eyes bottle-green 

during Ufe. Prothorax black, with a large median dorsal spot 

and a smaller geminate spot yellow. Thorax black, marked 

with citron-yellow as follows : — ^A broad mesothoracic collar 

narrowly interrupted in the middle line, broad oval oblique 

antehumeral stripes and a vestigial humeral spot. Laterally 

broadly yellow, with a broad median oblique black stripe. 

Legs black, coxse and the extensor surfaces of femora yellow. 

WiTigs hyaline ; pterostigma black, strongly braced, covering 

5 to 6 cells ; a vestigial anal loop of 2 cells present ; nodal 

12—18 ! 17—14 
index ■' . Abdomen black, marked with citron- 

11—13 1 13—12 

yellow as follows : — Segment 1 broadly on sides and narrowly 

on apical margin ; 2 with a broad trUobate mid-dorsal stripe 

broadest at the middle, and its sides including the oreillets 

broadly ; 3 with a continuation of the yellow on its sides for 

about its basal third and a mid-dorsal stripe tapering from 

base to apex of segment ; 4 to 6 with the mid-dorsal stripe only, 

this diminishing in length from segment to segment ; 7 with 

its basal half yellow ; 8 and 9 each with a baso-lateral spot, 

this largest on the latter segment ; 10 unmarked. Anal 

appendages black, long and tapering, parallel or slightly 

convergent at apices ; inferior deeply bifid, each branch 

nearly as long as the superior appendages and bearing a robust 

spine on the inner side of its apex. 

Female. — ^Abdomen 49 mm. Hind-wing 46 mm. 

Closely similar to the male but more robust, with shorter 
abdomen and greater expanse of wing. It differs in the 
following particulars : — The labium is yellow ; the citron- 
yellow of the frons is narrowly interrupted above by a pro- 
longation of the black at base ; prothorax with an additional 
yellow linear spot on each side ; the median oblique black 
stripe on sides of thorax with an upper and a lower yellow 
spot ; all femora broadly yellow on the outer sides ; wings 

broader and with closer reticulation ; nodal index ■-■ -z-^ ; 

abdomen with segments 4 to 6 bearing baso-lateral spots ; 
7 with its basal two-thirds yellow and rather more extensively 
so on the sides ; 10 with a pair of tiny subdorsal spots ; 
other markings similar to those of the male. Vulvar scales- 
very short, deeply and narrowly cleft, the sides of the fissure 
prolonged into two long robust points. 



300 gomphidjE. 

Distribution. — Nalande and Balangoda, Ceylok. 

M. ceylonicus is nearly related to M. hannyngtoni of South 
India, but is a much smaller insect and is differently marked. 
An exuvium of this insect in the Colombo Museum greatly 
resembles that of M. hannyngtoni except in its much smaller 
size. 

The type, a male collected by Col. Yerbury, is in the British 
Museum, and masqueraded for long under the name of Ictinus 
rapax, which insect it greatly resembles. The allotype female 
is in my own collection, and was taken by Col. P. Wall at 
Nalande, 16. x. 24 ; there is another female in the Colombo 
Museum, these three being the only specimens known. 

298. Megalogomphus superbus Fraser. (PI. IV, fig. 2 ; text- 
figs. 45, 90, & 91, a.) 

Megalogomphus swperhus Fraser, Eee. Ind. Mus. vol. xxxiii, 
pp. 448, 460-463, text-flgs. 3 & 4 (1931); Needham, Reo. Ind. 
Mus. vol. xxxiv, p. 222 (1932). 

MaU. — Abdomen 53-56 mm. Hind-wing 42-43 mm. 

Hmd : labium citron-yellow ; labrum, bases ot mandibles, 
clypeus, and frons bright grass-green, paler on labrum and 
filypeus ; labrum and frons above very narrowly black at base, 
bases of mandibles narrowly black on their free border, the 
lower part of frons and the adjacent upper part of postclypeus 
narrowly black, and, on the latter, two black streaks riuiniiig 
obliquely on to the anteclypeus ; eyes bottle-green above, 
paling to greenish-yellow below ; vertex black ; occiput 
citron-yeUow, behind black except at centre, where is a small 
citron-yellow spot confluent with that on upper surface. 
Proihorax black, middle lobe with a small medial geminate 
spot on posterior border and a short stripe of the same colour 
to the outer side of the medial spot ; posterior lobe small, 
tumid, posterior border rounded and covered with long black 
hairs. Thorax velvety black marked with tender foliage 
green as follows : — Thick inverted figures of 7 formed by con- 
fluence of oblique antehumeral stripes and an interrupted 
mesothoracic collar ; narrow humeral stripes, the upper end 
swollen and often slightly separated from the lower part of 
stripe ; a broad stripe on the mesepimeron, notched posteriorly ; 
the whole of metepimeron ; a large triangular upper spot 
between these two last stripes and a lower yellowish spot ; 
the hinder part of antealar sinus and a stripe crossing the 
tergum between the origins of wings. Le^s short, robust, 
black ; coxae, trochanters, and proximal halves of the two 
bind pairs of femora, a spot on the coxse and one on the base 
of the fore femora bright citron -yellow. Wings hyaline. 



MEaAlOGOMPHCrS. 



301 



pterostigma black, braced strongly, covering 6 cells ; all 
triangles entire ; anal loop of 2 cells or occasionally of 1 

large ceU ; nodal index ^^'^^ ' ^^"^^ 



12-131 13-12" 



Abdomen coloured 



as follows : — Segment 1 black, lower part of sides and middle 
of apical border dorsally pale grass-green ; 2 black, with 
a trilobed mid- dorsal stripe bordered with yellow apically 
and with ferruginous elsewhere, oreillet yeUow bordered 
with grass-green, ventral border citron-yellow and sending 
an upward prolongation to partially encircle the oreillet ; 
3 with a narrow trilobed mid-dorsal stripe, green basal to the 





Fig. 90. — ^Anal appendages of MegaZogomphus superbus Fraser, male. 
Dorsal and right lateral views. 



jugal suture, yellow thereafter, a triangular basal lateral spot, 
the portion between it and the dorsal stripe black, the apical 
third of segment black, the medial third except on mid-dorsum 
bright reddish-brown ; 4 to 6 similar to 3, except that the 
latero-basal spot is very minute and the dorsal stripe becomes 
more or less obliterated after the jugal suture, so that the middle 
third of all segments is entirely reddish-brown ; 7 with basal 
two-thirds citron-yellow, apical third black, this extending 
shghtly into the yellow laterally and stUl less so along the 
mid-dorsal carina ; 8 dark reddish-brown changing to black 



302 GOMPHID^. 

on dorsum and with a diffuse latero-basal spot of citron-yellow 
edged with ferruginous ; 9 similar but with the lateral spot 
much larger and brighter yellow ; 10 reddish-brown, the base 
narrowly citron-yeUow subdorsally. Anal appendages (fig. 90) 
reddish-brown, paler at base. 

Female. — Abdomen 52 mm. Hind- wing 46 mm. 

Very similar to the male but much more robust and with 
a thick, cylindrical abdomen. A tiny black point in centre 
of labrum ; a small round citron-yellow spot on vertex just 
behind the ocellar space ; posterior lobe of prothorax shaped 
similarly to that of the male, but with two small dorsal 
ochreous spots ; thorax with the antehumeral stripes well 
separated from the mesothoracic collar, the narrow humeral 
stripe always complete, the mesepimeron with a fine medial 
prolongation from the green area, the medial upper spot 
prolonged downwaids and nearly confluent with the prolonga- 
tion from mesepimeral stripe ; yellow on femora more exten- 
sive. Wings broader and longer, pterostigma covering from 
7 to 9 cells. Abdomen similar but the lateral spots on segment 2 
fused to form a broad even stripe ; 3 with the basal lateral 
spot prolonged into a stripe extending two-thirds the length 
of segment and with little evidence of reddish-brown colour 
in the middle ; remaining segments similar to those of the 
male, but the basal spots on 4 to 6 larger and more conspicuous. 
Vulvar scale short, triangular, with a deep, narrow cleft 
at its medial border ; anal appendages long, reddish-brown, 
yellow outwardly. 

Distribution.— SovTB India : Waliyar Forest, Malabar ; 
Kalar, Nilgiris, and Bolovumpatti Hills, South Coimbatore 
district, where it is very common, its habits being similar 
to those of M. Jiannyngtoni. 

M. superbus differs from M. Jiannyngtoni in the red medial 
markings of abdominal segments 3 to 6, in the occiput being 
yellow instead of black and the face less black, and in the 
presence of a humeral stripe, etc. The same abdominal 
characters wiU serve to differentiate it from M. ceylonicus 
(a larger insect), as well as the presence of a humeral stripe 
and the fusion of the antehumeral stripe with the mesothoracic 
collar. The narrow mid-dorsal abdominal spots are entirely 
different from the broad dorsal markiags on all segments 
from 2 to 8 of M. smiihi Selys. In its size and markiags 
the species falls about midway between the first two with 
which it is contrasted here. It is quite the most beautiful 
species of the family GoMPHiDiE yet discovered. 

Type in the British Museum. Specimens in the Author's 
collection taken at Bolovumpatti, S.E. Coimbatore district, 
12th A^xrn, 1931. 



MEGALOGOMPHTJS. 303 

299. Megalogomphus bicornutus (Eraser). 

OompTius bicornutus Fraser, Mem, Dept. Agrie. India (Ent. ), vol. vii, 

no. 7, p. 72 (1922). 
Seterogomphus bicornutus Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soe. 

vol. xxix, p. 679 (1923). 
Megahgomphus bicornutus Laidla^ Trans. Ent. Soo. Lond. 

vol. Ixxviii, p. 197 (1930) ; Needhaim, Reo. Ind. Mtis. vol. xxxiv, 

p. 222 (1932). 

Male unknown. 

Female. — Abdomen 47 mm. Hind-wing 40 mm. 

Head : labium black ; labrum marked with two transverse 
oval yellow spots ; anteclypeus yellow ; postolypeus black ; 
frons black, its crest bright yellow ; occiput black, furnished 
with two long robust medial spines on its posterior border which 
project somewhat backwards. Prothorax black, marked with 
dorsal and lateral spots. Thorax black, marked with bright 
yellow as follows : — ^An antehumeral oblique stripe joined 
to a slightly incomplete mesothoracic collar, so as to form an 
inverted 7 on each side ; a vestigial humeral stripe on each side 
represented by a small superior spot ; laterally yellow, 
marked with a very broad medial oblique stripe which bears 
an upper and a lower yellow spot ; tergum spotted with yellow. 
Legs short, black, trochanters spotted with yellow ; femora 
bearing short, fine spines. Wings tinted with yellow at bases 
as far as discoidal cells, and for rather more than this extent 
in the subcostal space ; pterostigma black, rather short, 
braced ; 2 rows of cells between Rii and Biii, beginning nearer 
-the node than the pterostigma ; 3 rows of cells between Rii 
and IRii at level of distal end of pterostigma ; nodal index 

-— — 7-=-„. Abdom&n black, marked with bright yellow 

15-14 1 14-16 

as follows : — Segment 1 with a large lateral spot and a smaller 
apical dorsal spot ; 2 almost entirely yellow, marked only 
by a fine black apical spot on the dorsum, which extends for 
a short distance along the mid-dorsal carina ; 3 with nearly 
its basal half yellow dorsaUy and rather less than this laterally ; 
4 to 6 with small basal semilunar spots which just meet over the 
dorsum ; 7 with rather more than its basal half yellow ; remain- 
ing segments black. Anal appendages black, Portly conical. 

Distribution. — Shillong, Assam, taken in June whilst 
ovipositing by a roadside stream. 

Type, a unique female, in the British Museum. 

300. Megalogomphus flavicolor (Fraser). (Fig. 91, b.) 

Het^rogomph/ua flavicolor Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soe. 

vol. xxix, p. 678, pi. i, figs. 2, 2 o (1923). 
Megcdogomphua flavicolor Laidlaw, Trans. Ent. Soo. Lond. 

vol. Isxviii, p. 197 (1930) j Neediam, Beo. Ind. Mus. vol. sxxiv, 

p. 222 (1932). 

Mah unknown. 



304 



GOMPHID^. 



Female. — Abdomen 60 mm. Hind- wing 51 mm. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen miiformly bright ochreous, 
marked sparingly -with black as follows : — Back of upper 
part of eyes glossy black ; prothorax blackish ; thorax with 
a dorsal stripe running parallel and close to the mid-dorsal 
suture, tapering above, where it extends to the alar sinus, 
clubbed below, and not reaching the anterior border of thorax, 
a humeral stripe tapering below, broadening and bifiurcating 
above to enclose a spot of the ground-colour ; laterally a fine 
black line on the posterior suture. The humeral and lateral 
markings are connected to their fellows over the tergum. 
Legs short and robust, entirely yellow save for some black 
spines ; hind femora with two rows of short, black, evenly- 
spaced spines which merge into a group of shorter, stouter 




Fig. 91. — Body-markings of (a) Megalogonvphus awperfeus Fraser, male ; 
(b) Megalogomphvs flavicolor (Fraser), female. 



spines at the base of limb. Wings hyaline, costa bright 
yellow along its outer border ; pterostigma long, black, 
braced ; only a single nervure in all wings between the sectors 
of arc ; 5 to 6 rows of cells in the anal field ; the disooidal 
field very irregular at its beginning, at first a row of 3 cells, 
which is foUowed by rows of 2 or 3 cells with no regularity ; 



3 rows of cells between Eii and IBii : nodal index 



10-19 



19-11 



15-11 



12-15 

Abdomen yellow, with a narrow black basal ring on segment 1 
and broad rather diffuse apical rings on 2 to 9, all extending 
basally along the mid-dorsal carina for a short distance. 
Vulvar scale very small, deeply emarginate, and cleft into 
two small triangular scales. 
Distribution. — ^Duars, BbugaIi. 



OPHIOGOMPHtrS. 305- 

M. flavicolor is remarkable for its massive robust build 
and the great length and breadth of its wings, and also by its 
almost uniform yellow colour, which is sufficient to distinguish 
it from all other species of the genus. Martin's H. unicolor 
from Tonkin most nearly approaches it. 

Type, a female, in the British Museum ; another female in 
the Darjeeling Museum. 



Genus OPfflOGOMPHUS Selys. (Fig 92.) 

Ophiogomphus Selys, Bull. Acad. Belg. vol. xxi, pt. 2, p. 39 (1854) ;. 
id.,Mon.Gomph.p. 76(1857) ; Laidlaw, Rec.Ind.Mus. vol. xxiv 
p. 414 (1922) ; Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soo. vol. xxix, pp. 62, 
330 (1923); id., ibid. vol. xxx, pp. 398, 399 (1925); Laidlaw, 
Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. vol. Ixxviii, p. 190 (1930); Needliam, 
Zool. Sinica, ser. A, vol. xi, faso. 1, pp. 19, 36 (1930); id., Bee. 
Ind. Mias. vol. xxxiv, pp. 217, 218, 222 (1932). 

Diastatommia Kirby, Cat. Odon. p. 61 (1890). 

Of rather large size, build robust ; colour pale greea 
sparingly marked with blaok. 

Head large, triangular ; frons angulated ; occiput simple 
in the male, but sometimes furnished with two or more spines 
along the posterior border in the female. Wings : reticulation 
close ; tornus sharply angulated ; base of hind- wing oblique, 
moderately excavated ; membrane very narrow, almost 
obsolete ; anal triangle 4-celled ; arc situated between the 
first and second antenodal nervures or opposite the second ; 
only 2 nervures between the sectors of arc from arc to bifurca- 
tion of Rs in the fore- wing, 1 in hind-wiag ; 2 rows of postanal 
cells in fore-wing, 6 in hind-wing ; anal loop well formed, 
made up of 3 cells and extending proximally nearly to the 
level of the cubital nervure ; no basal incomplete antenodal 
nervures ; primary antenodals the first and the fifth ; dis- 
coidal cells entire, that of fore-wing with costal and basal 
sides equal, the distal somewhat longer and a little angulate, 
that of the hind-wing but slightly elongate, costal and distal 
sides about equal, the basal distinctly shorter ; pterostigma 
short and swollen, less than one-third the length of distance 
from node to proximal end of pterostigma ; I A in fore- wing 
markedly pectinate ; Cuii and lA in hind-wings markedly 
divergent ; only 1 cubital nervure in all wings ; subtrigones. 
and hypertrigones entire in all wings. Legs short but robust, 
hind femora extending only as far as the apical border of 
abdominal segment 1 and furnished with numerous scattered 
spines on the flexor surface which merge into two closely-set 
rows of short spiaes towards the distal end of limb ; tibial 
spines moderately long, slim, and numerous. Abdomen 
tumid at basal segments, moderately narrow and cylindrical 
from segment 3 to the base of 7 ; the apical end of latter and 

VOL. II. X 



306 GOMPHID^. 

segments 8 to 10 again somewhat dilated. Anal appendages : 
superiors rather longer than segment 10, simple, slightly 
forcipate, or shortly conical ; inferior bifid for its apical 
half or three-foxirths, the two branches closely apposed and 
shorter than the superiors. Genitalia : lamina projectiag, 
arched and emarginate ; anterior hamules short shm processes ; 
posterior hamules robust flattened structures with obtuse 
^pex ; lobe small, purse-shaped, its edges greatly elevated. 
Genotype, LibeUuIa cecilia Fourcroy. 




92. — Wings of OpMogomphus redtietus Calvert, male. 



Distribution. — ^Holarctic (Europe, Northern Asia, and North 
America) ; one species is found in Kashmib. 

In general facies the species of the genus are remarkably 
hke those of OompJius, but they are more modem insects, 
to judge feom the fusitig of the branches of the inferior anal 
appendix and the well-formed anal loop in the hind-wing. 

The larvae breed in clean gravelly-bottomed streams running 
through meadows or open lands; some, however breed, in 
lakes. 

301. OpMogomphus reduetus Calvert. (PI. Ill, fig. 2 ; text- 
figs. 92 & 93.) 

Ophiogomphus redMctus Calvert, Proo. Acad. Sci. Phil. pp. 150- 
152 (1898) ; Laidlaw, Bee. Ind. Mus. vol. xxiv, p. 414 (1922) 
Praser, J. Bomlsay Nat. Hist. Soo. vol. xxix, pp. 62, 330 (1923) 
id., ibid. vol. xxx, pp. 399-401, text-flg. 1, pi. i, fig. 2 (1925) 
Laidlaw, Trans. Ent. Soo. Loud. vol. Ixxviii, p. 190 (1930) 
Needham, Beo. Ind. Mus. vol. xxxiv, p. 222 (1932). 

JfaZe.— Abdomen 37-38 mm. Hind-wing 33-34 mm. 



OPHIOGOMI'HTTS. 307 

Head : labium and labrum yellowish-green ; face and frons 
:grass-green, the latter narrowly black at its base ; vertex 
black, with an oval yellow spot just posterior to the ocelh ; 
occiput pale green, separated from the previous spot by a narrow 
black streak, fringed with black haics, simple. Prothorax 
yellow, marked with black as follows : — ^A transverse stripe 
just behind its anterior border, a small spot at either end of 
the posterior lobe, and a larger spot on each side. Thorax 
grass-green, marked sparingly with black as follows : — The 
alar sinus and upper part of mid-dorsal carina finely, a narrow 
wedge-shaped humeral spot situated in the length of and 
about the middle of the humeral region, the humeral and 
poster o-lateral sutures finely black. Legs yellow marked 
with black, tarsi black, spotted with yellow on the extensor 
surface, tibiee with a longitudinal black stripe on either side, 
femora with an outer distal stripe, taperiag and fading away 
about the middle of the femora ; hind and middle femora 
furnished with a group of very short minute black spines. 
Wings hyaline, costa greenish-yellow as far as pterostigma, 
which is green, framed in black nervures, covering 3 cells, 
braced ; anal loop of 2 to 3 cells, wide but shallow ; anal 
triangle of 4 cells ; 5 rows of postanal cells in hind- wing, 
2 in the fore-wing ; 2 rows of cells in discoidal field as far as 

level of node ; nodal index ~ — ~^— ; 2 to 3 rows of cells 



9-9 9-10 

between Bii and IRii at distal end of pterostigma. Abdomen 
yellow, marked with black as follows : — Segment 1 with 
a subdorsal subbasal streak and two small spots near the 
■apical margin, from the upper one of which springs a pecuHar 
tuft of long hairs ; 2 with the apical border ringed with black, 
but incomplete over the dorsum, a large spot on the sides 
running from the jugal suture backwards, but not reaching 
the apical border, and sending a prolongation upwards which 
does not quite meet its fellow from the other side ; 3 to 6 
each with a thick apical ring and an irregular black stripe 
on each side which sends up prolongations dorsally at the 
jugal suture and subapically, these on 5 and 6 fusing at the 
apex of segments with the apical black rings (the extent of 
these marMngs is very variable, and the prolongations may 
meet over the dorsum, cutting up the ground-colour into 
yellow dorsal oval spots) ; 7 with the lateral stripe much 
thicker and the apical ring very fine and followed by a yellow 
ring ; on 8 the lateral stripe extends the whole length of 
segment, fusing broadly with the apical ring, and is not deficient 
at the base as in the other segments ; 9 similar to 6, but the 
ends of the lateral stripe curling up to meet over the dorsum 
so as to enclose an oval spot of the ground-colour ; 10 with 
a broad lateral spot on the basal two-thirds of the segment, 

x2 



308 



GOMPHID^. 



meeting its fellow only at a point on the dorsum and tapered 
posteriorly, its apical border finely black. Anal appendages 
(fig. 93) yellow, superiors tipped with black, inferior brown 
at the sides. Genitalia : lamina short and narrow, arched, 
folded laterally on itself and deeply notched ; inner hamules 
black, the apex deeply bifid, chelate, long, narrow, and pro- 
jecting ; outer hamules greenish, digitate as seen in profile, 
the apex bevelled and pointed ; lobe tumid at base and then 
constricted like the neck of a bottle, the apex expanded in 
two leaf-like processes, yeUow margined with black. Oreillets 
moderately large, greenish-yellow. 

Female. — ^Abdomen 37-39 mm. Hind-wing 35-37 mm. 




Pig. 93.- 



-Anal appendages of OpMogomphus reductus Calvert, male. 
Dorsal and left lateral views. 



Almost exactly similar to the male, the markings somewhat 
more restricted. The humeral linear spot almost obsolete 
(entirely so in some of Mr. Bainbrigge Fletcher's specimens). 
Anal loop larger and made up of 3 cells, as deep as wide ; 
discoidal field with 2 rows of cells to well short of level of node. 
Armature of hind femora very specialized ; following a short 
group of small spines there is a row of moderately widely 
spaced, robust, and rather long spines ; armature of middle 
femora similar to that of male. Anal appendxiges short, 
yeUow, conical, and tapering, separated by a large yellow 
conical process. Vulvar scale very short, deeply bifid into 
two small triangular processes which are markedly divergent. 



MEEOGOMPHUS. 309 

• Distribution. — Kashmib only. The above descriptions were 
made from a series of specimens collected by Mr. T. Bainbrigge 
Pletelier at Gulmarg, 8,500 ft., 23. viii. 23, and Yusimarg, 
7,500 ft., 15. viii. 23. 

Tbe deUcate grass-green colour of the head and thorax 
will distinguish this species from all other Indian Gomphines. 

Type in the United States National Museum. 



Genus MEROGOMPHUS Martin. (Fig. 94.) 

Merogomphus Martin, Mission Pavie, Neuropt. vol. iii, p. 214 
(1904); Williamson, Proe. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xxxiii, pp. 316, 
317 (1907); Laidlaw, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. vol. Ixxviii, p. 184 
(1930); Needham, Zool. Sinioa, ser. A, vol. xi, fasc. 1, pp. 19, 20, 
68 (1930). 

Indogomphus Fraser, Eee. Ind. Mus. vol. xxiv, p. 422 (1922); 
id., J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. xxix, pp. 64, 332 (1923); 
Needham, Rec. Ind. Mus. vol. xxxiv, pp. 217, 218 (1932). 

Size large to medium, colour mat black marked with bright 
greenish-yellow. 

Head rather small and wide, frons markedly angulate, 
shallowly grooved above, occiput simple, straight. Wings 
long and broad ; reticulation very close ; tornus angulate ; 
base of hind-wing excavated, obhque ; anal triangle 3-celled ; 
arc situated at the second antenodal nervure or between the 
second and third ; 3 transverse nervin:es between the sectors 
of arc from arc to bifurcation of Rs in fore-wings, only 1 in 
hind- wings ; 1 or 2 rows of postanal cells in fore- wing, 4 to 5 
in hind- wing ; anal loop absent ; the first postanal ceU of 
hind-wing not extending proximally as far as the proximal 
end of base of subtrigone ; a basal incomplete antenodal 
usually present, but occasionally absent in one or more wings ; 
nodal index high ; primary antenodal nervures the first and 
the fifth, sixth, or seventh ; discoidal cell of fore-wing sub- 
equilateral, but the distal side usually distinctly longer than 
the costal or basal, entire ; that of hind-wing entire, elongate 
in length of wing, costal and distal sides subequal, the latter 
the longest and nearly double the length of basal ; ptero- 
stigma braced, rather short, sUghtly longer than distance 
between node and proximal end of pterostigma ; I A in fore- 
wings markedly pectinate ; Cuii and I A in hind-wing divaricate 
near border of wing ; only 1 cubital nervure in all wings ; 
subtrigones and hypertrigones entire in all wings ; no supple- 
mentary nervure arising from the distal side of discoidal cells, 
the latter, in the hind-wings especially, often being separated 
from the lower sector of arc by a short stalk ; subtrigones 
quite occasionally four-sided. Legs very long ; hind femora 
extending to the apical border of abdominal segment 2 or 
even on to the base of segment 3, furnished in the male with 



310 



GOMPHtDiE. 



several pairs of very long, very widely spaced, robust spines, 
between which, are others much shorter and more closely-set ; 
in the female similar but longer spines, 5 pairs of which are 
usually present. Abdomen broadened at base, then narrow 
or excessively narrow and cyhndrical as far as the base of 
segment 7, from the apical end of which the abdomen again 
expands broadly, especially at segment 8 ; segment 9 nearly 
as long as 8, segment 10 very small and short. Anal append- 
ages : superiors lyrate or curled hke the horns of a buU, or 
in some species simple short divaricate structures similar to 
those found in genus OompJiv^ ; inferior deeply and broadly 
notched, the two branches usually widely divaricate. Geni- 
talia variable ; lamina usually depressed and emarginate ; 
anterior hamules rather short and slim ; posterior hamules 




Kg. 94. — Wings of Merogomphits longistigma longistigma (Fraser), male.. 

very robust, sinuous, projecting, and ending in a recurved 
spine ; lobe shaped Hke the spout of a jug, projecting markedly. 

Genotype, Merogomphus paviei Martin. 

Distribution. — ^Western Ghats, Cooeg, Assam, Bbngai-, 
BuKMA, and Indo-China ; probably throughout Malaysia 
also. Two species only are found within our limits. 

The genus is characterized by the long narrow thorax and 
abdomen, the latter with the end segments curiously elongate, 
and also by the very distinctive armature of the legs ; the 
stalked diseoidal oeU of the hind-wing is also a characteristic 
although not a constant feature in the genus. The larvae 
breed in submontane streams ; they resemble those of Burma- 
gomphus and related genera, except that the terminal segments 
are elongate, though not nearly to the same extent as in 
Macrogomphus. 



MEEOGOMPHUS. 311 

Key to Indian Species of Merogomphus. 

Superior anal appendages strongly curled, [p. 31I> 

lyrate when seen, together longistigma (Fras.), 

Superior anal appendages simple, short, and 

tapered, strongly divaricate martini (Fras.), p. 313. 

302. Merogomphus longistigma longistigma (Iraser). (Mg.95,a.) 

Indogomphiis longistigma Fraser, Rec. Ind. Mus. vol. xxiv, 
pp. 422-424, pi. xi, fig. 8 (1922); id., J. Bombay Nat. Hist. 
Soe. vol. xxis, pp. 64, 332 (1923) ; id., Reo. Ind. Mus. vol. xs.vi, 
pp. 428, 478 (1924); id., J. Bouabay Nat. Hist. Soe. vol. xxx, 
pp. 402, 403, pi. i, fig. 6 (1925); Needham, Rec. Ind. Mus. 
vol. xxxiv, p. 224 (1932). 

Merogomphus longistigma Laidlaw, Trans. Ent. Soe. Lond. 
vol. ixxviii, p. 185 (1930); Fraser, Reo. Ind. Mus. vol. xxxiii, 
pp. 448, 460 (1931). 

Male. — ^Abdomen 44 mm. Hind-wing 35 mm. 

Head : eyes bottle-green. ; labium, labrum, and face glossjr 
black ; frons black, with a broad greenish-yellow stripe above 
and a jSne black line at its base. Occiput simple, fringed with 
long black hairs, greenish-yeUow, black at either end. Pro- 
thorax black ; posterior lobe, a small oval spot just ia front 
of it, and a transverse anterior band yellow. Thorax black, 
marked with bright yellow as follows : — ^A complete meso- 
thoracic collar which sends a prolongation along the mid- 
dorsal carina as far as the alar sinus, a narrow dorsal stripe 
mnnin g alongside and parallel with the mid-dorsal carina^ 
reaching the alar sinus above but not the mesothoracic collar 
below, a vestigial humeral stripe represented by an upper 
spot and a more or less evident fine line below (sometimes 
quite obsolete). Laterally greenish-yeUow, traversed by two 
closely parallel medial black stripes. Underside black, 
marked by a fine V-shaped spot, ieg's long and slim. Anterior 
femora greenish-yellow on flexor surface, otherwise all femora 
entirely black. Wings hyaline, long and narrow ; ptero- 
stigma pale brownish-yellow, that of Mad- wing considerably 
larger than that of fore-wing, 3'5 mm. to 5 mm. ; nodal index 



., . 11-16 

of two specimens - ■ 



15-12 13-17 



17-12 . , , 

; an mcomplete 
11— J.^ 



10-12' 12-14 

basal antenodal usually present in one or all wings, rarely 
absent in all wings. Abdomen black, marked with bright 
yellow as follows : — Segment 1 with a broad stripe on dorsum 
and a large quadrate spot on each side ; 2 with an L-shaped 
spot on each side, the underside of the oreilLets, a short stripe 
on their upper surface, and a trilobed mid-dorsal band ; 3 with 
a baso-Iateral triangular spot, a latero- ventral stripe tapering- 
from the basal end and a narrow mid-dorsal stripe which may 
be cut in two by the finely black mid-dorsal carina (the jugal 



312 GOMPHID^. 

suture is also occasionally finely black, cutting this stripe 
transversely) ; 4 to 6 with similar markings, but the lateral 
stripe absent and the mid-dorsal stripe well separated from the 
basal yeUow area ; 7 with its basal half or rather less broadly 
yeUow, with a prolongation of this colour apically along the 
dorsal carina ; 8 to 10 with only the mid-dorsal carina finely 
yellow. Anal appendages (fig. 95, a) : superiors yellow, 
lyrate ; inferior black. Oenitalia : lamina rather depressed, 
only slightly visible in profile, rather broadly arched, black ; 
inner hamules aborted, outer very robust, with a prominent 
mid-rib, which is continued on as a robust forwardly curled 
spine, black ; lobe prominent, deeply cleft, its mouth expansive, 
hps markedly everted. 





Tig. 95. — Anal appendages of (a) Merogomphus longistigma longistigma 
(Fraser), male ; (t) MerogompMis martini (Fraser), male. Dorsal 
views. 

Female. — ^AbdomQn 44-46 mm. Hiad-wiog 37 mm. 

Very similar to the male, differing as foUows : — Occiput 
simple, with short hairs fringing it, no medial spines as in the 
two other members of the genus (these are probably absent 
•on account of the highly specialized appendages of the male) ; 
bases of mandibles yellow, abdomen with segment 9 about 
the same length as 8, which is shghtly dilated, as is also the 
apical half of 7, 9 dilated but tapering rapidly to segment 10, 
which is very short and narrow. The long spiaes on the 
hind femora are more numerous than in the male. AmA 
appendages small, conical, pale yeUow, as is also a conical 
protuberance between them. Wings slightly enfumed, ptero- 
stigma light brown, the difference in size more marked than 
in male. (One female has two incomplete basal antenodals 
in one fore-wing.) 

Distribution.— &OVTK India : NUgiri Wynaad, Malabar 
Wynaad, Coorg, and Chanar, Travancore. 



MEEOGOMPHTJS. 313 

I have found M. hngistigma on the southern slopes of the 
Nilgiris in August ; it haunts montane streams at altitudes 
of about 3000 ft., but is an uncommon insect. It is the 
largest species of the genus in India. 

Type (from Gudalur, Nilgiris) and allotype in the British 
Museum ; specimens in my own coUeetion. 

303. Merogomphus longistigma tamaraeherriensis Fraser. 

Merogomphus longistigma tamaracherriensis race or sp. ? Fraser, 
Eec. Ind. Mus. vol. sxxiii, p. 460 (1931). 

Jfofe. — Abdomen 40 mm. Hind- wing 30 mm. 

Differs from typical M. longistigma as foUows : — Occiput 
entirely black ; mid-dorsal spot on segment 3 of abdomen 
isolated, on 4-6 entirely absent ; segment 8 variable, in some 
specimens with the basal half yellow, the extreme base of 
segment finely black, and the apical border of the yellow area 
markedly crenate, in others the yellow area is reduced to 
a mid-dorsal basal tiny diamond-shaped spot ; segments 9 and 
10 usually unmarked, but occasionally a fine mid-dorsal 
streak on 9 and a tiny mid-dorsal apical point of yeUow on 10. 

Distribution. — ^Tamaracherri, Sottth Malabab, inhabiting 
marsh-lands or bogs at the foot of hiUs. 

Type in the Author's collection. 

304. Merogomphus martini (Fraser). (Kg. 95, b.) 

Platygonyphus inartini Fraser, Mem. Dept. Agrio. India (Ent.), 

vol. vii, no. 7, pp. 68, 69 (1922) ; id., J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soo. 

vol. xxix, pp. 62, 330 (1923). 
Burmagomphits duarensis Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. See. 

vol. xxiv, pp. 421, 422 (1922); id., J. Bombay Nat. Histi. Soo. 

vol. xxix, pp. 62, 330 (1923). 
Indogomphus duarensis Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soe. vol. xxx, 
p. 112, fig. 2, xili (1924) ; id., ibid. vol. xxx, p. 405, pi. i, fig. 4 
(1925). 
Indogomphus martini Fraser, J. Boxabay Nat. Hist. Soo. vol. xxx, 

pp. 403, 404 (1925); Needham, Rec. Ind. Mus. vol. xsxiv, 

p. 224 (1932). 
Me.rogomphus martini Laidlaw, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. vol. Ixxviii, 

p. 185 (1930). 

Mcde. — ^Abdomen 34 mm. Hind-wing 26 mm. 

Head entirely black save for bases of mandibles and a broad 
bright yellow stripe on upper surface of frons ; occiput straight, 
simple, fringed with black hairs. Proihorax black, with a large 
citron -yellow spot on each side. Thorax black on dorsum 
marked with yellow as foUows : — ^An obhque ante-humeral 
stripe, confl.uent below with a slightly interrupted mesothoracic 
collar ; a vestigial humeral stripe represented by a small 
upper spot. Laterally greenish-yeUow, marked by two fine 
black Imes which map out the sutures. Wings hyaline, 
shghtly saffronated at the extreme base ; pterostigma pale 



314 GOMPHID^. 

brown, braced, short ; incomplete basal antenodal nervures- 
entirely absent or irregularly present in one or more wings ; 



11—15 

nodal index of two specimens -. 



16-11 12-17 



10-11 ' 11-12 



16-11 



12-11 ■ 



11-10 

Legs entirely black save for the anterior femora, which are 
pale whitish-green inwardly ; hind legs of great length. 
Abdomen black, marked with citron-yellow as follows : — 
Segment 1 entirely, save for two black dorsal spots ; 2 with 
a trilobed mid-dorsal stripe, the oreillets and a lateral spot 
in continuation of the last ; 3 and 4 with the dorsal carina 
finely yellow and a lateral stripe, broad at base of segments, 
tapering thence to nearly the apical border ; 5 to 7 with the 
baso-lateral spots meeting over the dorsum, the ring thus 
formed much wider on 6 and occupying the basal half of 7. 
Remaining segments entirely black. The markings on 
segments 5 and 6 are subject to some variation ; in some 
specimens from Shillong the basal riag on 6 is almost as broad 
as that on 7. Anal appendages (fig. 95, b) : superiors pale 
yellow, inferior black. Genitalia. : lamina arched, border 
emarginate, distinctly visible from the side ; inner hamules 
narrow, long, projecting, ending in a sharply turned-back 
point ; outer hamules much stouter, projecting beyond 
apices of former, bevelled near the apex, which ends in a blunt 
forwardly directed point ; lobe cupped, projecting nearly 
as far as outer hamules. 

Female- — ^Abdomen 35 Trim. Hind-wing 29 mm. 

Very similar to the male. Occiput shghtly concave, armed 
in some specimens with medial spines similar in character 
to those of 0. cerastes ; in one female a long robust spine 
is present shghtly to the left of the middle hne, in. a second 
female there is a spine on both sides of the middle line, but 
one is longer than the other. Prothorax finely bordered with 
yellow along the posterior border of posterior lobe, in addition 
to the lateral spot. Wings pale yeUow at base ; pterostigma 
pale brown ; 2 rows of cells between Bii and IRii. Legs : 
armature similar to that of the male, but the spines more 
robust. Abdomen : segment 1 entirely yellow, 2 with the 
whole of the sides yellow as well as the dorsal trilobed stripe ; 
4 to 6 with the basal rings very narrow and not extended 
at all along the sides. Anal appendages pale yellow, conical, 
pointed, short. Vulvar scale rather hidden by the overlapping 
of the dilated sides, rather long, triangular, very shghtly 
bifid at apex. 

Distribution. — ^Duars, Bengal. The species is also mode- 
rately common at SMUong, Assam, and Maymyo, BtnRMA,, 
during June and July. 

The basal incomplete nervure is more commonly found in. 
the fore-wing, and is never present in the hind- wing of females ; 



EPIGOMPHTtTiE. 315' 

occasionally it is entirely absent in both sexes. The form 
of the superior anal appendages will serve to distinguish 
this species from M. longistigma, whose appendages are more 
like those found in genus Heliogomphus. 

Type (from Hasimara, Duars) in the British Museum ; 
type of /. duarensis in my own collection. 



Subfamny EPIGOMPHIN^. 

The members of this subfamily are characterized by having 
more than two transverse nervures between the sectors of 
the arc in the hind- wing and by a much larger number in the 
fore- wing. The forking or bifurcation of Rs is usually asym- 
metrical — ^pronouncedly so in some of the genera [Lepto- 
gomphus, Heliogomphus, and Microgomphus). Generic cha- 
racters are the shape of the anal appendages of the male, 
the genitalia, the presence or absence of a basal iucomplete 
antenodal nervure and of braces to the pterostigma, and the 
length and character of the armature of the hind femora in 
both sexes. 

Distribution. — Cosmopolitan. Seven Indian genera are 
here included in this subfamily, but Laidlaw places one of 
these {Sieboldius) in a separate subfamily or series which he 
has named Hagenius. 

Key to Indian Genera of Epigomphinse. 

'Disooidal cells of fore- and hind-wings of 
the same shape and size, both elongate 
in the length of wing ; more than four 
cells in the anal triangle ; a supplement- 
ary nervure springing from the distal [p. 316. 

side of diseoidal cell Siebolditjs Selys, 

Disooidal cell of fore-wing shorter than 
that of hind-wing and of a different 
shape ; never more than 4 cells in the 
anal triangle; no supplementary ner- 
vure springing from the distal side of 
diseoidal cell 2. 

{An incomplete basal antenodal nervure 
present in most wings 3. 
Incomplete basal antenodal nervures 
always absent 4. 

'Three or more rows of cells between I A 
and the posterior margin in fore-wings ; 
the forking of Ms symmetrical ; superior 
anal appendages of male with an inn.er [p. 339. 

3. -^ medial branch Maceoqomphus Selys, 

Only two rows of cells between I A and the 
margin in fore-wings; the forking of 

jKsasymmetrieal; superior anal append- [p. 362. 

i without branches Leptogomphus Selys, 



4.-( 



6. ■{ 



316 ■ GOMPHID^. 

Superior anal appendages with an inner 

branch, inferior but slightly notched at [p. 351. 

apex MicEOGOiiPHCS Selys, 

Superior anal appendages without an 

inner branch, inferior deeply notched 

and branched 5. 

Superior anal appendages lyrate and with [law, p. 322. 

an outer robust spine HELlOGoaiPHtJS Laid- 

Superior anal appendages not lyrate, 

shortly conical or simply curved and 

without an outer spine 6. 

Discoidal cell of hind-wing traversed by 

a nervure; more than one cubital ner- [law, p. 319. 

vure in all wings Perissogomphus Laid- 

Discoidal cell of hind-wing not traversed ; 

only one cubital nervure present in all [law, p. 335. 

wings AcKOGOMPHxrs Laid- 



Gemis SIEBOLDIUS Selys. (Figs. 45 a (D) & 96.) 

Sieboldius Selvs, Bull. Acad. Belg. vol. xxi, pt. 2, p. 83 (1854) ; id., 
Mon. Gomph. p. 243 (1857); Kirby, Cat. Odon. p. 76 (1890); 
Williamson, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xsxiii, pp. 272, 285 (1907) ; 
Laidlaw, Ree. Ind. Mus. vol. xxiv, p. 372 (1922) ; Fraser, J. Bom- 
bay Nat. Hist. Soo. vol. sxsi, pp. 887, 888 (1927); Laidlaw, 
Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. vol. Ixxviii, p. 175 (1930); Needham, 
Zool. Siniea, ser. A, vol. xi, fasc. 1, pp. 19, 29 (1930); id., Reo. 
Ind. Mus. vol. xxxiv, pp. 217, 218 (1932). 

Size large ; glossy or mat black marked sparingly with, 
bright citron-yellow. 

Head relatively small to the size of the insects ; frons not 
at all prominent, rather flattened ; occiput projecting, lami- 
nate, notched at middle or fringed with coarse hairs. Thorax 
very robust, dwarfing the head. Wings long and rather 
narrow, reticulation close, tomus but slightly angulate, base 
of hind wing very slightly esoavate ; membrane short and 
narrow ; anal triangle 3- to 6-ceUed ; arc between the first 
and second or second and third antenodal nervures ; 4 or 5 
nervures between the sectors of arc from arc to bifurcation of 
Its in fore wings, only 2 in hind wings ; 2 rows of postanal 
cells in fore wings, 4 or 5 in the hmd ; anal loop present, 
made up of 3 or 4 cells and extending proximal to base of 
subtrigone ; a basal incomplete antenodal nervure present 
in all wings ; nodal index high ; primary antenodals the first 
and the seventh, eighth, or ninth ; discoidal cells of similar 
shape in fore and hind-wings, very elongate, costal side at 
least twice as long as the base, the distal side strongly curved, 
traversed by a nervure in all wings ; pterostigma long and 
narrow, braced; Cuii and I A in fore-wing neaocly parallel 
as far as border of wing, the latter markedly pectinate; 
JA in hind-wing with four or five sectors running parallel 



SIEEOLDIUS. 



317 



to wing-border ; 2 to 3 cubital nervures in all wings ; sub- 
trigones and hypertrigones all entire ; a supplementary nervure 
running outwards from the distal side of discoidal ceils. All 
main nervures, especially i?m, IBiii, Biv-{-v, and MA, curving 
strongly down towards the termen of wings. Legs of great 
length, the hind-femora extending to the apical end of 
abdominal segment 2 and furnished with a row of very closely 
set spines, these gradually lengthening and becoming wider 
spaced towards the distal end of the limb ; hind tibial spines 
very closely set, robust, and relatively short. Abdomen 
long and cylindrical, tumid at base ; segment 10 markedly 
rounded, dome-shaped. Anal appendages : superiors short, 
thick, furnished with robust ventral spines ; inferior broad 
and quadrate, shallowly and broadly bifid. Genitalia : 




Pig. 96. — ^Wings of Sieboldvus nigricolor (Fraser), male. 

lamina prominent, sloping anteriorly ; anterior hamules 
short thm stylets ; posterior hamules broad, robust, and 
furnished with an apical recurved hook; lobe very large, 
scrotal-shaped. 

The larva is blattiform in shape, the abdomen being ex- 
tremely depressed and enormously broadened ; these characters, 
together with its black colour, make it resemble one of the 
dead leaves amongst which it is found. The larva bears 
much resemblance to those of Lamelligomphus, although 
on adult characters the genera appear to be unrelated 
(fig. 45a, D). 

Genot3rpe, SieboMius japponicm Selys. 

Distribution. — ^Btiema ; Malaysia, Indo-China, Sumatra, 
Japan, and China. 



518 



GOMPHID^. 



305. Sieboldius nigrieolor (Fraser). (Fig. 97.) 

Hagenius nigrieolor Fraser, Mem. Dept. Agric. India (Ent. ) , vol. viii, 

no. 8, pp. 76-79, pi. x, figs. 1, 2, 5-7 (1924). 
Sieboldius nigrieolor Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. sxxi, 

pp. 888, 889, test-figs. 2, 3 (1927); Laidlaw, Trans. Ent. Soo. 

Lond. vol. Ixxviii, p. 176 (1930); Needham, Zool. Simca, 

ser. A, vol. xi, fase. 1, p. 30, pi. v, fig. 2 (1930). 

Male. — ^Abdomen 54 mm. Hind- wing 49 mm. 

Head glossy black, tipper surface of frons bright greenish- 
yellow, its base very narrowly black ; eyes probably bottle- 
green duriag life. Occiput projecting squarely back as a thick 
plate which overhangs the prothorax, its hinder border 
sMghtly notched at its middle and densely fringed with short 
stiff black hairs, its upper surface coarsely corrugated and 
a little hollowed out ; vesicle raised into two robust points 
very much as in the LiBELLULiNiE. ProtJiorax mat black, 
with two small yellow points on mid-dorsum. Thorax black, 
marked with yellow as follows : — ^A complete mesothoracic 




j-jg. 97. Anal appendages of Sieboldius nigrieolor (Fraser), male. 

Dorsal and right lateral views. 



collar, confluent with a median spot on lower half of mid-dorsal 
carina ; narrow antehumeral stripes not confluent with the 
mesothoracic collar, divergent ta front, the upper ends turning 
out at a little more than a right angle. 'No humeral stripe, 
laterally two obhque yellow stripes, a narrow one bordering 
the hinder border of the humeral suture and a broad one 
covering the greater part of the metepimeron. Legs black. 
Wings hyaline, pterostigma black, braced, 6 mm. ia length ; 
costa finely yellow ; membrane nearly obsolete ; 3 rows of 
cells between Bii and IRii at level of distal end of pterostigma ; 
2 cubital nervures in all wings ; 2 rows of postanal cells in 



PBEISSOGOMPHUS. 319 

fore-wing, 5 in Mnd-wing ; nodal index , .~ , i ,«~v^ ; anal 

14-14 13—15 

■triangle 3-celled. Abdomen black, marked ■with yellow as 

follows : — Sides of segments 1 and 2 broadly, the colour 

extending up along apical margin as far as dorsum on 2 ; 

a fine obscure mid-dorsal carinal line on 2 and 3, the latter 

with the basal part of sides yellow ; 4 to 7 with basal paired 

lunules separated by the dorsal crest ; 8 with its basal half 

yellow and rather more than that of its sides ; 9 with a small 

1)aso-lateral spot ; 10 xmmarked. Anal appendages (fig. 97) 

black. Genitalia : lamina depressed, deeply and very 

narrowly clefb at the naiddle ; anterior hamules thin stylets 

■directed backwards and downwards, converging towards 

each other, their apices curled a little outwards ; posterior 

hamules very broad, long, robust, the apices quadrate, a robust 

hook, shaped like a tiger's claw, springing from the outer 

corner ; lobe enormously inflated, rounded, glossy black. 

Female unknown. 

Distribution. — Southern Shan States, Bubma, taken in 
September. 

Type, a unique male in my own collection. 



Genus PERISSOGOMPHUS Laidlaw. (Fig. 98.) 

Perissogompkus Laidlaw, Ree. Ind. Mxts. vol. xsiv, pp. 383, 384 
(1922) ; Praser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soe. vol. xxix, pp. 61, 329 
(1923); id., ibid. vol. xxxi, pp. 742, 743(1926); Laidlaw, Trans. 
Ent. Soe. Loud. vol. Ixxviii, p. 187 (1930); Needham, Rec. Ind. 
Mus. vol. xxxiv, pp. 217, 218, 225 (1932). 

A monotypic genus of medium sized dragonflies ; colour 
bright grass-green, marked with black. 

Head robustly built, frons rounded, face rather oblique ; 
occiput simple, hinder border straight and fringed with 
long black hairs, its upper surface bearing a sulcus and a small 
median tubercle. Wings : reticulation close ; tomus well 
angulated ; base of hind- wing oblique, moderately excavated ; 
anal triangle 4-celled ; arc situated opposite the second or 
between the second and third anteno&l nervures ; 4 trans- 
verse nervures between the sectors of arc from arc to bifurca- 
tion of Bs ia fore-wings, 2 in hind- wings ; 2 rows of postanal 
cells in the fore-wings, 5 in hind-wings ; a distinct anal loop 
present and made up of 2 to 3 cells by a division of the first 
postanal ceU, which extends well proximal to base of sub- 
trigone ; no basal incomplete antenodal nervures present ; 
nodal index high ; primary antenodals the first and the 
sixth or seventh ; discoidal cells usually traversed (this 
feature very variable ; occasionally all are entire, most usually 
only those of the hind-wiogs are traversed, but ia one specimen 



320 



QrO'MF'BIDM. 



only the cells of the fore-wings are traversed), that of fore- 
wing with the sides subequal, the distal slightly angulated, 
that of the hind- wing elongate in length of wing, the distal 
side longer than the costal and the costal longer than the 
basal, the traversiag nervures running from the basal to the 
distal sides ; pterostigma short, only slightly more than one- 
third the distance from node to proximal end of pterostigma, 
swollen at its middle, braced ; lA in fore-wing markedly 
peetiaate ; Cuii and I A in hind-wing parallel to border of 
wing ; 2 to 3 cubital nervures in fore-wings, 2 in hind-wings ; 
all subtrigones and hypertrigones entire. Legs moderately 
long, hind femora extending to apical border of abdominal 
segment 1 and furnished with a group of short, numerous. 




Fig. 98. — ^Wings of Perissogomphus stevensi Laidlaw, male. 

closely-set spines on the proximal half which are gradually 
resolved into two rows of rather more robust and slightly 
longer spines at the distal end ; in the female these spines 
longer, less numerous, and more widely spaced. Abdomen 
tumid at base, thin and cylindrical from segment 3 to 7, 
thereafter gradually dilating again as far as segment 10 ; 
segments 8 and 9 and the apical half of 7 with slight lateral 
dilatations. Anal appendages : superiors closely similar to 
those of genus Oomphvs, short, about as long as segment 10, 
simple, conical, and ending in an acute apes, rather widely 
divaricate ; inferior deeply cleft into two equally divaricate 
branches. Genitalia: lamina narrowly and deeply emarginate, 
proiecting prominently ; anterior hamules long and narrow, 
terminating in long, fine, backwardly curved spines ; posterior' 
hamules much more robust, stout at base, terminating in 



PEEISSOGOMPHUS. 321 

a robust forwardly curved spine ; lobe-shaped like a pitcher, 
with its spout strongly emarginate. 

Genotype, Perissogomphus stevensi Laidlaw. 

Distribution. — ^Assam and Bengal. 

The genus is probably closely aUied to Heliogomphus, 
although the species differ markedly in their habits, which 
in Perissogomphus are arboreal. The larvae are unknown, 
but most probably breed in moimtain streams, the adults 
being found resting on foliage in adjacent evergreen jungle. 

306. Perissogomphus stevensi Laidlaw. (PI. IV, fig. 5 ; text- 
fig. 98.) 

Perissogomphus stevensi Laidlaw, Rec. Ind. Mus. vol. xsiv, pp. 371, 
384r-387, text-figs. 6-8 (1922); Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. 
Soc. vol. xxis, pp. 61, 329 (1923); id., ibid. vol. xxxi, pp. 743, 
744, text-figs. 2-4, pi. i, fig. 4 (1926) ; Laidlaw, Trans. Ent. Soc. 
Loud. vol. Ixxviii, p. 187 (1930); Needitam, Rec. Ind. Mus. 
vol. xxxiv, p. 225 (1932). 

Male. — Abdomen 36-38 mm. Hind-wing 33-34 mm. 

Head : labium olivaceous ; labrum oh vaceous- brown, its 
anterior border narrowly black, the outer comers and a pair 
of small median spots near middle of anterior border yellow ; 
anteclypsus and adjacent portion of postclj/peus olivaceous ; 
postclypeus dark ohvaceous-brown with an iU-defined large 
area against the eyes yellow. Frons deeply and widely notched 
at its centre, a beautiful grass-green above and in front, its 
extreme base above narrowly black ; vertex and occiput 
black. Prothorax black, the posterior lobe, a spot almost 
confluent with it, and a narrow anterior coUar greenish- 
yellow. Thorax black on dorsum, grass-green laterally. 
The dorsum with a broad grass-green, M-shaped marking, 
formed by the confluence of broad antehumeral stripes which 
extend from the alar siuus, with a complete mesothoracic 
■collar below ; the middle limb of the M is formed by the 
mid-dorsal carina, which is green in its lower two-thirds, and 
confluent with the mesothoracic coUar below. Laterally 
the vestiges of an upper dark brown narrow stripe, and the 
hinder sutm-e finely mapped out iu green. Legs black, inner 
surfaces of fore femora and distal half of same area on the 
mid-femora greenish-yellow. Wings hyaline, a faint tinge 
of yellow at the extreme base in the cubital area. Ptero- 
stigma blackish-brown between thick black nervures ; nodal 



r X • 12-16 

mdex of two specnnens 



17-14 13-18 



12-13' 13-12 



1 7-11 
12-13- 



14-13 

Abdomen black, marked as foEows : — Segments 1 to 7 with 
a mid-dorsal citron-yellow stripe, broad on, 1, trilobed on 
2 and 3, broad at base on 4 to 6, on which segments it is con- 
fluent at the base with a narrow complete ring, and thereafter 
VOL. 11. r 



322 G03*IPHID^. 

tapers away to a fine point ; on 7 similar but much broader 
at the base, tapering less abruptly, and confluent at the base 
mth a broad ventro-lateral stripe which runs the full length 
of the segment ; sides of segments 1 and 2 broadly grass-green ; 
a triangular baso-lateral spot on 3 yello\r ; sides of 8 to 10 
broadly yellow-ochre, as also the apical half of dorsum of 10, 
where are seen two small round subdorsal subapical black 
spots. Ancd appendages yellow ; superiors as long as seg- 
ment 10, a little divaricate, conical, tapering, acuminate, 
the apes shghtly upturned and bearing beneath 4 or o small 
blackish-brown spines ; inferior about two-thirds the length 
of superiors, curling slightly up, deeply cleft into two short 
concial bluntly pointed divaricate branches. Genitalia 
(see under genus) . 

Female. — Abdomen 38-41 mm. Hind- wing 35-37-5 mm. 

Closely similar to the male, the face, however, more yellowish, 
the labium paler and the markings on abdomen more extensive ^ 
the whole of segment 10 being yellow. Wings much more 
broadly tinted with yellow at base, as far out as end of cubital 
space and along costa as far as node. (In one female the whole 
of the wings are deeply and evenly enfumed, probably due to 
old age.) The anal loop is as highly developed as in the male. 
Hind femora, as well as the other pairs, broadly yellow 
internally, and a fine diffuse stripe of the same colour on the 
outer surface. Anal appendages very short, conical, pointed,, 
yellow. Vulvar scale (see under genus). 

Distribution. — Gopaldhara, Assasi {H. Stevens) and Pashok,. 
Dabjeeltsg District (C M. Inglis) during May and Jime. 
I took a male at Mungpoo, DarjeeUng District, which was 
settled on an evergreen bush. 

The generic name impUes " redundancy," and is well suited 
to this insect, in which the venation is extraordinarily close 
considering the size of the iaseet and by comparison with 
other Gomphines. 

Type in the Indian Museum. 

Genus HELIOGOMPHUS Laidlaw. (Kg. 99.) 

HeHoffomjiAusLaidlaw, Ree. Ind. Mus. vol.sxi-v, pp. 378, 379 (1922) ; 
Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soe. vol. xxix, pp. 63, 331 (1923) l 
id., ibid. vol. sxx, pp. 846, 847 (1925) ; Laidlaw, Trans. Ent. Soe. 
Lond. vol. Ixxviii, p. 180 (1930); Needham, Rec. lud. Mus. 
vol. xxxiv, pp. 217, 218, 220 (1932). 

Size medium ; colour black, marked with greenish-yellow ; 
superior anal appendages lyrate in shape and pale in colour. 

Head broad, irons ralier rounded, occiput small, con- 
cave or straight at the posterior border. Wings : reticulation 
close ; tomus rather rounded, base of hind- wing very oblique 
and shallowly excavate ; membrane obsolete ; anal triangle 



HELIOGOMPHUS. 



323; 



S-celled ; are situated opposite the second or between. tJie 
second and third antenodal nervures ; 6 or 7 transverse 
nemires between the sectors of arc from arc to bifurcation 
of iJs in fore-wing, 4 or 5 in hind- wing ; a single row of postanal 
cells in fore-wing, 3 to 4 rows in hind-wing ; first postanal 
cell in hind- wing not extending proximal to base of subtrigone ; 
anal loop absent ; no basal incomplete antenodal nervures 
present ; nodal index high ; primary antenodals the first and 
the fifth ; disooidal cell entire in all wings, that of fore-wing 
nearly equilateral, that of hind-wing slightly elongate in 
length of wing, costal and distal sides equal and nearly half 
as long again as the basal, the cell in the hiad-wing quite 
occasionally connected to the lower sector of are by a short 
stalk as in Merogomphus ; pterostigma very short and swollen, 
only about one-fifth the length of distance from node to proxi- 
mal end of pterostigma, without a brace or with the brace 




Fig. 99. — ^Wings of HeKogomphus promelas (Selys), male. 

poorly developed ; lA in fore-wing not pectinate and with 
only 1 or 2 rows of cells between it and the margin of wing ; 
Cuii and lA in hind- wing variable, entirely parallel or widely 
divergent at wing-border ; 1 or 2 cubital nervures in fore- 
wing, only 1 in hrnd-wing ; all subtrigones and hypertrigones 
entire. Legs variable in length, hind femora usually extending 
to about the middle of abdominal segment 2, but occasionally 
only to the base of segment 1, famished with a group of 
numerous, short, closely-set spines on the proximal half, 
which become arranged into rows on the distal half; tibial, 
spiaes rather widely spaced, moderately long, and very 
sHm. Abdomen tumid at base, narrow and cyhndrical from 
segment 3 to 7, the apical end of the latter and segments 8 to 10 
again dilated, but only moderately so. Anal appendages : 
superiors lyrate, foroipate, curled strongly like the horns of 

y2 



324 GOMPHID^. 

■a cow and with a more or less robust outer spine near the 
base ; inferior with the two branches very widely divaricate 
and almost in hne, so that they project outwardly from 
beneath the superiors. Genitalia : lamina depressed, deeply 
and narrowly emarginate ; anterior hamules short, slim pro- 
cesses pointed at apex ; posterior hamules but slightly longer 
but more robust and with a short recurved spine at apex ; 
lobe projectiag slightly, flask-shaped, emarginate at lip. 

Genotype, Eeliogomphus selysi Fraser (as Leptogomphus 
nietneri Selys). 

Distribution. — India, Bubma, and Ceyion ; Malaysia, Java, 
Sumatra, Borneo, China, Indo-Ghina, and the PhiHppines. 
Eight species are known from within our limits, of which four 
occur in Ceylon, two in the Western Ghats, and two in north- 
east India and Burma. 

The species are characterized by the zygopterous shape of the 
head, which is strongly reminiscent of that of Psevdophcea, 
and also by the smaE size of the pterostigma, which is un- 
braced, and by the almost uniform lyxate shape of the superior 
anal appendages. 

The larvas have not been described; they breed in montane 
and submontane streams at altitudes of 1,500 ft. and upwards, 
and the adult iasect is to be found settled on foHage or ferns 
alongside the parent stream. In the AnnaimaUai Hills I found 
H. promelas (Selys) breeding in mere seepages on the hill-sides 
and restricted to very small areas. They are never found 
away from the vicinity of heavy jungle, and prefer districts 
where the rainfall is of the heaviest . 



Key to Indian Species of Heliogomphus. 

{Segment 7 of abdomen with a broad basal [p. 327. 

yellow ring promelas (Selys), 
Segment 7 without a basal ring 2. 

'A superior hameral yellow spot present oa [p. 326. 

thorax nietneri (Selys), 

^No superior humeral spot present 3. 

{A yellow spot on each side of the postclypeus ; [p. 330 

mesothoraoio ooDar broadly interrupted. .. . ceylonicv^ (Selys), 
Postclypeus without a yellow spot laterally . 4. 
'Yellow stripe on crest of frons interrupted at 
middle; mesothoracic collar very broad and 
uninterrupted; hind femora dark yellow on 

the inner side wcdli Fras., p. 331. 

Yellow stripe on crest of frons uninterrupted 
at middle; mesothoracic collar narrower, 
usually uninterrupted;' hind femora black 5. 

{Lateral spine of superior anal appendages very 
long and robust , 6. 
Lateral spine of superior anal appendages 
shorter and obtuse 7. 



HBLIOGOMPHirS. 



325 



6.-^ 



Lateral spine of superior anal 

directed obliquely backwards, so that a deep 

notch occurs on the appendage immediately [p. 334- 

after the spine spirilliis (Fras.), 

Lateral spine of superior anal appendages 

directed horizontally outwards, so that no [p. 333^ 

notch occurs on the side of appendage after it. lyrat'us Bras., 

Yellow markings on sides of abdomen extend- [p. 329. 

ing as far as segment 6 kalarensis, sp. n.. 

Yellow markings on sides of abdomen extend- 
ing only as far as segment 4 s6Zj/siFras.,p.325- 



307. Heliogomphus selysi Fraser. (Kg. 100, a.) 

Leptogomphus nietneri (pars) Selys, Ann. Mus. Civ. Genova, (2)' 

vol. X, pp. 474, 476 (1891); Martin, Mission Pavie Indo-Chine, 

vol. iii. p. 214 (1904). 
L&ptogomphus ? nieineri Williamson, Proo. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. 

xxxiii, pp. 292, 293, 295 (1907). 
Heliogomphus nietneri (pars) Laidlaw, Ree. Ind. Mus. vol. xxiv, 

pp. 378-380, text-fig. 3 (1922); id., Philip. J. Sci. vol. xxviii, 

p. 560 (1925). 
Heliogomphus selysi Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. xxx,. 

p. 850 (1925); Laidlaw, Trans. Ent. Soo. Lond. vol. Ixxviii,. 

p. 180 (1930); Needham, Ree. Ind. Mus. vol. xxxiv, p. 220 

(1932). 

Male. — ^Abdomen 32-35 nun. Hind-wing 28-30 mm. 

Head : labium dark yellow ; labrum glossy black, with two- 
small triangular basal whitish-green spots ; bases of mandibles 
greenish-yellow ; rest of face, frons, and upper surface of head 
black, save for a transverse stripe of yellow on crest of frons 




Fig. 100. — Anal appendages of (a) Heliogomphus selysi Fraser, male; 
(b) Heliogomphus nieineri (Selys), male. Dorsal views. 

constricted at its middle. Occiput simple, low, slightly 
convex, fringed with short hairs. Proihorax black, a geminate 
spot in front of the posterior lobe, a small lateral spot and 
a marrow anterior collar of yellow. Thorax black, marked as 



■326 GOMPHID^. 

in H. promelas, the mesothoracic collar usually finely inter- 
Tupted. Legs black. Wings hyaline ; nodal index 11-16/ 
15-12 ; 2 cubital nervures in all -wings ; pterostigma short, 
covering 4 to 5 cells, dark brown. Abdomen black, with 
a fine dorsal greenish-yellow stripe on segments 1 to 3, 
becoming very obscure on 4, and variably present or absent 
on 5 and 6 ; laterally segments 1 and 2, including the oreillets, 
broadly yellow ; a base-lateral spot on segment 3 ; remaining 
segments unmarked. Anal appendages (fig. 100, a) : superiors 
yellow or in some specimens blackish-brown at the base, 
pale yellow thereafter, the outer tooth at the base more 
robust than in H. promelas, otherwise of the same shape as 
in that species ; inferior black, as in H. promelas. 

Female unknown. 

Distribution. — ^The type is a male from Leito, Bttema, 
collected by Mr. Fea and now in the Genoa Museum'. 
A pair in the Indian Museum from the Garo Hills, Tura, 
Assam, 1500 ft. {Kemp) was described by Laidlaw, and 
Mr. T. Bainbrigge Fletcher has also taken this insect on the 
Oauhati road near Shfilong, Assam, 1000 ft., 2. viii. 19. 

This species is easily distinguished from aU others of the genus 
by the total absence of abdominal markings after segment 4. 

308. Heliogomphus nietneri (Selys). (Fig. loo, b.) 

Gomphus ? nietneri Selys, BuU. Aead. Belg. (2) vol. xlvi, p. 449 
(1878). 

Anisogomphus nietneri Kirby, Cat. Odon. p. 69 (1890)- id 
J. Linn. Soc. Lond. (Zool.) vol. xxiv, p. 557 (1893). ' ' 

Leptogomphus nietneri (pars) Selys, Aim. Mus. Civ. Geneva, (2) 
vol. X, pp. 474-476 (1891). 

Leptogomphus ? nietneri Williamson, Proo. U.S. Nat Mus 
vol. xsoii, p. 295 (1907); Ris, Suppl. Ent. no. 1, p. 69 (1912).' 
7?A??J*^ J «i«toen I'raser, Reo. Ind. Mus. vol. xxiv, p. 416 
iQoS ' t'-I- S°i?W Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. xxix, pp. 63, 331 
(la-id); Laidlaw, Spolia Zeylanioa, vol. sdi, p. 339 (1924)- 
Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. xxx, pp. 847, 850 1925 • 
Laidlaw^ PMip. J. goi. vol. xxviii, pp. 559. 560 (1925); id.', 
irans. Ent. Soe. Lond. vol. Ixxviii, p. 181 (1930); Needham, 
Ree. Ind. Mus. vol. xxsiv, p. 220 (1932) ; Fraser, Ceylon J. Sci. 
B, vol. 3rrai, p. 27 (1933). ' 

IfaZe.— Abdomen 35 mm. Hind- wing 30 mm 
Head : labium pale yeHow, middle lobe bordered with 
brown ; labram glossy black, marked with two moderately 
broad, closely apposed, bright citron-yeUow spots: face 
Waek, frons traversed by a broad stripe of greenish-yeEow 
which shghtly overlaps the fore border ; vertex black, occiput 
yeUow m its anterior third, black posteriorly det)resaed 
Its crest shghtly elevated, fringed wfth short blaShS 
^oiAoraa: black, with a broad anterior collar of greenish- 
yellow. Thorax coal-black, marked with greenish-yeUow as 



HEUOGtOMPHUS. 



fnllow,— \ slender mesothoraeic collar, sUghtly mterrupted 
Itte midaie Tnarrow oblique antehumeral stnpe not con- 
flneS belo4%ith the collar nor extending up as far as the 
fluent Deiow wiuu uu. ^r,„arpci above • a small upper 

fw«nt femora brown within and outwardly at the base. 

M IbdZn with large rounded oremets bearm^ 
Sute black denticles along the hinder border^ Colour 
wlpb marked with bright yellow as follows:— Segment 1 
SS^k SJSworsal'spot! 2 with a bilobed M ^PO*^ 

Tto 7 with only the dorsal «f "^%fiffy ^^^^y^^^^^ 
7 with larger basal spots ; sides of 1 and ^.broadiy yeuow 
4 to 8 with base-lateral spots tapenng apicaUy ; 8 and 9 
lib apS5aS spots; 10 unmarked. ^-«/ ^^-f^^^ 
IZ ^m h\ ■ superiors white, turning to brown at the tips. 
%Muti<i^^r.o^, iA montane or submontane a.eas 

^t,;f:liqu:'male, in the Hagen collect^n, Museum 
of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass., U.S.A. 

309 Heliogomph-us promelas (Selys). (Fig. 101, a.) 

Gor^phv^prormlas Selys, Bull. Acad. Belg (2) vol ^i, P- 498 
(1873); Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soo. vol. xxix, pp. o^, 

OQQ (1993) 

^s/i«oj)romeia« Krby, Cat. Odon. p. 68(1890). 

%"«aK;lSSTr;S. M^'vS =;S"p; »'^= 

Rec. Ind. Mus. vol. xxxiv, p. 220 (1932). 

Male —Abdomen 42 mm. Hind-wing 32 mm. 

IS' black, marked with yellow ; labium yellowish-brown ; 
JablT b ack marked with two basal greemsh-yellow spots 
whSTopposi^g borders are concave; mandibles greemsh- 
Se- face black; frons marked above with a greemsh- 



328 



GOMPHIDiE. 



■white transverse stripe ; occiput black, depressed ; eyes 
bottle-green. Prothwax black, the posterior lobe, a geminate 
spot in front of it, and an anterior collar yello-wish-green ; 
under surface pruiaosed white. Thorax black on dorsum, 
greenish-yellow on sides ; a complete yellow mesothoracic 
collar, short yellow antehumeral stripes not quite reaching 
the alar siaus above and not nearly reaching the mesothoracic 
collar below, parallel with the mid-dorsal carina. Laterally 
the two sutures mapped out in black. Under surface pruinosed 
white, especially ia fully mature specimens. Legs black ; 
hind femora armed with a row of very closely set, very small 
spines. Wings hyaline, occasionally slightly enfumed ; ptero- 
stigma blacMsh-brown, very rarely braced, and then only 
poorly so and not usually in more than one or two of the wings ; 
only a siagle cubital nervure to all wings ; costal side of 




Fig. 101. — ^Anal appendages of (a) Heliogomphiis promelas (Selys), male ; 
(b) Heliogomphus kalarensis Fraser, male. Dorsal views. 

discoidal cell of hind- wing twice as long as the basal ; nodal 



index 



11-15 1 15-12 



l2^f il2-12 ' °^^^^ points as for genus. Abdomen 
black, marked with pale greenish-yellow as follows : — ^A nar- 
row mid-dorsal stripe extending from segment 1 to 5, thickest 
on 2 where it may be lobulated ; a large lateral spot on seg- 
ment 1 and a similar but larger one on segment 2 which 
envelops the oreiUet ; small baso-lateral spots on 3 to 6, 
progressively smaller on each segment ; 7 with a ring occu- 
pying about its basal third ; lastly an occasional dorsal spot 
on segment 8; remaining segments entirely black. Anal 
appendages (fig. 101, as) similar to the genotype ; superiors 
black at base, pale green to yellow at apices ; inferior black 
Genitalia : lamina very depressed, deeply bifid, hood-shaped • 
mner hamules narrow, stylet-shaped, poiated ; outer much 
more robust, elongate, the inner side of apex curling slightly 



HEUOGOMPHTTS. 329 

up ; lobe black, globular, rather prominent, its upper border 
narrowly but rather deeply notched. 

F&mcde. — ^Abdomen 39-42 mm. Hind-wing 35-38 mm. 

Very similar to the male, but more robust. Occiput simple, 
depressed. The antehumeral stripes rather longer and 
sometimes confluent at a point with the mesothoracio collar. 
The yeUow spots on the sides of abdomen more extensive, 
those on 3 to 6 extending from the base to the transverse 
suture and on 3 to 5 continued after a short interruption as 
an elongate spot which does not quite reach the apical border 
of segments. On segment 6 there may be a vestigial medio- 
lateral spot. Leqs with longer spines on the femora. Vulvar 
scale triangular, extending for about one-third the length 
of segment 9, glossy black. Wings usually distinctly tinted 
with yellow at the extreme base, broader. Anal appendages 
black, with an iimer yellow stripe. 

Distribution. — South India : Mettupalayam and Kotagiri 
Ghats, Mlgiri Hills ; AnnaimaUai Hills, Coimbatore District, 
and in Coorg and Travancore montane areas. 

This species is found on small mountain streams or occasion- 
ally restricted to tiny brooks or seepages on the hiU-sides. 
It occurs in colonies, and, where found, is usually moderately 
common. It is easily distinguished from other species by the 
broad basal ring on segment 1. 

Type, a female in the Selys collection. Allotype male 
in the British Museum ; type of H. pruiTtans in my own 
collection. 

310. Heliogomplius kalarensis, sp. n. (Fig. 101, b.) 

Hdiogomphus kalarensis Fraser (nom. aud.), Ceylon J. Sei., B, 
vol. xvjii, p. 29, fig. 4,d (1933). 

Male. — ^Abdomen 37 mm. Hind- wing 32 nmi. 

Head : labium brownish-yellow ; labrum glossy black, 
with a pair of bright citron -yeUow semilimar spots at base ; 
cljrpeus blackish-brown, the postclypeus with a small yeUow 
spot on each side ; frons broadly citron-yellow in front and 
above ; vertex black ; occiput black, with a quadrate yeUow 
spot on its posterior half and behind. Prothorax and thorax 
black, marked with eitron-yeUow as follows : — ^Prothorax 
with the posterior and anterior lobes and a small geminate 
spot on the posterior part of the mid-dorsum of middle lobe ; 
thorax with a complete mesothoracio collar, straight ante- 
humeral stripes, almost parallel and nearly confluent with the 
mesothoracic coUar at their lower pointed ends, a tiny vestigial 
upper humeral spot ; the sides very broadly yellow, marked 
with very narrow obUque black stripes on the two sutures. 
Legs black, coxae and trochanters yellow. TFiwys hyaline. 



330 gomjPHID^. 

tinted with golden yellow, this colour fading but distinct 
as far out as the level of the node ; pterostigma bright yellow, 
framed narrowly ia black, not braced, covering 4 cells ; a 
single cubital nervure in all wings ; 3 cells ia the anal triangle ; 

12—14: " 

anal field 3 cells deep ; nodal index 



Abdomen 



10-11 11-12 

black, marked with yellow as follows : — Segment 1 with 
a smaE triangular basal dorsal spot, and its sides broadly ; 
2 with a basal spot which includes the oreillet, an apical 
lateral spot, and a trilobate mid-dorsal narrow stripe extending 
from end to end of segment ; 3 to 6 with small basal lateral 
spots and the mid-dorsal carina very finely ; 7 with a ring 
covering its basal third ; remaining segments unmarked. Anal 
appendages (fig. 101, b) : superiors closely similar to those of 
H. nietneri and promelas, but the spine is directed more back- 
wards than in either and the appendage is more curled and 
rounded than in H. promelas and less angulated outwardly 
than in H. nietneri ; inferior similar to that of H. nietneri. 

Distribution. — ^Nilgiris, South India. A single male, the 
type, is in my own collection, and was taken near Kalar at the 
foot of the Mettupalayam Ghat during March. 

H. kalarensis differs from H. nietneri in having only a single 
cubital nervure in all wings, in the absence of lateral stripes 
on the abdomen, and in the occiput being yeUow posteriorly. 
Erom H. promelas, from the same locality, the yellow occiput 
will at once distinguish it, as well as the presence of an upper 
humeral spot and the shape of the superior anal appendages. 

511. Heliogomphus eeylonieus (Selys). 

Gomphus ? eeylonieus Selys, Bull. Aoad. Belg. (2) vol. xlvi, p. 455 

(1878); WiEiamsoD, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xxxiii, p. 305 

(1907); Laidlaw, Reo. Ind. Mus. vol. xxiv, p. 398 (1922). 
.Slskna ceylmica Kirby, Cat. Odon. p. 68 (1890). 
Gomphus eeylonieus Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. See. vol. xxix, 

pp. 62, 330 (1923). 
Gomphus eeylanieus Laidlaw, Spolia Zeylaniea, vol. xii, p. 342 

(1924). 
Heliogomphus eeylonieus Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soo. 

vol. XXX, pp. 849, 850, pi. i, fig. 5 (1925); Laidlaw, Trans. 

Ent. Soo. Lond. vol. Ixxviii, p. 181 (1930) ; Needham, Reo. Ind. 

Mils. vol. xxxiv, p. 220 (1932); Fraser, Ceylon J. Soi., B, 

vol. xviii.p. 32(1933). 

Maie unknown. 

Female. — ^Abdomen 41 mm. Hind-wing 39 mm. 

Head : labium pale brown ; labrum black, marked with 
■two basal yellow spots ; base of mandibles yellow ; ante- 
And postclypeus black, the latter with a medial yeUow spot 
and another on each side against the eyes ; frons black with its 
•crest broadly yeUow ; upper surface of head black, including 



HELIOGOMPHUS. 331 

"the occiput, which is fringed with long black hairs, is slightly- 
raised in the middle in a small triangular obtuse point, has 
six spines near the eyes and a rough tubercle behind. Back 
of eyes glossy black, with a spot of bright yellow at the middle. 
Thorax black, marked with yellow as follows : — ^A broadly 
interrupted mesothoracic collar, narrow oblique antehumeral 
stripes not extending as far as the alar sinus above or to 
the mesothoracic coUar below, a small upper humeral spot. 
Laterallygreenish-yellowmarked by two narrow black stripes on 
the sutures . All these stripes confluent below at the tro chanters . 
Wings hyaline ; pterostigma large, broad, pale yellow (possibly 
teneral), 3-4 mm. long, covering 3-4 cells, unbraced ; nodal 
index 14^16/16-14. Abdomen black, marked with yellow 
as follows : — A fine mid-dorsal line on segments 1 to 6, 
taperiag apically on 1 and 2, finer on 3-6, and not extending 
quite to the apex of 6 ; 6 with a broader basal marking ; 
sides of 1 and 3 broadly yellow, 4 to 9 with small baso-lateral 
spots, and a larger one on each side of 7. Legs black. Anal 
appendages and the conical protuberance between them black. 

Distribution. — Ceylok, Eamboddah Pass (Nietner). 

The close resemblance of this species to the female of 
J?, promelas, remarked upon by Selys, and the unbraced 
character of the pterostigma, places it without doubt in the 
genus Heliogamphus. Although clearly very closely related 
to other species, it differs in so many respects that it deserves 
to retain its specific rank. 

Type, a imique female in the Hagen collection, Museum of 
Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass., U.S.A. 

312. Heliogomphus walli iVaser. (Fig. 102, a.) 

Heliogomphus walli Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soo. vol. xxx, 
pp. 849-851 (1925); Laidlaw, Trans. Ent. Soo.Lond. vol. Ixxviii, 
p. 182 (1930); Needham, Beo. Ind. Mus. vol. xxxiv, p. 220 
(1932) ; Fraser, Ceylon J. Sci., B, vol. xviii, p. 33 (1933). 

Male. — Abdomen 36 mm. Hind-wing 31 mm. 

Head : labium with the lateral lobes yeUow, middle lobe 
black ; labrum black, marked with two large triangular 
«itron-yellow spots at the base ; rest of head black except for 
■a moderately broad citron-yellow stripe on crest of frons 
which is nearly cut in two by a prolongation of the black 
at base of frons into the median sulcus ; occiput naked, with 
3, narrow transverse sulcus at its posterior part, an anterior 
ridge, and a short medial ridge with a depression on each side 
junning straight back from the anterior ridge. Proihorax 
black, with a narrow anterior eoUar. Thorax black, marked 
with greenish-yellow or greenish-white as follows : — A very 
narrow slightly interrupted mesothoracic collar, very short 
a,ntehimieral stripes strongly divergent below but not extendiag 



332 



GOMPHID^. 



the whole length of dorsum either above or below ; laterally 
broadly greenish-yellow, with a narrow oblique black stripe 
on each suture, that on the anterior suture the broad.er ; 
underside yellow, pruinosed with white when mature. Wings 
hyaline ; pterostigma dark ochreous heavily bordered with 
black nervures, covering 3 to 4 cells, unbraced ; 2 cubital 
nervures ia aU wings ; anal triangle 3 -celled ; nodal index 



15-16 



13-12 



16-14 
11-13' 



Legs black. Abdomen black, marked with 

citron-yellow as follows : — Segment 1 with a small triangular 
mid-dorsal basal spot and its sides broadly ; 2 with a latero- 
basal spot which includes the oreiUets, a latero-apical spot 
on each side, and a short, very narrow mid-dorsal stripe ; 
3 to 8 with smaU latero-basal spots on each side, large and 




Fig. 102. — Anal appendages of (a) Heliogomphus walU Fraser, male; 
(b) Heliogomphus lyratui Fraser, male. Dorsal views. 

triangular on 8 ; 7 and 8 with a latero-apical spot on each 
side also ; mid-dorsal carina finely yellow from segment 3 to 7. 
Anai axip&ndages (fig. 102, a) : superiors black for the basal 
third, yellow thereafter ; inferior black. 

Female. — ^Abdomen 38 mm. Hind-wing 36 mm. 

Closely similar to the male, but the yellow on crest of frons 
shghtly interrupted at the middle ; occiput sculptured exactly 
as in the male. Wings similar, but one or more occasionally 
with only a single cubital nervure, and the pterostigma may be 
poorly braced in one or more wiags. Legs with the hind 
femora yellow on the inner side. Segment 8 of abdomen 
unmarked. Anal appendages pale yellow, shortly conical ; 
vulvar scale about one-third as long as segment 9, slightly 
bifid at apex, triangular, black. 

Distritmtion. — Ceylon : Balangoda, Rakvana, and Nalande, 
froro. May to September. 



HELIOGOMPHTJS. 333 

Differs from H. nietneri in the colour of the labium, in the 
occiput being entirely black and the costal borders of the 
wings black, and in the absence of an upper humeral stripe. 
The shape of the anal appendages and the character of the 
sculpturing of the occiput will serve to distinguish this species 
from others of the genus. 

Type female and a paratype male in my collection ; allo- 
type male in the Colombo Museum. 



313. Heliogomphus lyratus Fraser. (Kg. 102, b.) 

Heliogomphus lyratus Fraser, Ceylon J. Sci., B, vol. xviii, p. 31, 
fig. 4,a (1933). 

Male. — Abdomen 34 mm. Hind-wing 30 mm. 

Head : labium with the lateral lobes yellow, tips of these 
and middle lobe black ; labrum black, with two large triangu- 
lar greenish-yeHow spots at base ; rest of head black save for 
a broad greenish-yeUow stripe on crest of frons which extends 
shghtly on to the anterior surface and is nearly cut in two by 
the prolongation of the basal black area medially above the 
frons ; occiput naked, with a narrow posterior sulcus and 
a transverse anterior ridge, which, however, has no ridge 
running back from its middle as in H. loalU. Prothorax 
black, with a narrow anterior yellow collar. Thorax black, 
marked with greenish-yeUow or greenish- white as follows : — 
A very narrow, sMghtly interrupted mesothoracic coUar, 
very iort antehumeral stripes, strongly divergent below 
and not extending the whole length of dorsum ; sides broadly 
greenish-yellow marked with two narrow black stripes, one 
on each lateral suture. Underside yeUow, pruiaosed white 
when mature. Legs black, coxae yellow externally. Wings 
hyaline ; pterostigma dark ochreous, heavily bordered with 
black, covering 3 to 4 cells, not braced ; 2 cubital nervures 
in fore-wings, or rarely but 1, and always only 1 in hind- wings ; 
anal triangle 3-ceUed ; membrane obsolete ; nodal index 



15-16 



Abdomen black, marked with citron-yellow as 



13-12 11-13 

foUows : — Segment 1 with a minute mid-dorsal triangular 
basal spot and its sides broadly ; 2 with a latero-basal spot 
which includes the oreiUets, a latero-apical spot on each side, 
and a short very narrow mid-dorsal stripe ; 3 to 7 with small 
triangular baso-lateral spots on each side ; the mid-dorsal 
carina finely yellow on segments 3 and 4 ; remairung segments 
ufl.marked.. . Anal appendages (fig. 102, b) : superiors Mack 
for the basal two-thirds, apical third yellow tipped" with black; 
inferior black. 
jPemaZe.— Abdomen 33 mm. Hind- wing 30 mm. 



334 GOMPHIDJE. 

Differs in a few respects from the male : — Stripe on crest 
of frons broader and not constricted at its middle ; a small 
superior humeral spot on each side of thorax ; abdomen 
marked with a greenish-yellow mid-dorsal stripe on seg- 
ments 1 to 7, triangular on I, narrow and linear on the 
remaining segments, and not quite extending to the apical ends 
of 5 to 7, a linear greenish-yellow spot on sides of 1 to 8, very 
broad on 1 and 2 and base of 3, broken into an apical and 
a basal linear spot on 4-8. A7ial appendages shortly conical, 
yellow ; vulvar scale nearly half as long as segment 8, broadly- 
triangular, and narrowly cleft for about half its length. 
Wings palely enfumed : only one cubital nervure in all wings. 

Distribution. — Haldumulla, Ceylon, during June. 

This species resembles H. walli ia colour, both differing 
from E. nietneri in the colour of the labium, in the occiput 
being entirely black, the upper humeral spot absent (at least 
in the male), and in the costa being black instead of yellow. 
The enormous size of the lateral spine of the superior 
anal appendages wiU serve to distiaguish H. lyratus from 
all other species of the genus. The sculpturing of the upper 
surface of the occiput will distinguish the female from that 
of U. walli. 

Type male and allotj'pe female in the Colombo Museum. 

314. Heliogomphus spirillus (Eraser). (Kg. 103.) 

Leptogompkics spirillus Praser, Mem. Dept. Agrie. India (Ent.), 
vol. vii, no. 7, pp. 71, 72, pi. vii, figs. 2 & 2 a (1922). 

Helioffomphus spirillus Traser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. xxix, 
pp. 63, 331 (1923); Laidlaw, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lend. vol. Ixxviii, 
p. 182 (1930). 

Ilaie. — ^Abdomen 32 mm. Hind- wing 28 mm. 

Head : labium with middle lobe black, lateral lobes brownish- 
yellow ; rest of head black, save for a broad bright citron- 
yellow stripe on crest of frons ; occiput naked, simple. Pro- 
thorax black, with a narrow anterior yellow collar, a large 
yeUow spot on each side and a small geminate spot on dorsum 
of posterior lobe. Thorax black, with a broad, citron-yellow, 
uninterrupted mesothoracie collar, and elongate-oval, citron- 
yellow antehxnneral spots which do not extend the whole 
length of dorsum and are strongly divergent below ; sides 
broadly yeUow, with two narrow black oblique stripes, one 
on each lateral suture ; under surface yellow, pruinosed with 
white. Legs black, coxae yellow externally. Wings hyaline ; 
pterostigma black, poorly braced ; only a single cubital nervure 

in all wiugs ; anal triangle 3-oeUed ; nodal index 



11-10 10-11- 

Abdomen black, marked with citron-yeUow as follows : — 
Segment 1 with a small triangular baso-dorsal spot and its 



ACEOGOMPHTTS. 335- 

sides broadly ; 2 with a bilobate mid-dorsal stripe, broadest 
near the base, and a baso-lateral spot "which includes the 
oreillets ; 3 with its mid-dorsal carina finely yellow nearly as 
far as the apical end ; 4 to 7 similar, but the marking becoming 
progressively shorter and, in some specimens, entirely absent. 
Anal appendages (%. 103) : superiors bright yellow, inferior 
black. 




Fig. 103. — Anal appendages of Heliogomphus spirillus (Fraser), male. 
Dorsal view. 



Distribution. — ^Assam : Garo and Khasi Hills. 

The species may be distinguished from others of the genus 
by its unmarked labrum, by the braced pterostigma (unusual 
in the genus), and by the shape of the superior anal appendages. 

Type male in the Indian Museum ; paratype male in the 
Pusa collection. 



Genus ACROGOMPHUS Laidlaw. (Kg. 104.) 

Acrogomphvs Laidlaw, Proc. Zool. Soo. Loud. pp. 439, 440 (1925) 
Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soo. vol. xxxi, pp. 739, 740 (1926) 
Laidlaw, Trans. Ent. Soo. Lond. vol. Ixxviii, p. 191 (1930) 
Needham, Rec. Ind. Mus. vol. xxxiv, pp. 217, 218, 222 (1932). 

Size rather large, build robust ; colour glossy black, 
sparingly marked with bright greenish-yellow. 

Head large, triangular, frons well angulated, shallowly 
grooved above ; occiput simple. Wings palely tinted at base ; 
reticulation very close ; tomus anguJated, prominent, base 
of wing obUque, moderately excavated ; membrane narrow, 
almost obsolete ; anal triangle 4-celled ; arc situated between, 
the first and second or second and third antenodal nervures ; 
3 to 6 transverse nervures between the sectors of arc from, arc 
to bifurcation of Rs in fore-wings, 2 to 3 in hind-wings ; 
1 to 2 rows of postanal cells in fore-wings, 3 to 4 in hind- wing ; 
anal loop present ; first postanal cell in hind- wing divided 
and extending inwards well proximal to the proximal 



336 



GOMPHID^. 



end of base of subtrigone ; basal incomplete antenodal 
nervures absent ; nodal index high ; primary antenodals 
the first and the fifth or sixth ; discoidal cells entire, that of 
fore-wing with distal side longer than costal and the latter 
slightly longer than basal, that of hind-wing with costal 
and distal sides subequal and both nearly twice the length of 
basal, this cell very elongate in the length of wing ; ptero- 
stigma rather short and stout, braced, equal in length to about 
one-third the distance from node to proximal end of ptero- 
stigma ; lA in fore-wing markedly pectinate ; Cuii and lA 
in hind- wing parallel as far as border of wings ; only 1 cubital 
nervTire in fore-wing, 1 to 2 in hind- wing ; aU subtrigones 
and hypertrigones entire. Legs rather short, hind femora 
extending only as far as base of first abdominal segment, 




Fig. 10-i. — Wings of Aerogomphus fraseri Laidlaw, male. 

furnished with a group of short, numerous, closely-set spiaes 
on the proximal half of the flexor surface, which merge into 
two rows of sUghtly longer and more robust spines at the distal 
end ; tibial spines numerous, closely-set and rather short. 
Abdomen tumid at base, narrow and cylindrical from segment 
3 as far as the middle of segment 7, from which point it 
gradually widens again, segments 8 and 9 having short but 
distinct wing-like prolongations laterally. Anal appendages : 
superiors simple, curved, and sKghtly forcipate, tapering 
to the end, rather longer than segment 10 ; inferior bifid, 
its long branches sUghtly divaricate. Genitalia : lamina' 
narrow, arched, and prominent ; anterior hamules long narrow 
processes ending in a small recurved hook-like spine.; posterior 
hamules broad, flattened, sinuous processes, recurved back 



ACEOGOMPHtrS. 337 

and tapering to a fine point ; lobe moderately large, scoop- 
shaped. 

Genotype, Acrogomfhus fraseri Laidlaw. 

Distribution. — Western India, from the montane areas of 
Coorg, Annaimallai, and Mudis Hills, and the High Eange of 
Travancore, Assam, Buhma, Malaysia, and Indo-China. 

Species of the genus are arboreal by nature, often resting at 
great heights on trees, only occasionally coming down to the 
beds of turbulent mountain streams, in which they breed 
in wild areas. Only one species occurs within our limits. 
(0. circularis Selys is not an Acrogomphus, as formerly surmised 
by Laidlaw ; a specimen of this insect which I possess has the 
venation typical of that of Onychogomphus.) 

The larvae resemble those of Burmagomphus (p. 212). 

315. Acrogomphus fraseri Laidlaw (Figs. 104 & 105.) 

Acrogomphus fraseri Laidlaw, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. pp. 441-44S 
(1925); Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. xxxi, pp. 740, 741, 
text-fig. 3, pi. i, fig. 6 (1926); id., Ree. Ind. Mus. vol. xsxiii, 
pp. 459, 460 (1931); Needham, Keo. Ind. Mus. vol. xxxiv, 
pp. 217, 218 (1932). 

Male. — Abdomen 44 mm. Hind-wing 38 mm. 

Head : labium variegated with shades of brown ; labrum. 
black, with a greenish-yeUow semilunar spot on either side of 
the middle line ; bases of mandibles, anteclypeus, the upper 
part of frons, and its anterior border yellow. Base of fcons 
above, vertex, and occiput black, the latter simple, emarginate, 
and with a minute notch at its centre. Profhorax black, 
unmarked. Thorax black, marked with bright citron-yellow 
as follows : — ^A narrow interrupted mesothoracic collar, a pair 
of wedge-shaped antehumeral stripes not extending as far up 
as the alar sinus, and falling well short of the mesothoracic 
collar below, squared above, pointed and divergent below. 
Laterally a broad stripe on the mesepimeron, the posterior 
three-fouxths of the metepimeron, and a small spot of yellow 
above and between them. Legs black, inner surfaces of 
anterior femora bright yellow, a smaU. spot of the same colour 
at the middle of the outer side of mid-femora and a larger 
spot on the hind femora. Wings pale saffron throughout, 
this colour deepening gradually to a golden yellow near the 

11—18 18—11 

bases. Nodal index variable, in three specimens 



12-12 



11-16 



12-12 



16-12 9-15 



12-11 ' 



12-12' 10-11 



1 Q 

; pterostigma black, braced, cover- 



11-9 

ing 5 cells ; 1 cubital nervure in all wings ; anal loop well 
developed, formed of 2 cells, and extending proximaUy nearly 
to level of cubital nervure ; discoidal field in fore-wing of 
2 rows of cells to beyond level of node ; membrane black. 
VOL. n. z 



338 



GOMPHID^. 



Abdomen black, marked with bright citron-yellow as follows : — 
Segment 1 with a triangular dorsal spot, its base resting on 
the apical border of segment, laterally a large spot ; 2 with 
a linear mid-dorsal stripe slightly expanded basally, and two 
spots on each side, one of which includes the large oreillet, 
the other apical ; 3 to 6 each with a pair of subdorsal basal 
spots decreasing in size from 3 to 6 ; 3 also with a small mid- 
dorsal subbasal spot ; 7 with the basal half yellow, the yellow 
invaded by the black dorsal carina behind and in front, and 
separated narrowly from the base of segment by a narrow 
basal black ring ; 8 with a subbasal spot on each side, and 
9 with a similar but much smaller spot (absent in some speci- 
mens). Anal appendages (fig. 105) : superiors dark reddish- 
brown, almost black ; inferior black. Genitalia : lamina 





Fig. 105. — ^Anal appendages of Acrogomphus fraseri Laidlaw, male. 
Dorsal and left lateral views. 

small, prominent, narrowly arched ; anterior hamules thin, 
moderately long, directed backwards, the apices ending in 
a small needle-like point which turns abruptly outwards ; 
posterior hamules somewhat similar in shape, but larger and 
more robust, sinuous, ending ia a point which is directed 
backwards and inwards ; lobe scoop-shaped, prominent, black. 

Female. — ^Abdomen 43 mm. Hind-wing 40 mm. 

Very similar to the male, the wings broader, rather less 
deeply tinted than in the male ; abdomen broader, stouter, 
cylmdrical throughout. Markings a Httle broader ; the two 
spots on sides of segment 2 confluent to form a complete 
lateral staipe ; the carinal spot on 3 larger ; lateral spots on 
8 and 9 absent ; labium pale brown ; occiput sirailar to 
that of male, but with a large conical spine at each end, situated 



MACEOGOMPHtrS. 339 

"well behind inner corner of eyes. Spines on femora fewer, 

more widely spaced, and more robust. Nodal index rather 

1,- , ■ ,, - 12-21 1&-12 13-18119-14 

higher, m three specimens j-o i ^^ 



15-13' 14-141 14-14 



14^15 

12—21 i 20—12 

,- ^ t^ L ~ , . ; 1 cubital nervure in fore-wing, 1 to 2 in hind- 

13-15 i 15-14 ® 

wing. Vulvar scale less than half the length of segment 9, bifid 

almost to its base, its two branches divaricate, separated by 

a broad rounded notch, the branches broadly and bluntly 

triangular. 

Distribution. — South India : Coorg, at altitudes of 3,000 ft., 
Mudis Hills, and the montane areas of Travancore. 

Only a few pairs of this rare and beautiful insect are known, 
but possibly its rareness is due to its habit of roosting at great 
heights, often as much as 100 feet or more above the ground. 
I have watched females ovipositing in the Sampaji stream, 
Coorg, generally in tunnels formed by cane-brakes arching 
and covering over the stream. They drop their eggs in clean 
water where the current is swift and the bottom sandy or 
^avelly. At such spots they hover about 1 inch above the 
surface of the stream, glide forward for a few feet, reverse 
rapidly in their own length, and return. This manoeuvre 
is repeated again and again, a hovering pause taking place 
before each turn to give time for a fresh batch of eggs to be 
extruded. With each glide the insect dips and strokes the 
eggs off on the water's surface. Females are occasionally 
■seen crossing open glades, flying low, and trailing the abdomen 
as if it were fractured. With the aid of field-glasses males 
could be seen at times perched on prominent dead twigs 
on the tops of trees, or soaring at great heights in company 
with Ghlorogomphits campioni and Zygonyx iris. 

Type in the Laidlaw collection ; specimens in the British 
Museum, Morton, and my own collections. 

Genus MACROGOMPHUS Selys. (Kgs. 45a(B)& 106.) 

Het&rogomphiia Selys (pars), Bull. Acad. Belg. vol. xsi, pt. 2, p. 27 
(1864) ; id., ibid. (2) vol. vii, p. 334 (1859) 

Maarogomphus Selys, Mom. Gomph. pp. 87, 428 (1857); Kirby, 
Cat. Odon. p. 63 (1890); WUliamson, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 
vol. xxxiii, pp. 287-290 (1907) ; Laidlaw, Ree. Ind. Mus. vol. xxiv, 
p. 375 ( 1922) ; Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soo. vol. xxix, pp. 60, 
329 (1923); id., ibid. vol. xxxi, pp. 733, 734 (192S); Laidlaw, 
Trans. Ent. Soo. Lond. vol. hcxviii, p. 183 (1930); Needham, 
Zool. Siniea, ser. A, vol. xi, faso. 1, pp. 19, 43, 44(1930); id.. 
Bee. Ind. Mus. vol. xxxiv, pp. 217, 218 (1932). 

Size large and build robust ; colour black, marked with 
bright citron-yellow ; eighth and ninth abdomiual segments 
'Of great length. 

z2 



340 



GOMPHIDiE. 



Head moderately large, transversely narrow ; frons strongly 
angulate ; occiput simple, straight. Wings : reticulation 
very close ; tomus strongly angulate ; base of hind-wing 
deeply excavate ; anal triangle 3-celled ; arc opposite the 
second antenodal nervure or between the second and third ; 
5 to 6 transverse nervures between the sectors of arc in fore- 
wing from arc to bifurcation of Ss, 3 to 4 in hind- wing ; 
2 rows of postanal cells in fore-wing, 4 to 5 in hind-wing ; 
anal loop absent, the first postanal cell not extending proximal 
to the base of subtrigone ; a basal incomplete antenodal 
nervure present in aU wings ; nodal index high ; primary 
antenodals the first and the fifth, sixth or seventh ; discoidal 
cells entire, that of the fore-wings with costal and basal 
sides equal, the distal but slightly longer, that of hind-wing 
elongate in length of wing, the distal side sKghtly longer than 




Fig. 106. — ^lA'^ings of Macrogomphus seductus Fraser, male. 

costal, the costal nearly half as long again as the basal - 
pterostigma long and narrow, more than one-third as long as 
distance from proximal end of pterostigma to node, usually 
but poorly braced; I A in fore-wing markedly pectinate; 
Cuii and lA in hind-wing parallel to wing-border ; usually 
2 cubital nervures in the fore-wings, only 1 in hind- wing ; 
subtrigones and hypertrigones entire in all wings. Legs 
robust but short, hind femora not extending beyond the 
posterior border of thorax, and furnished with a group of 
numerous short but stout spines on the flexor surface, which 
form two rows towards the distal end of limb ; hind tibial 
spiaes of satme limb slim, olosely-set, and short. Abdomen 
tumid at base, then slim and cylindrical from segment 3 to base 



MACEOGOMPHtrS. 341 

■of segment 7, the latter dilating apically, 8 very broad, 
9 tapering from base to apex, and nearly as long as segments 7 
and 8 together, 10 very small and very short. Anal appendages : 
superiors rather longer than segment 10, conical and acutely 
pointed at apex, fmrnished with a long medial inner spine, 
strongly divaricate ; ioferior broadly and deeply bifid, its 
two branches sinuous, long and tapering. Genitaha : lamina 
arched, depressed ; anterior hamules short, narrowly spatulate ; 
posterior hamules very broad and foliate, ending in a fine 
curled spine ; lobe broadly emarguiate at lip, scrotum-shaped. 

Genotype, Heterogomphus rohustus Selys. 

Distribution. — Wbsteen India, the Decgan, Ceylon, 
Bengal, Assam, Buema, Malaysia, Indo-China, Java, Sumatra, 
Borneo, and Tibet. Six species are known to occur within 
out limits, one of which is confined to Ceylon, one to the whole 
of Western India south of Bombay, and the others to N.E. 
India and Burma. 

The larvae (fig. 45 a,B), which breed in submontane streams, 
are curious insects, the terminal segments being prolonged iato 
a narrow, tubular, syphon-like structure to enable the insect to 
breathe whilst the rest of its body is immersed in mud and sand. 
At the time of emergence, the rocks, in the bed of the streams 
in which they breed, are often encrusted with nymphal esuvise 
of this species, and yet not a single imago wiU be found on the 
,wing in the neighbourhood. la two years spent in Coorg 
only a single imago was seen, and yet thousands of exuviae 
were observed during the same time. In the Deccan at this 
season great numbers of adults were observed perched on the 
twigs of Babul trees about a imle away from the parent river, 
so that it is evident that, as soon as they emerge, they betake 
themselves to the jungle, where copulation takes place, the 
female only returning to the streams to oviposit. In heavy 
evergreen jungle such as as found ia Coorg, the adults probably 
perch high in trees, and so are rarely seen by the collector. 

Key to Indian Species of Macrogomphus. 

("Two narrow black stripes on sides of thorax. . montantLS (Selys), 
1. -< Only a single broad black stripe on sides of [p. 345. 

L thorax 2. 

{Legs black, anterior femora on inner side 3. 
yellow 
Legs black, anterior femora unmarked 5. 

'Abdomen with yeUow basal rings on seg- 
ments 3 to 6 ; vertex with a median yellow [p. 342. 

„ ) spot annulatus (Selys), 

) Abdomen with paired yellow basal spots on. 
segments 3 to 6; vertex without a median 
yellow spot 4. 



342 GoaiPHiD^. 

Labrum black, with two large yellow spots at 
base; segment 8 with a yellow subdorsal 
spot on each side ; prothorax marked with [p. 349. 

4. -^ yellow laterally and on dorsum lankane.nsis Fras., 

Labrum black, the yellow spots almost 

obsolete ; segment 8 and prothorax un- [p. 344. 

marked wynaadicv^ Fras., 

'Labrum black, unmarked ; occiput with a bifid 

tubercle above; at least 19 antenodal ner- [p. 346. 

vures in fore-wings robustus (Selys), 

5. ■{ Labrum with two large yellow spots at base ; 
occiput simple, without a bifid tubercle; 
not more than 15 antenodal nervures in [p. 347. 
fore-wings seductus Fras., 

316. Macrogomplius annulatus (Selys). (Mgs. 107 & 108, a.) 

Heterogomphus annulatus Selys, Bull. Acad. Belg. vol. xxi, pt. 2, 
p. 28 (1854). 

Macrogomphus annulatus Selys, Mon. Gomph. pp. 92, 405 (1857); 
id., Bull. Acad. Belg. (2) vol. sxviii, p. 170 (1869); Kirby,, 
Cat. Odon. p. 63 (1890); Martin, Mission Pavie Indo-Chine> 
vol. iii, p. 213 (1904); Williamson, Proe. U.S. Nat. Mus. 
vol. sxxiii, pp. 288, 290 (1907) ; Fraser, Eee. Ind. Mus. vol. xvi,. 
pp. 461, 462, pi. xxxiii, fig. 3, pi. xxxiv, figs. 4, 4o (Larva) 
(1919); id., J. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. iii, p. 457 (1919); 
Laidlaw, Reo. Ind. Mus. vol. xxiv, pp. 371, 376 (1922) ; Fraser,, 
J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soe. vol. sxix, pp. 61, 329 (1923); id., 
Eec. Ind. Mus. vol. xxi-i, pp. 427, 470, 471 (1924) ; id., J. Bom- 
bay Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. xxxi, pp. 734-736, text-fig. 2, i, ii, v,. 
pi., fig. 1 (1926); Laidlaw, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. vol. Ixxviii, 
p. 183 (1930) ; Fraser, Rec. Ind. Mus. vol. xxxiii, p. 447 (1931) ; 
Needham, Eec. Ind. Mus. vol. xxxiv, p. 220 (1932); Fraser, 
J. Siam. Soc, Nat. Hist. Suppl. vol. ix, pp. 137, 139, text-fig. viii 
(1933) ; id., Ceylon J. Sei., B, vol. xviu, pt. i, pp. 19, 20, 25, 
test-fig. 2, a, b (1933). 

Mah. — ^Abdomen 45 mm. Hiad-wing 35 mm. 

Head black, marked with citron-yellow as follows : — ^Lateral 
lobes of labium ; bases of mandibles ; two very large trans- 
versely oval spots on labrum ; a large spot on each side of 
postelypeus against the eye, connected narrowly along the 
lower border of postelypeus ; upper surface of frons except at 
its extreme base, where a small median black point projects 
iato the yellow ; an obscure spot on the vertex. Occiput 
straight, slightly raised, its border fringed with black hairs. 
Prothorax black, marked with a small yellow spot on either 
side and a narrow anterior yeUow collar. Thorax black, 
with two thick wedge-shaped citron-yellow antehumeral 
dorsal stripes, tapering to a point above, broadly confluent 
with a narrow interrupted mesothoracio yeUow ooUar below, 
the inner border of these stripes parallel, the outer divergent 
below. Middle of ante-alar sinus narrowly yellow, sides very 
teoadly so, and marked by a broad medial oblique black 
stripe which is bifid below and encloses a yellow spot. Legs 



IHACEOGOMPHtrS. 



345 



Wings 
Nodal 



black, coxae and trochanters with a large yellow spot, 
hyaline, with a pale yeUow ray in the cubital space. 
;r>^p-r _?=mi?lli: • 2 cubital nervures in all wings ; ptero- 

lUUcJL -^ , , 11—10 ' 

stigma dark brownish-black AbdorM.. Wack, margd with 
citron-yeUow as foUows :-Segment 1 ^*^. *J^^ ^ij' "Z 
dorsum broadly; 2 with a lanceolate dorsal bdobed^jpe the 
oreiUets broadly and a latero-basal stripe; 3 to 6 J^J^ J>I°*^ 
basal complete rmgs equal to nearly ^f «-^°'"*5 *tif°gtl,er 
spffments ■ 7 with its basal half yeUow on dorsum ratner 
mS ttn tMs MeraUy ; 8 and 9 with a baso-lateral te^n^ar 
spot. Anal appendages (fig. 107) : superiors y^^^!^'. ^^^"^^^ 
border, branch, and extreme apex rusty ^^^^^ ' ".'^ 
black. GenUalia : lamina formmg a gothic arch, W^^^^' 
coated with straight hairs; anterior hamules moderately 




Fisr 107 —Anal appendages of Macrogomphua annulaius (Selys), male. 
^ • Bight lateral and dorsal views. 

long siauous, pointed at apex as seen in P^^e spatulate ^ 
seen fSm below; posterior hamules very robust, broad, 
SopinSckwards'and markedly projecting, the extreme a,pex 
eSlin a fine curled spine directed fomards and mwards, 
lobTStum-shaped, black, corrugated, deeply b,£d mto two 
conical nipple-hke processes. oo ^„ 

TewwZe.-Abdomen 49 mm. Hmd-wmg 38 mm. 

dXs in a few respects from the male, as foUows.- 
YeuS markings more extensive ; stripe on irons broader 
the slot on vertex large and conspicuous, lymg ]ustm front 
of ocdpX thorax niarly always with an upper humeri 
snot Sy present in the male), and nearly ^ Ws ^* two 
sSsm the lateral black band ; pterostigma shghtly longer. 



nodal index higher, 



11-17 



11-14 



18-9 
12-10 



; occiput with a bifid or trifid 



tubercle on its hinder border, occasionaUy separated as 2 or <} 



344 GOMPHID^. 

robust spines ; abdominal segment 9 longer and 10 shorter 
than in the male. Vulvar scale glossy black, short, broad at 
base, tapering to a blimt poiat, bifid at apex, but the two 
branches closely apposed. 

Distribution. — The Dbccaij bordering on the Western 
Ghats. The type, in the British Museum, probably came from 
Poona or Satara, where I found the species quite common 
during September and October. It breeds in the Moolah 
Eiver and from thence flies inland for long distances, nearly 
every Babul tree harbouriag one or two specimens. 

317. Macrogomphus wynaadicus Fraser. 

Macrogomphus wynaadicus Fraser, Rec. Ind. Miis. vol. xxvx, 
pp. 427, 471, 472 (1924) ; id., J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soe. vol. X2£xi, 
pp. 736, 737 (1926) ; Laidlaw, Trans. Ent. Soo. Lond. vol. Ixxviii, 
p. 183 (1930) ; Eraser, Reo. Ind. Mus. vol. xxxiii, p. 447 (1931) ; 
Jveedham, Bee. Ind. Mus. vol. xsxiv, p. 220 (1932); Fraser, 
J. Siam. Soc, Nat. Hist. Suppl. vol. ix, p. 139 (1933). 

Male unknown. 

i'ewiafe.— Abdomen 53 mm. Hind- wing 45 mm. 

Closely related to M. annulatus, of which it may be a sub- 
species, but larger, and differs as follows : — Yellow spots on 
labrum ahnost obsolete ; face entirely black save for a 
small spot at each end of postclypeus ; occiput a little 
emargiaate and without any vestige of the spiaes foimd ia 
M. annulatiis, a dark brown line anteriorly replaces the con- 
spicuous yeUow spot seen in that species ; prothorax entirely 
black ; thorax without any humeral marking, the lateral 
black line, on the contrary, is marked with a medial yellow 
interrupted line. Wings, in the type, rather darkly and evenly 
enfinned, but this may be mere evidence of old age ; reticula- 
tion closer than in M. annulatus, the pterostigma covers 
■6-7 cells instead of only 4, and the nodal index is higher, 

■\A oQ i 20—14 

" ; 2 cubital nervures in all wings. Abdomen 

differing more markedly in having paired spots instead of 
complete rings ; segment 2 with the dorsal stripe broadly 
broken at its centre ; 3 with a large baso-lateral dorsal spot 
widely separated from its fellow by the black dorsal carina ; 
4 to 6 sirmlar, but the spots smaller ; 7 with the yellow basal 
half spht as far as its base by a black dorsal carina ; 10 longer 
and narrower than m M. annulatus. Vulvar scale shorter, 
with convex hinder border, not bifid. 

Distribution. — Sotjth-Wbst India : Nilgiri Wynaad, Coorg, 
and the Western Ghats from North Kanara to Malabar. 

The adult is rarely seen, although the larvae and exuvia 
may be found abundantly in any stream throughout the area. 



MACROGOMPHTJS. 345 

I have seen vast numbers of exuvia on rocks in the Kibribetta 
stream. North Coorg, but not one imago was to be seen in the 
neighbourhood. 

Tyjae in my own collection. 

318. Maerogomphus montanus Selys. (Fig. 108, b.) 

Macrogomphus montanus Selys, Bull. Acad. Belg. (2) vol. xxviii, 
p. 171 (1869); Kirby, Cat. Odon. p. 63 (1890); Williamson, 
Proe. U.S. Ifat. Mus. vol. xxxiii, pp. 289, 290 (1907) ; Laidlaw. 
Rec. Ind. Mus. vol. xxiv, pp. 371, 377, 378, text-fig. 2 (1922); 
Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soo. vol. xxix, pp. 61, 329 (1923) ; 
id., Mem. Dept. Agrie. India (Ent.), vol. viii, p. 81, pi. ix, figs. 5, 7 
(1924) ; id., J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. xxxi, pp. 738, 739, 
pi., fig. 3 (1926); Laidlaw, Trans. Ent. See. Lond. vol. Ixxviii, 
p. 183 (19,30); Needham, Zool. Siniea, ser. A, vol. xi, fasc. 1, 
p. 44(1930); id., Kec. Ind. vol. xxxiv, p. 220 (19.32); Fraser, 
J. Siam. Soc, Nat. Hist. Suppl. vol. ix, p. 139 (1933). 

Male. — ^Abdomen 50 mm. Hind-wing 38-40 mm. 

Head black, marked with yeUow as follows : — Two rather 
large oval basal spots on labrum ; whole of labium ; lower 
border of postclypeus ; a stripe on upper border of frons. 
Occiput brown, its border raised into a small conical tubercle 
at the middle. Prothorax black, unmarked. Thorax black, 
marked with antehumeral stripes similar to those of M. sediictus, 
but rather longer and wider (roughly these marks may be com- 
pared to the outline of a tintack with its head below) ; in 




Fig. 108. — Thoraoie markings of (a) Maerogomphus annulatus (Selys), 
male ; (b) Maerogomphus montanus (Selys), male. 

addition, there is a narrow himieral stripe gradually tapering 
away to a fine point below. Sides broadly yellow, the two 
lateral sutures finely mapped out in black. Wings hyaline, 
palely enfumed, reticulation close, brown ; pterostigma dark 



12—18 
brown, covering 5 to 6 cells ; nodal index 



20-11 
10-11 12-11- 

Legs dark blackish-brown. Abdomen black, marked with 
yellow as follows : — Segment 1 almost entirely yellow ; 
2 with a basal ring confluent with a dorsal stripe and a broad 
spot on the oreillets ; 3 to 6 with basal rings as in M. annulatus, 
but longer and occup3ring about one-thid of the segments ; 



346 GOMPHIDiE. 

3 and 4 with these rings prolonged along the dorsum shortly ;. 
7 -with the basal half yellow and also prolonged along the 
dorsum ; 9 with a small baso-lateral spot. Anal appeTidages 
very similar to those of M. annulatus, tMck at base, divaricate, 
tapering to a point in the apical half ; the inner branch springing, 
from the middle of appendage, sloping downwards and inwards, 
black in colotir, its apex bevelled to a point and extending 
a little beyond the apices of superior appendages ; inferior 
appendage black, nearly as long as superiors, widely and deeply 
forked, branches more divaricate than superiors. 

Female. — ^Abdomen 47 mm. Hind-wing 40 mm. 

Very similar to male, differs in having the yellow markings 
rather more extensive. Wings tinted with yellow at base 
and along costal margin ; pterostigma pale brown ; nodal index 
shghtly higher. Occiput yellow, its border bicrenulate and 
with a tubercle situated behind, similar to but larger than that 
of male. (This tubercle is not visible from the front.) Seg- 
ment 2 of abdomen has the dorsal stripe broader and bilobate, 
the rings on the other segments distinctly broader. Anal 
appendages yellow, conical, very tiny and inconspicuous. 
Vulvar scale similar to that of M. seductits. Legs dark 
reddish-brown ; tibiae on the outer side, and also the hind 
femora, reddish-brown. 

Distribution. — Sylhet, Assam. 

This species is at once distinguished from all other Indian 
members of the genus by the presence of a humeral stripe 
and the sides of the thorax being marked with two fine black 
hnes iastead of the thick medial black stripe. 

Type in the Selys collection. A pair in the Indian Museum 
determined by Selys, but without data as to locality. 

Macrogomphus robustus (Selys). (Fig. 109, a.) 

Heterogom/phus robustus Selys, Bull. Acad. Belg. vol. xxi, pfc. 2, 
p. 27 (1854). 

Macrogomphus robv^tus Selys, Mon. Gomph. p. 88 (1857) ; ICirby,, 
Cat. Odon. p. 63 (1890); WiUiamson, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 
vol. xsxiii, pp. 289, 290 (1907); Laidlaw, Ree. Ind. Mus. 
vol. xxlv, pp. 371, 375, 376, text-fig. 1 (1922) ; Fraser, J. Bom- 
bay Nat. Hist. Soo. vol. xxix, pp. 61, 329 (1923); id., ibid, 
vol. xxxi, p. 737 (1926); Laidlaw, Trans. Ent. Soo. Lond. 
vol. Ixxviii, p. 183 (1930); Needham, Zool. Sinica, ser. A, 
vol. xi, faso. 1, p. 44 (1930); id., Rec. Ind. Mus. vol. xxxiv,. 
p. 220 (1932); Fraser, J. Siam. Soc, Nat. Hist. Suppl. vol. ix, 
p. 139 (1933). 

Male. — Abdomen missing in the type, but by analogy 
with other species about 45 mm. Hind- wing 42 mm. 

Head black, frons depressed, not notched, forming a very 
obtuse angle in front, marked with an orange stripe in front of 
ocelli ; a blackish spot at side of mandibles ; ocelli and lower 
lip partly brown ; an obscure brown spot on clypeus ; occiput 



MACEOGOMPHTTS. 



347 



not scale-like, but witli a large raised bifid tubercle at its 
middle, hairy in front and behind. Proihorax black, with, 
a basal ring and a lateral spot yellow. Thorax black, with 
6 orange stripes, the two in front cuneiform, separated from 
each other, broader towards the mesothoracic notch, which 
they do not quite reach, their apex not quite reaching the 
alar siaus ; two lateral, sHghtly oval stripes, situated under 
the wings. A yellow spot at middle of antealar sinus and 
a large dorsal band of same on interalar space. Legs entirely 
black. Wings moderately broad, tinted with yellow ochre, 
especially towards the base ; reticulation black ; pterostigma 
brown between black nervures, a little yellowish, moderately 




Kg. 109. — ^Thoracic markings of (a) Macrogomphus robusttis Selys, 
male ; (b) Macrogomphus seditctiis Fraser, male. 

broad, 4 to 5 mm. long, covering 6 ceils ; anal border very 
excavate ; membrane black, very slender, but extending 
as far as anal angle ; 19 antenodal nervures in fore-wings, 
14 in Iliad- wiogs, 13 postnodal nervures in all wings. 

Female. — Unknown. 

Distribution . — ^Tibet . 

This species is distinguished by its entirely black labium, 
by the bifid tubercle on the occiput, and by its high nodal 
index. The latter character, and the simple occiput, have 
induced me to separate from it M. seductus, to which species 
belong the two males and the single female in the Indian 
Museum placed by Laidlaw and Selys as M. robustus. 

Type, a unique male in the Selys collection. 



319. Macrogomphus seductus Eraser. (Figs. 109, b & 110.) 

Maarogom'phus rohuslus Laidlaw (M. seductivbs Traser, neo M. robus- 
tus Selys), Rec. Ind. Mus. vol. xxiv, pp. 375, 376, text-fig. 1 
(1922). 

Macyrogomphus seductus Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soe_ 
vol. xxxi, pp. 737, 738, pL, fig. 2, text-figs. 1 a, 2, iii, iv, v 
(1926); Laidlaw, Trans. Ent. See. Lond. vol. Ixxviii, p. 184 
(1930); Needham, Eeo. Ind. Mus. vol. xxxiv, p. 220 (1932) ^ 
Fraser, J. Siam. Soc, Nat. Hist. Suppl. vol. ix, p. 139 (1933). 

Male. — Abdomen 50 mm. Hind- wing 40 mm. 



348 



GOIEPHID^. 



Head : labium black ; labrum glossy black, ■with two trans- 
versely-elongate greenish-yellow spots at base ; anteclypeus 
black ; postclypeus black, but its lower border and a large spot 
on either side against the eyes greenish-yellow ; frons black 
in front, broadly yellow above, -where its base only is finely 
black ; vertex and occiput black, the latter simple, neither 
spined nor tubereulated, fringed with long black hairs behind. 
Proihorax black, marked "with a narrow anterior yellow collar. 
Thorax black, marked with citron-yellow as follows : — Ante- 
humeral stripes tapering to a fine point above at the alar 
sinus, very broadly confluent below with a slightly interrupted 
mesothoracic collar. No humeral marking. Sides broadly 
yellow, marked with a broad medial obHque black band, 
which is itself marked with an upper small spot and a lower 
large spot. Legs entirely black, but trochanters and coxse 
marked with yellow. Wings tinted with pale yellow, more 




Fig, 110. — ^Anal appendages of Macrogomphus aeductm Fraser, male. 
Kight lateral and dorsal views. 

deeply so at bases, especially in the cubital space; ptero- 
stigma black (dark brown by transmitted light), covering 



5 to 6 cells, braced ; nodal index - 



14-10 



11-10 ' 



membrane 



10-10 .. .„ 
brown ; anal triangle 3-celled. Abdomen black ; segment 1 
with its apical half citron-yellow, the basal black area encroach- 
ing on this subdorsally, where is a well-marked ridge resembling 
a second rudimentary oreiQet bearing a fringe of long hairs ; 
2 with a broad basal ring, the oreillets except for a fine blackish- 
brown border, and its sides broadly yellow, the black on this 
segment restricted to a broad subdorsal band ending basally 
abruptly at the jugal suture ; 3 to 6 with broad basal yellow 
rings slightly notched by the black dorsal carina and covering 
nearly one-third of segment 3, one-fourth of 4 and rather 
less of 5 and 6 ; 7 with the basal half yellow ; 8 with an irregu- 
lar baso-lateral yellow stripe ; 9 and 10 immarked. Anal 



MACKOGOMPHTJS. 34& 

appendages (fig. 110) : superiors pale yellow, the apices 
cameous, as also the itmer branch ; inferior glossy black. 
Genitalia : lamina narrow, more prominent than in M. annulatiis, 
deeply and roundly arched ; anterior hamules spatula te, 
narrow at base, broadening apically, convergent ; posterior 
hamules very robust, flattened, bluntty pointed at the apex, 
where there is a pencil of long fine hairs ; subapically is a small 
recurved spine ; lobe similar to that of M. annulatus. 

Female. — Abdomen 66 mm. Hind- wing 44 mm. 

Very similar to male. Occiput slightly concave, simple. 

Prothorax black, with three tiny obscure spots on the posterior 

lobe in addition to the anterior coUar. Thorax and legs not 

differing from those of the male. Wings enfumed, the tinting 

12—19 1 18—12 
only evident at the bases ; nodal index ,, ,^ L^ ,, ; 2 cubital 
•^ 11-12 1 13-11 

nervures in all wings. Abdomen similar to that of the m.ale 

but the subdorsal black fascia on segment 2 confluent over 

the dorsum, and the dorsal carina on segments 4 to 7, especially 

6 and 7, black, the basal rings being split into basal paired 

spots. Anal appendages creamy-yellow, very short, corneal. 

Vulvar scale very short, glossy black, split as far as its base 

into two smaU but broad triangular processes. 

Distribution. — ^A pair in my collection (the male the type) 
from Hasimara, Duars, Bengal [H. V. O'Donel). Two males 
and a female in the Indian Museum from Sibsagar, Assam, 
the males doubtfully referred to M. robustus by Laidlaw, 
the female labelled M. robustus by De Selys himself, although 
he never described the female of M. robustus, and mentions 
it as unknown. 

The differences between M. robustus and M. seductus have 
already been pointed out tinder the description of the former. 
From M. montanus the present species is easily distinguished 
by the total absence of a humeral stripe, etc. 



320. Maerogomphus lankanensis Fraser. (Fig. 111.) 

Macrogomphiis annulatiis Selj'S {M. lankanensis, neo annulatus) 
Laidlaw, Spolia Zeylanica, vol. xii, p. 340 (1912). 

Macrogomphus annulatus ? Laidlaw \M. lankanensis Fraser, neo 
M. annulatus Selys), Spolia Zeylanica, vol. xii, p. 340 (1924). 

Macrogomphus lankanensis Fraser, Ceylon J. Sei., B, vol. xviii, 
pp. 20, 24-26, text-fig. 2, c & d (1933). 

Male. — ^Abdomen 45 mm. Hind-wing 33 mm. 

Head : labium black, lateral lobes yellowish ; labrum 
black, ma.rked with two large triangular citron-yellow spots ; 
bases of mandibles citron-yellow ; ante- and postclypeus 
black, the latter with two small yellow spots below ; frons 
black, the crest broadly yellow, this colour overlapping on 



350 



GOMPHID^. 



to upper half of anterior smface, the base of frons above, 
vertex, and occiput black, the latter fringed with short black 
hairs. Prothorax black, with a moderately large rounded 
spot on each side of the middle lobe and a small oval one on 
middle of posterior lobe. Thorax black, marked with citron- 
yellow as follows : — ^An antehumeral stripe parallel with the 
mid-dorsal carina, thickened below and tapered above as far 
as the ante-alar sinus, this stripe shaped hke a tintaek with the 
head below ; a smaU superior humeral spot ; two broad 
lateral stripes, the posterior of which covers the anterior 
half of the metepimeron, and between these stripes an upper 
and a lower spot. Legs black, fore femora with an oval 
yellow spot on the inner side. Wings hyahne ; pterostigma 
blackish-brown, braced, covering five cells : anal triangle 
3-celled ; 2 cubital nervures in fore-wings, 1 in hind-wing ; 



nodal index 



10-16 



10-11 



15-11 



11-10 



Abdomen black, marked with 




Fig. 111. — Anal appendages of Macrogomphiis lankanensis Praser, male. 
Dorsal and right lateral views. 

citron-yellow as follows : — Segment 1 with a mid-dorsal apical 
triangular spot and another large triangular apical spot on 
each side ; 2 with a trilobate mid-dorsal stripe in continuation 
•of the dorsal spot on segment 1, a very large spot on each side 
which includes the oreillets, and a smaJl triangular apical 
lateral spot ; 3 to 6 with large baso-lateral spots ; 7 with its 
basal half yellow, this area with a small black triangular 
baso-dorsal poiat ; 8 with a linear subdorsal spot on each side ; 
remaining segments unmarked. Anal appendages (fig. Ill) : 
superiors creamy yeUow except the tip of ioner branch, which is 
black ; inferior black. 

Distribution. — Cbyloij- only. Murunkhan, N.P., and Hara- 
gama, from June to August ; probably widely distributed 
in various parts of the island in submontane areas. 



MICEOGOMPHTJS. 351 

Differs from M. annulattis, its nearest relative, in the shape 
of the anal appendages and in the less extensive yellow 
markings. I have not had an opportunity of studjnng the 
iemale, but according to Laidlaw the yellow spots on the 
labrum are smaller, the postclypeus is almost entirely black, 
with two very small yellow points, the occiput is entirely 
black, the antehumeral stripes are narrower, and the humeral 
spot is obsolete. 

Type male in the British Museum, formerly in the Colombo 
Museum. 

Genus MICROGOMPHUS Selys. (Figs. 45 a (A) & 112.) 

Microgompkiis Selys, Mon. Gomph. p. 100 (1857); id.. Bull. Acad. 
Belg. (2) vol. vii, p. 533 (1859); Kirby, Cat. Odon. p. 63 (1890); 
Williamson, Proe. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xxxiii, pp. 295, 296 (1907) ; 
Laidlaw, Ree. Ind. Mus. vol. xxiv, p. 380 (1922) ; Fraser, J. Bom- 
bay Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. xxix, pp. 60, 329 (1923); id., ibid, 
vol. XXX, pp. 851, 852 (1925); Laidlaw, Trans. Ent. Soc. Loud, 
vol. Ixxviii, p. 1 82 (1930) ; Needham, Zool. Siniea, ser. A, vol. xi, 
fasc. 1, p. 19 (1930) ; id., Ree. Ind. Mus. vol. xxxiv, pp. 217, 218, 
221 (1932). 

Size very small, the genus containing the smallest species 
■of the famiily ; colour black, marked with greenish-yellow ; 
superior anal appendages curiously branched. 

Head comparatively large for the size of the insects, broad, 
frons angulated, occiput flat, ridged, concave posteriorly. 
Wings : reticulation moderately close ; tomus angulated ; 
base of wing oblique ; sHghtly excavated ; membrane obso- 
lete ; anal triangle 3-eelled ; arc situated opposite the second 
antenodal nervure ; 5 to 6 transverse nervures between the 
sectors of arc from arc to bifurcation of Bs in fore-wings, 
3 to 4 in hind- wings ; only 1 row of postanal ceUs ia fore- 
wings, 2 to 3 rows ia hind-wings ; anal loop absent, the first 
postanal cell in hind- wing extending proximal to the middle 
of subtrigone only ; no iacomplete basal antenodal nervures 
present ; nodal index high ; primary antenodal nervures 
"the first and the fifth ; dlscoidal cells entire, that of fore- 
wing an equilateral triangle, that of hind-wing with the 
distal side longer than the costal and the latter longer than 
the basal ; pterostigma short and stout, equal to about one- 
third the distance from node to proximal end of pterostigma, 
■usually braced ; IA in fore-wing not pectinate, very flatly 
curved, and with only a single row of ceUs between it and the 
border of wiag ; IA and Cuii in the hind- wing divergent 
only at the wing-border ; only 1 cubital nervure ia aU wings ; 
subtrigones and hypertrigones entire in all wings. Legs short, 
the hmd femora extenc^g back as far as the apical border 
of abdominal segment 1 and furnished with a group of very 
short, numerous, and closely-set spines which merge into two 



362 



GOMPHIDiE. 



rows at the extreme distal end of limb ; hind tibial spine 
fine and moderately long and widely spaced. Abdomen 
short, tumid at base, sUm and eylLndxical from segment 3- 
to base of 7, then markedly expanded again, especially 
segments 8 and 9. Anal appendages : superiors rather longer 
than segment 10, conical, pointed at apex, and with a sUm 
medial spine or hook ; inferior triangular, bifid only at apex, 
the two short branches curled upwards. GenitaUa : lamina 
depressed, deeply emarginate ; anterior hamules slim and 
rather short processes ; posterior hamules robust, flattened, 
ending in a short recurved hook ; lobe very prominent, 
purse-shaped, emarginate at lip. 

Genotype, Microgom^phus chelifer Selys. 




Kg. 112. — ^Wings of Mierogomphus torqvatus (Selys), male. 



Distribution. — ^Westben India and the more humid parts 
of the Decoan at altitudes of 2000 and upwards, Btjema, 
Malaysia, Java, Sumatra, Indo-China, and Borneo. Six 
species found within our liroits. 

Species of the genus are arboreal by nature, but quite 
occasionally the males descend and settle on rocks in mid- 
stream ; they do not appear to wander far from their parent 
streams, and may be found settled on evergreens, usually 
beside the water. The larvae breed in deep pools in sub- 
montane streams flowing through heavy primary jiangle ; they 
are broad and flat, resembling those of Lamelligomphus, but 
much smaller, and without the flattened antenna of that 
genus. 

Clcsely related by venation to the genus Hdiogonvphus. 



MICEOGOMPHUS. 353 



4 



■5.^ 



Key to Indian Species of Mierogomphus. 

f Antehumeral stripes not confluent with the 

, J mesothoracio collar 2. 

■ 1 Antehumeral stripes confluent with the 

L mesothoraeic collar 5. 

f Segments 4 and oof abdomen without mid- 
dorsal oval yellow spots ; 8 to 10 without 

yellow markings 3. 

Segments 4 and 5 with mid-dorsal oval 
I yellow spots; 8 and 10 with yellow [p. 353. 

[^ markings torquatus (Selys), 

„ r Vertex with a small yellow spot verticalis (Selys), 

^' I Vertex unmarked 4. [p. 357. 

{Labrum black, marked with two large 
triangular greenish spots souteri Fras., p. 355. 
Labrum unmarked minusculus (Selys), 

("Antehumeral stripes joining the middle of [P- 360. 

mesothoraeic collar each side ; stripes on 
sides of thorax vestigial, only a short 
inferior remnant present; an upper 

humeral spot present loogali Fras., p. 358. 

Antehumeral stripes joining the ends of the 
mesothoraeic collar so as to form inverted 
figure 7's; stripes on sides of thorax 

present and meeting to form a black Y; [p. 357. 

no upper humeral spot present lilUpvtians Fras., 

321. Mierogomphus torquatus (Selys). (Figs. 112 & 113, a.) 

Cyclogomphus torquatus Selys, Bull. Acad. Belg. vol. xxi, pt. 2, 

p. 63 (1854); id.,Mon.Gomph.p. 108 (1857) ; Kirby, Cat. Odon. 

p. 69 (1890); Williamson, Proo. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xxxiii, 

p. 297 (1907). 
Mierogomphus torquatus Laidlaw, Bee. Ind. Mus. vol. xxiv, pp. 371, 

380, 383, text-figs. 4, a&b, and 5(1922); Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. 

Hist. Soc. vol. xxix, pp. 60, 329 (1923); id., ibid. vol. xxx, 

pp. 852, 853, pi. i, fig. 4, text-fig. 3 (1925); Laidlaw, Trans. Ent. 

Soo. Lond. vol. Ixxviu, p. 182 (1930); Needham, Rec. Ind. 

Mus. vol. xxxiv, p. 221 (1932). 
Microgom/phus torquatus torquaius Fraser, Rec. Ind. Mus. vol. xxvi, 

pp. 427, 474 (1924); id., ibid. vol. xxxiii, p. 447 (1931). 

Mak,. — ^Abdomen 22-24 mm. Hind-wing 21 mm. 

Head : labium yellow ; labrum greenish-yellow, the base 
and front border narrowly black, the basal marking produced 
as a triangular mark in the middle line ; frons, bases of man- 
dibles, ante- and post-clypeus greenish-yellow, the frons 
with a broad black transverse stripe where it joins the post- 
cljrpeus, and sending downwards a short oblique submedial 
prolongation on the postel3rpeus at either side ; vertex and 
occiput black, the latter with a low, slightly concave crest 
which is bordered with about ten minute spines. Prothorax 
black, with an anterior collar, a small medial spot on the 
posterior lobe and a larger spot on each side yellow. Thorax 

VOL. n. 2 a 



354 GOMPHiDa:. 

black, marked with yellow as follows : — ^A complete meso- 

thoracic coUar which is confluent with a fine yellow line 

on the lower part of the mid-dorsal carina ; a very oblique 

fusiform antehumeral stripe, not confluent with the meso- 

thoraoic collar, nor reaching the alar sinus above ; an upper 

humeral spot which splits the humeral black above so as 

to form an upright black Y. Laterally greenish-yellow, 

with a black stripe on the posterior suture, which is joined 

at its middle by a narrow oblique black line descending &om 

beneath the fore-wing and is thus converted into a second, 

black Y. Legs black, hind femora on the extensor surface 

with a greenish-yellow stripe which tapers apically. Wings 

hyaline ; pterostigma pale brown between black nervures, 

unbraced, covering 4 cells ; 3 rows of postanal cells 

9—12 ' 12—8 
in fore-wing ; nodal iadex --^pr- . Abdomen black, 

marked with bright greenish-yellow as follows : — Segment I 
with an apical spot on mid-dorsum, narrowly confluent 
with a broad lateral fascia along the apical border of segment ; 

2 with a mid-dorsal bUobed spot not quite reaching the apical 
border, the sides broadly yellow, including the large oreiUets, 
the subdorsal black stripes curving down behind the oreiQets ; 

3 similarly marked, but the lateral yeUow border usually 
finely divided by the black transverse suture ; 4 and 5 with 
broad basal rings occupying about one-third the length of 
segments, a longitudinal oval spot on the mid-dorsal carina 
at the middle of each segment ; 6 similar, but the dorsal 
spot absent, the basal ring on the sides overlapping the 
transverse suture for a short distance ; 7 with its basal half 
or more yeUow, this colour extending nearer the apical border 
on the sides than on the dorsum ; 8 very similar to 7 ; 9 with 
only a small ventro-lateral medial spot ; 10 unmarked. 
Anal appendages (fig. 113, a) : superiors yellow, tipped on the 
outer side and bordered beneath with black. (In many 
specimens the superior appendages have a minute but- 
distinct spuie on the outer side near the apex, but it does 
not appear to be at aU constant.) Genitalia : lamina black, 
depressed, broadly emargiaate ; inner hamules slim, spine- 
like, shorter than the outer, which are robust, paraJlel-sided, 
with the outer comer acutely spined and projecting backwards 
and downwards &om the genital sac, yeUow at base, black 
at apex ; lobe of penis bulbous, black, deeply notched, very 
prominent. 

Female. — Abdomen 27 mm. BOnd-wing 23 mm. 

Closely resembling male, but more robust and larger. 
Occiput shaUowly concave, with 4 to 5 minute black spines 
bordering it on either side of the middle line. Wings tinted 
at the bases ; two rows of cells between lA and the hinder 



fflCROGOMPHTIS. 



355 



margin of fore-wing. Lateral markings of ctMomen more 
extensive ; segments 4 to 6 with a long oval spot on the middle 
of each side ; the mid-dorsal oval spot on segment 5 absent ; 
7 with the lateral yellow finely divided by the black transverse 
suture ; 8 with the basal ring interrupted on the mid-dorsal 
carina. AtmI appendages very small, yellow, conical, pointed. 
Vulvar scale bright yellow, triangular, half the length of 
segment 9, bifid for half its lengbh, the branches closely 
apposed. 








Fig. 113. — ^Anal appendages of (a) Microgomphus torquatus (Selys), male -, 
(b) Miorogomphus souteri Fraser, male. Dorsal views. 

Distribution. — The western parts of the Deccan, Poena 
and Satara. The type, a female in the Selys collection, 
is probably from the former locality, where I have found 
it rather common during the wetter months of the year. 
Males may be seen resting on stones or rocks in the bed of the' 
Byrobah NuUah and also in the neighbouring canal and 
Mullah River, Poena, or they may be beaten up firom ever- 
greens bordering these streams. 



322. Microgomphus souteri Fraser. (Fig, 113, b.) 

Miarogomph/us torgiiatus aouteri Fraser, Kec. Ind. Mus. vol. xxvi, 
pp. 427, 474 (1924) ; id., ibid. vol. xxxiii, p. 447 (1931). 

Microgomphus souteri Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. xxx 
pp. 853, 854, pi. i, Bg. 5, text-fig. 3 (1926) ; Laidlaw, Trans. Ent!" 
Soc. Lend. vol. Ixsviii, p. 182 (1930) ; Needham, Rec. Ind. Mus 
vol. xxxiv, p. 221 (1932). 

Maile. — ^Abdomen 29 mm. Hind- wing. 24 mm. 
Head : labixma pale yellow ; labrum glossy black, with two 
large triangular greenish-white spots nearly confluent at the 

2^2 



356 GOMPHID^. 

middle and separated from the anterior border by a narrow 
black stripe ; antecl3rpeus greenish-white ; postclypeus and 
front of frons glossy black, the lower outer part of the former 
greenish-wMte, continuing the colour of the anteclypeus 
as a transverse stripe, which traverses the whole face at that 
level ; upper surface of frons greenish-white ; vertex and 
occiput black, latter sUghtly concave, fringed with yellow 
hairs, but no minute spines visible ; eyes bottle-green. 
Frotkorax black, with a broad greenish-yellow anterior collar. 
Thorax black, markings difEering from those of M. torquatus 
as follows : — ^Mesothoraoic collar slightly interrupted in the 
middle ; mid-dorsal carina not marked with yeUow below ; 
no upper humeral spot ; antehumeral stripes narrower and 
shorter ; black stripe on postero-lateral suture broader, 
usually so broadly confluent with the shorter obhque stripe 
that the enclosed yellow ground-colour is blotted out. Legs 
«ntirely black. Wings with reticulation closer and the 

nodal index higher, , otherwise resembling 

those of M. torqvjoMLs. Abdomen black, marked with greenish- 
yellow as follows : — Segment 1 with a narrow apical border ; 
2 with a broad basal ring, which includes the oreillets and 
a short apico-lateral spot (not always present) ; 3 to 6 with 
narrow basal rings occupying about one-sixth of the segments ; 
7 similar, but the ring occupying the basal third and laterally 
overlapping the transverse suture ; 8 to 10 unmarked. 
Anal appendages (fig. 113, 1)) difEering markedly from those 
of M. torquatus as foUows : — Superiors with the inner branches 
much longer, springing from the appendages much nearer 
the base, and extendmg beyond their apices ; the small 
outer spine near the apex much more noticeable ; inferior 
more robust, slightly longer than in M. torquatus. Genitalia 
similar to those of M. torquatus, but the apex of outer hamules 
curling forwards. 

Female. — ^Abdomen 28 mm. Hiad-wing 25 mm. 

DiSers from the male in markings in the same respects 
as does the female from the male of M. torquatus ; thus there 
are lateral oval spots on abdominal segments 4 to 6 (but 
much smaller than in M. torquatus), and segments 8 to 10 
are without markings ; the basal marking on segment 7 is 
strictly limited behind by the transverse suture. 

Distribution. — Confined to Cooeg and Sottth EIanaea. 

Habits similar to the last. Breeds in the Sampaji and 
Hallery Rivers and the Kibribetta stream, 2,000-3,500 ft., 
Coorg. 

Type in the British Museum ; paratypes in my own col- 
lection. 



MiCEOGoaiPHUS. 357 

323. Microgomphns ? verticalis (Selys). 

Oyclogomphus verticalis Selys, Bull. Acad. Belg. (2) vol. xxxvi, 
p. 501 (1873); Kirby, Cat. Odon. p. 70 (1890); Williamson, 
Proe. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xxxiii, pp. 296, 297 (1907); Fraser, 
J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. xxix, pp. 64, 332 (1923). 

Microgomphus uerticaZis Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soo. vol. xxx, 
p. 857 (1925); Needham, Reo. Ind. Mus. vol. xxxiv, p. 221 
(1932). 

Oyclogomphus ? verticalis Laidlaw, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 
vol. Ixxviii, p. 187 (1930). 

Male unknown. 

Female. — ^Abdomen 27 mm. Hind-wing 25 mm. 

Similar to M. torquatus, differing only in the markings 
being less extensive, the face largely black. Labrum with 
the yellow entirely enclosed as two large spots ; ante- and 
postclypeus black, with a medial yellow spot and another 
on each side against the eyes, frons similar, but the vertex 
with a small yellow spot between the eyes. 

The short description given by Selys, meagre as it is, clearly 
shows that this species, which he classed as a GyclogomphiiSy 
is really a Microgomphus, and that it is closely related to,, 
if not conspecifie with, M. souteri. The location of the type 
is imknown, but it was said to be in the Moore collection, 
and is given as from " India." 

324. Microgomphus lilliputians Fraser. 

Microgomphus lilliputians Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 
vol. xxix, pp. 60, 329 (1923); id., ibid. vol. xxx, pp. 855, 856, 
pl. i, fig. 7 (1925) ; Laidlaw, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. vol. Ixxviii, 
p. 182 (1930); Needham, Beo. Ind. Mus. vol. xxxiv, p. 221 
(1932). 

Male unknown. 

Female. — Abdomen 20 mm. Hind-wing 18 mm. 

Head : labium pale yellow ; labrum black, with two yellow 
spots ; bases of mandibles yellow ; ante- and postclypeus 
black, former with a central oval spot, latter with a yeUow 
spot on each side against the eyes ; frons with the crest 
traversed with yeEow ; rest of head, including the occiput, 
black, latter simple, sinuous, a little notched at its middle. 
Prothorax with a small spot on the posterior lobe and a larger 
spot at the sides, otherwise black. Thorax black, marked 
with bright yellow as follows : — ^An interrupted mesothoracic 
collar ; obKque antehumeral stripes which are broadly con- 
fluent with the mesothoracic collar and form with it inverted 
7's ; laterally greenish-yellow, marked on the postero- 
lateral suture by a thick black stripe, which, by joining an 
oblique black shorter stripe ruiming from beneath the fore- 
wing, forms a black Y. . Legs entirely black, the spines 
on hind femora rather more widely spaced and robust than 



■358 GOMPHID^. 

is usual in the genus. Wings hyaJine.tinted with yellow at 
the bases, reticulation rather close for so small an insect, 
discoidal ceUs and subtrigones all angulated where joiaed 
by secondary nervures, sectors of are apposed for a long 
distance, especially in the hind-wings, discoidal field in the 
fore-wings beginning with a single row of ceUs and continued 
as such for a distance of 3 rows, lA ia fore-wings with only 
a single row of cells between it and hinder border (and only 
•6 cells in length), only 2 rows of cells in the postanal area 
of hind-wing ; pterostigma brown, unbraced in two of the 
-wings, poorly so in the others, covering 3 cells ; nodal index 



7-12 



11—7 

Abdomen black, marked with yeUow as follows : — 



8-8 9-7 

:Segment 1 wholly black ; 2 with broad subdorsal longitudinal 
stripes confluent over the base of segment and finely divided 
transversely by the transverse suture ; 3 with a continuation of 
"these stripes, which do not, however, extend as far as the apical 
border ; 4 to 7 with broad basal rings extending as far as the 
transverse sutures ; remaining segments unmarked. Anal 
■appendages smaU, conical, yellow tipped with black. Vulvar 
scale rudimentary. 

Distribution. — ^A single female from Tenasserim, Lower 
BusMA, 18. iv. 23. 

This species, which is the smallest known Gomphine, 
■closely resembles Tetrathemis platypte^ra in size, general 
appearance, and in other respects, for example the discoidal 
field of the wing begins with a single row of cells. The only 
species likely to be confounded with it is Microgomphus 
chelifer from the Malay Peninsula, which is somewhat larger, 
has a higher nodal index, the lateral thoracic stripe simple 
and not Y-shaped. The two are closely related, and may 
■even be conspecific. M. lilliputians is the only species 
known to me in which the discoidal field of the fore-wing 
begins with a single cell and in which the female has onJy 
■one row of cells between the hinder margin of fore-wing 
andl^. 
Type in the Author's collection. 

■325. Microgomphus loogall Fraser. (Fig. 114.) 

Microgom^hus loogali Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soe. vol. xxix, 

pp. 60, 329 (1923); Laidlaw, Trans. Eat. Soo. Lond. vol. IxxviU, 

p. 182 (1930). 
Microgomphiie burmwus Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 

vol. XXX, pp. 854, 855,pl. i, fig. 6, text-fig. 3, ui ( 1925) ; Needham, 

Rec. Ind. Mus. vol. xxxiv, p. 221 (1932). 

Jfate.— Abdomen 31 mm. Hind-wing 28 mm. 
Head: labium pale whitish-green, the middle lobe with 
its base and free border blaekish-brown ; labrum black. 



MICEOGOMPHTJS. 359 

with a large rounded wkitisli-green spot at each outer comer 
(a very unusual situation for this marking) ; bases of mandibles 
greenish-white, and a transverse stripe of the same colour 
at the middle of anteelypeus ; rest of face and upper surface 
of head glossy black except for the crest of frons, which is 
greenish-white, finely divided at its centre by a narrow black 
isthmus. Occiput concave at its centre, with a shght angular 
projection at its outer ends. Proikorax black. TTwrax 
black marked with greenish-yellow as follows : — Very oblique 
broad antehumeral stripes which run from near the alar 
sinus and are broadly confluent with an interrupted meso- 
thoracic collar below ; a small upper humeral spot ; sides 
broadly greenish-yellow, with a broad black stripe on the first 
lateral suture and a short remnant of a similar stripe on the 




Fig. 114. — Anal appendages of Microgomphus loogcdi Fraser, male. 
Dorsal idevc. 

lower part of the second suture (another unusual type of 
marking). Legs entirely black. Wiings hyaline, very palely 
enfumed ; pterostigma dark brown between black nervores, 
covering 4 cells, short, unbraced, or the brace poorly 
developed and arising from the costa a short distance from 

17-11 



the pterostigma ; nodal index 



12-H 



3 rows of 



12-12 

postanal cells in hind-wing, 2 rows of cells between lA 
and the hinder margin in fore-wing. Abdormn black, 
marked with greenish-yellow as foUows : — Segment 1 with 
the sides broadly and a stripe on the mid-dorsal carina, 
which is flanked by a broad black stripe subdorsally ; 
2 similar, the lateral yellow area including the oreillet, the 
stripe on the carina tapering apieally and expanded at the 



360 GOMPHID^. 

level of the transverse suture ; 3 with the mid-dorsal carina 
finely yellow and a large ventro-lateral basal spot on each 
side ; 4 to 6 with small triangular basal spots on each side ; 
7 with a broad basal yellow ring occupying the basal fifth ; 
remaining segments unmarked. AtmI appendages : superiors 
very robust, widely divaricate, tapering to a point, greenish- 
white, tipped with black ; from the middle of the inner side 
a slim pale yellow branch springs and inclines inwards to meet 
its fellow from the opposite side, the extreme apex of each 
branch strongly recurved outwards, the fusion of these 
branches with the main appendage demarcated by a fine 
groove ; inferior triangular, not bifid, as long as superiors,, 
black. Genitalia : hamules broad, short, tipped by a small 
spine ; vesicle of penis bulbous, globular, black. 

Female. — ^Very similar to the male, but markings on 
abdomen more extensive ; on segments 3 to 6 a large triangular 
baso-lateral spot which extends to the transverse suture, 
beyond which, and only narrowly separated from the basal 
spot, is a narrow stripe extending almost to the apex of each 
segment ; in one specimen there is also a minute basal lateral 
spot on segment 8. Thorax and prothorax pruinosed white 
beneath when mature. Anal appendages short, conical,, 
pale greenish- white. 

Distribution. — One male and two females collected by 
Col. F. Wall, I.M.S., at Maymyo, Northern Shan States,. 
Uppeb BxnsMA, 19-26. vi. 24 and 10. vii. 24. 

This species is remarkable for its large size (it is the largest 
known species of the genus) and for the imusual markings 
on the labrum and on the sides of thorax. The two rows 
of cells between lA and the hinder margin of the fore- wing 
is clearly a response to the need of a greater wing area to 
support a weightier insect. 

Types of both M. loogali and M. burmicus in the Author's, 
collection. 



326. Microgomphus ? minuseulus (Selys). 

Cyclogomphus ? minvsculvs Selys, Bull. Acad. Belg. (2) vol. xlvi,. 

p. 468(1878); Kiiby, Cat. Odon. p. 70 (1890); Laidlaw, Trans. 

Ent. Soe. Lond. vol. iKxviii, p. 186 (1930). 
Cyclogom'phus minvscuVus Williamson, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 

vol. xxxiu, pp. 296-298 (1907); Laidlaw, Reo. Ind. Mus. 

vol. xxiv, p. 390 (1922); Eraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soo. 

vol. xdx, pp. 64, 332 (1923); id., ibid. vol. xxxi, p. 163 (1926). 

Mate unknown. 

Fenwh. — ^Abdomen 22 mm. Hind-wing 21 mm. 
Head : labium yellow ; labrum black ; rest of face black 
except for a small spot on each side of the postclypeus; 



ancEOGOJiPHiTS. 361 

frons yellow along its crest, but its base and a prolongation 
forwards (which meets the black on face and front of &ons) 
black ; occiput simple, straight, black. Proihorax black, 
its posterior lobe yellow. Thorax black in front and on 
dorsum, yellow at the sides, marked as follows : — Short, 
oblique, isolated antehumeral yellow stripes, approximating 
above, divaricate below, not confluent with the mesothoracie 
coUar of the same colour ; a black stripe on the first lateral 
suture, which is confluent at its middle with a similar stripe 
on the second lateral suture, both stripes moderately thick, 
the anterior one confluent below with the humeral black 
stripe. Wings hyaline, reticulation black, costa finely yellow ; 
pterostigma moderately long, thick, pale between black 
nervures, covering 3 cells (3 mm.) ; nodal index 9-12 | 11-10 
in fore-wings. Legs short, black, inner sides of femora yellow, 
armed with very short spines. Abdomen equal in length 
to the wings, black, brownish beneath, marked and ringed 
with yeUow as follows : — Segment 1 yellow, with its base 
narrowly black and interrupted mid-dorsally ; 2 with a 
mid-dorsal trilobed stripe enclosed by broad subdorsal black 
stripes, the ventro-lateral border yellow, marked with a small 
black spot, the basal articulation finely black ; 3 black, 
with an interrupted dorsal stripe and a ventro-baso-lateral 
spot interrupted by the transverse suture ; 4 to 7 black, 
marked with complete basal rings which occupy about 
one-sixth the length of segments ; remaining segments black, 
immarked ; 8 and 9 not dilated ; 10 very short. AtmI 
appendages conical, pointed, very smaU, pale yellow, with 
a small similarly coloured protuberance between them. 
Vulvar scale very short. 

Distribution. — Between Moolai and Moorlut, 4,000-6,000 ft., 
Tenasseeim. 

Apparently the type was in the McLachlan collection, 
as its description was communicated to De Selys by 
Mr. McLachlan, but I have been unable to find it in that 
collection, so presume that it has been lost. As no details 
of its venation are known, it is impossible to place the species 
with any accuracy. De Selys gives the following note : — 
" It is the smallest species of the subgenus [Genus Gyclo- 
gomphus] . It appears to be related to torqvutus [Microgomphus] 
by the black dorsal carina of the thorax (yellow in aU other 
species). It differs by its smaller size, the absence of a yellow 
humeral stripe, the narrower mesothoracie collar, which is 
not prolonged as far as the yeUow trochanters of the anterior 
legs. So long as we do not know the anal appendages of the 
males of torqwatus and minusculus, there will remain some 
doubt as to the correct place of these species." 



362 



GOMPHIDJE. 



Genus LEPTOGOMPHUS Selys. (Fig. 115.) 

Leptogomphus Selys, Bull. Acad. Belg. (2) vol. xlvi, p. 442 (1878); 
Kirby, Cat. Odon. p. 70 (1890) ; Williamson, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 
vol. xxxiii, pp. 291-295 (1907) ; Laidlaw, Kec. Ind. Mus. vol. xxiv, 
p. 378 (1922); Eraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. xxix, 
pp. 63, 331 (1923); id., ibid. vol. xxxi, pp. 882, 883 (1927); 
Laidlaw, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. vol. Ixxviii, p. 179 (1930); 
Needham, Zool. Siniea, ser. A, vol. xi, fase. 1, pp. 19, 45 (1930); 
id., Ree. Ind. Mus. vol. xxxiv, pp. 217, 218, 220 (1932). 

Size medium or rather robust ; colour mat black, marked 
with, bright citron-yeUow. 

Head triangular, rather wide, frons rounded or moderately 
angulated, face very oblique, occiput usually simple, slightly 
concave. Wings : reticulation close ; tornus angulated ; 
base of hind-wing very oblique and rather short, rather 
■deeply excavated ; membrane obsolete ; anal triangle 3-ceIled ; 
arc situated opposite the second antenodal nervure or between 
the second and third, the latter situation the more common ; 
3 to 5 transverse nervures between the sectors of axe from the 




Fig. 115. — Wings of Leptogomphus gestroi Selys, male. 

■axe to bifurcation of Bs in fore-wing, 3 to 4 in hind-wing ; 
1 or 2 rows of postanal cells in fore-wing, 3 to 4 in hind-wings ; 
the first postanal ceU in hind-wing not extending proximal 
to the base of subtrigone ; anal loop absent ; a basal incom- 
plete antenodal nearly always present in all wings ; nodal 
index high; primary aatenodals the first and the sixth, 
seventh or eighth ; discoidal cells entire, that of fore-wing sub- 
■equilateral, the distal side but slightly longer than the two 
•others, that of the hind-wiag a little elongate ia the length 
of wing, distal side slightly longer than the costal and half 



LEPTOGOMPHTTS. 363 

as long again as the basal ; pterostigma very short, equal 
to about one-fourth or less of the distance from node to 
proximal end of pterostigma, unbraced ; I A in fore-mng 
not pectinated or but slightly so at its distal end, only 2 rows 
of cells between it and the margin of wing ; Guii and I A 
in hind-wing parallel or more or less widely divergent at wing 
margin ; 1 or 2 cubital nervures ; all subtrigones and hyper- 
trigones entire. Legs variable in length, hind femora 
extending to the apical border of segment 1 or middle of 
segment 2 of abdomen and armed with 2 rows of spines, 
very closely set at proximal end of Umb, then gradually 
lengthening and with a single long robust spine at the extreme 
•distal end ; hind tibial spines moderately long, numerous 
and closely-set. Abdomen rather dilated at base, then 
slim and cyhndrieal or robust, and cylindrical from segment 3 
to segment 7, from which point it gradually dilates as far 
as the end. Anal appendages : superiors conical, acute 
at apex and spined beneath ; inferior usually more or less 
triangular, bifid for about half its length, the two branches 
more or less closely apposed. Genitalia : lamina depressed 
or more or less projecting and deeply and angularly arched ; 
Anterior and posterior hamules variable in the species ; lobe 
scrotum-shaped, rather hidden, lip narrow and shallowly 
■emarginate. 

Genotype, Leptogom.'phus semperi Selys. 

Distribution. — ^Assam, Btjema, Java, Sumatra, Indo-China, 
China, Borneo, and Formosa. Four species only found within 
our limits, one of which is found in Assam, the others in 
Burma. 

Species of the genus are extremely rare, the Javan being 
the only one which has been found in any numbers. Nothing 
is known of their ecology, except that Bainbrigge Fletcher 
found the larva of L. bideniatus in a small cement tank, 
surely the most exiguous place to find a Gomphine larva ! 

The genus is closely related to Heliogomphus by its very 
short and unbraced pterostigma, narrow zygopterous head, etc. 

Key to Indian Species of Leptogomphus. 

'Antehumeral stripe confluent with the meso- 
thoracio collar, thus forming yellow, in- 
verted, 7-like markings 2. 

Antehumeral stripe well separated from the 
mesothoracio collar 3. 

'Humeral stripe complete; only a single 

black stripe on sides of thorax, situated on [p. 364. 

the postero-lateral suture inditus Selys, 

Humeral stripe interrupted above; two 

1 black stripes on sides of thorax, the anterior [p. 369. 

l_ Interrupted below maculivertea; Selys, 



1-^ 



2.-1 



364 GOMPHID^. 

'Humeral stripe absent; only a single broad [p. 367. 

black stripe on sides of thorax bidentatus Fras., 

3. -^ A humeral stripe present ; two black stripes on 

the sides of thorax, the posterior inoom- [p. 365. 

plete below gestroi Selys, 

327. Leptogomplius inclitus Selys. 

Leptogomphus inclitus Selys, Bull. Acad. Belg. (2) vol. xlvi, p. 444 
(1878); Kirby, Cat. Odon. p. 70(1890); WiUiamson, Proc. U.S. 
Nat. Mus. %'0l. xxxiii, pp. 291-294, text-figs. 19, 20 (1907); 
Laidlaw, Eeo. Ind. Mus. vol. xxiv, pp. 371, 378 (1922) ; Fraser, 
J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soe. vol. xxix,pp. 63, 331 (1923) ; id., ibid, 
vol. xxxi, p. 883 (1927); Laidlaw, Trans. Ent. Soe. Lond. 
vol. Ixxviii, p. 179 (1930) ; Needham, Ree. Ind. Mus. vol. xxxiv, 
pp. 220, 221 (1932). 

Male unknown. 

Female. — ^Abdomen 36 mm. Hind-wing 32-35 mm. 

Head : labium yellow ; labrum greenish-yellow, bordered 
anteriorly with black ; face black, the centre of postelypeus 
yellow ; crest of frons yellow, invaded at its middle from 
behind by black, or the yellow area cut in two by the median 
black mark meeting the black on front of frons ; vertex 
and occiput black, latter concave, a ridge on each side near 
the eyes, the area between these depressed. Area behind 
eyes tumid, black above, yellow below. Prothorax black, 
with a mid-dorsal geminate yellow spot and a larger spot 
on each side. Thorax black in front as far as first lateral 
suture, %vith a narrow antehumeral stripe which may or may 
not be confluent with a narrow mesothoracic collar, in the 
former case forming an inverted 7 ; external to these 
an equally narrow humeral stripe. Laterally yellow, the 
second suture mapped out in black and confluent with an upper 
black border below the wings. Wings hyaline, reticulation 
black, close ; pterostigma brown between black nervures, 
covering 4-5 cells, 3-5 mm. in length ; 14 to 19 antenodal 
nervures in fore-wing, 9 to 11 postnodals. Legs short, hind 
femora_6-5 mm. in length, black ; the inner sides of anterior 
two pairs and the greater part of the inner sides of hind pair 
yellow. Abdomen black, marked with yellow as follows : — 
A narrow yellow stripe running along the mid-dorsal carina 
from segments 1 to 7, broad on 1 and 2, tapering on 3 ; 
a lateral stripe on the same segments, broad from segment 1 
to base of 3, broken into an elongate basal spot and an elongate 
subapical rounded spot on 3 to 7, vestigial in character on 
segments 5 to 7 ; remaining segments unmarked. Anal appen- 
dages short, conical, pale yeUow, the apices ferruginous, 
separated by a conical structure as long as themselves. Vulvar 
scale moderately narrow, extending to the middle of segment 9, 
bifid at apex. 



LEPTOGOMPHUS. 



365 



Distribution. — Btoma. The type (in the McLachlan col- 
lection) from Moolai, Lower Burma, [Prof. Wood-Mason), 
is much darker than two other females from Upper Burma, 
which may possibly belong to a distinct species. 

This species bears a close resemblance to L. semperi from 
the Philippines, a comparison with which serves to place 
it in the genus Leptogomphus, in spite of the fact that the male 
is unknown. 

328. Leptogomphus gestroi Selys. (Fig. 116.) 

Leptogomphits gestroi Selys, Ann. Mus. Civ. Geneva, (2) vol. x, 
pp. 476, 477 (1891); Martin, Mission Pavie Indo-Chine, vol. iii, 
p. 214 (1904); Williamson, Proo. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xxxiii, 
pp. 291-294 (1907) ; Laidlaw, Rec. Ind. Mus. vol. xsiv, pp. 371, 
378 (1922) ; Eraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. xxix, pp. 63, 
331 (1923); id., ibid. vol. xxxi, pp. 884, 885, text-fig. 2, i, ii 
(1927); Laidlaw, Trans. Bnt. Soe. Lend. vol. Ixxviii, p. 180 
(1930); Needham, Bee. Ind. Mus. vol. xxxiv,pp. 220,221 (1932). 

Male. — ^Abdomen 40-42 mm. Hind-wing 32-35 mm. 
Head : labium pale yellow, the middle lobe bordered 
with black ; labrum palest yellow, almost white, its base 
very narrowly, its anterior border broadly black, the yellow 
area almost bisected by a fine black medial line and a lower 
brownish fusiform spot ; bases of mandibles yellowish- white ; 




Fig. 116. — Anal appendages of Leptogomphus gestroi Selys, male. 
Dorsal and right lateral views. 

ante- and postclypeus black ; fcons pale greenish-yeUow 
above and over the crest, its base very finely black ; vertex 
and occiput black, but the latter with a small median yeUow 
point, emaiginate behind, especially at its middle. Area 
behind eyes yeUow except the upper border. ProtTwrax 
black, a medial yellow spot on the posterior lobe confluent 



366 GOMPHIDiE. 

■with a larger paler yeUow spot on the dorsum of median 
lobe, and a large outer lateral spot on each side. Thorax 
black, marked with yellow as follows : — ^A pair of antehumeral 
stripes running parallel with the mid-dorsal carina, not con- 
fluent with the mesothoracie collar below, but extending 
nearly to the alar sinus above ; a long, ciu^ed, very narrow 
humeral stripe, its upper end shghtly expanded ; the meso- 
thoracie collar very narrowly interrupted. Laterally yellow,, 
the humeral black shghtly overlapping the humeral suture,, 
the first lateral suture and the upper part of the second mapped 
out in black. Legs black, anterior pair of femora yellow 
on the inner sides ; hind femora with an outer yellow stripe, 
which fades away distally, armed with two rows of robust 
short spines, the inner row moderately widely spaced, more 
robust and less numerous than the outer row, which ends 
ia a single larger distal spine ; middle and anterior pairs- 
with fewer but more robust spines. Wings hyaline ; ptero- 
stigma dark brown between black nervures, covering 3 to 4 cells, 
unbraced ; anal triangle 3-celled ; 3 rows of postanal cells 
in hind- wings ; a basal incomplete antenodal nervure present 

• n • A 1 ■ A 11-1* 16-10 

m all wmgs ; nodal mdex 



11-11 



5 cross-nervures 



10-10 

in the fore-wings between the sectors of arc. Abdomen 
black, marked with greenish-yellow as follows : — ^A small 
dorsal spot and the sides broadly of segment 1 ; a trilobed 
dorsal stripe and the sides broadly on 2 ; the mid-dorsal 
carina of 3 to 7 finely, a baso-lateral spot followed by a 
medio-lateral spot on 3, smaller baso-lateral spots on 4 and 5 ; 
remaining segments unmarked. The abdomen from the apex 
of segment 7 gradually and progressively broadens as far as 
the apical border of 10, which latter is rather massively 
square, its dorsum dome-shaped, its apical border prolonged 
squarely between the anal appendages. Anal appendages 
(fig. 116) : superiors bright yeUow, darker below and at the 
inner and outer ends of base ; inferior black. Genitalia 
prominent ; lamina arched, very depressed ; anterior hamules. 
broad at base and nearly as far as apex, directed straight 
outwards, the borders inwardly curled, the apex ungulate 
and recurved at an obtuse angle ; posterior hamules much 
larger, also directed straight outwards, tongue-shaped, sinuous,, 
the apex ending in a forwardly directed, very robust, curled 
thick spine ; lobe tumid, prominent, its anterior border 
deeply but narrowly emarginate. 

Female. — ^Very similar to male, but shghtly larger and more 
robust. Occiput with a broad rounded notch at its centre,, 
on each side of which is a robust spine. Anal appendages 
short, conical, pointed, yellow, separated by a conical yellow 



liEPTOGOMPHTTS. 367 

protuberance. Vulvar scale broad at base, tapering as far 
as the apex of ninth segment, its apical half split into two 
slightly separated lamellse. 

Distribution. — Btjbma . 

The type, a male in the Selys collection, is from Leito, 
and was taken, towards the end of May, by Mr. Fea. There 
is a female in the same collection, the only specimen of that 
sex known. Col. F. Wall, I.M.S., has taken a second male 
at Ma3miyo, Upper Burma, l.vii. 25, which is now in the 
author's collection ; it differs from the type in possessing 
an occiput almost exactly similar to that of the female as 
described by Selys. The Selysian male appears to be more 
teneral than the Maymyo one, the markings of which are 
pale greenish- white to greenish-yellow on the thorax. This 
species is closely related to L. lansbergei Selys, from Java. 

329. Leptogomphus bidentatus Fraser. (Fig. 117.) 

Leptogomphus bidentatus Eraser, J". Bombay Nat. Hist. Soe. 
vol. xxxiv, pp. 752, 753, text-figs. 1, 2, a, 6 (1930); Needham, 
Ree. lud. Mus. vol. xxxiv, pp. 220, 221 (1932). 

MaU. — ^Abdomen 38 mm. Hind-wing 33 mm. 

Head black, marked with yellow ; labium with lateral 
lobes yellow ; labrum black, with a small yellow spot on each 
side ; anteclypeus with a small median yellow spot ; post- 
clypeus and frons broadly yellow ; vertex black, but with 
a small rounded spot behind the ocelli, and the whole of the 
occiput yellow. Proihorax black, with a large yellow spot 
on the median and posterior lobes and a small spot on each 
side of the former. Thorax black, marked with yellow as 
follows : — ^A mesothoracic collar interrupted in the middle ; 
an obUque antehumeral stripe, the upper ends of which 
are squared and closely opposed to the antealar sinus, the 
lower ends pointed and divergent and not meeting the meso- 
thoracic collar ; laterally marked with two broad yellow 
stripes, the posterior of which covers about four-fifths of the 
metepimeron ; between these two stripes a small upper spot. 
Legs black, spines of hind femora gradually lengthening 
towards the distal end, very robust and rather short ; hind 
femora extending to distal end of segment 1. Wings hyaline, 
tinted with yellow at the base ; pterostigma black or dark 
yellow framed in black, braced, covering 3 to 4 cells ; nodal 

index ts "Ta I iTTTo ; discoidal cells traversed once in the 

hind-wings; 5 rows of cells in the anal field ; anal loop absent- 
Abdmim black, marked with yellow as follows :— Segment 1 
with a quadrate mid-dorsal and a large lateral spot, its apical 
border narrowly yellow ; 2 with a trilobate mid-dorsal stripe 



368 



GOMPHIDJE. 



and two large spots on each side, one of wMch includes the 
oreillet and extends to the base ; 3 to 9 with paired subdorsal 
basal spots, which on 7 and 8 extend distaUy to the jugal 
suture ; 10 with a small lateral spot. AtmI appendages 
(fig. 117) black. 

Female. — ^Abdomen 38 mm. Hind-wing 35 mm. 

Markings very similar to those of male, abdominal markings 
differing as follows : — Segment 2 with the lateral spots con- 
fluent with one another to form a broad stripe ; 3 to 6 with 
additional lateral spots in line with the basal, elongate on 
3 and 4, very small and short on 5 and 6 ; 10 unmarked. 
Head with the vertex raised and sloping back as a thick 
quadrate plate, the hind corners of which are prolonged 
as robust spines. Anal appendages short, black, simple. 



|k_^ r — Ol 




Fig. 117. — ^Anal appendages of Leptogomphus iidentatus Fraser, male. 
Dorsal and right lateral views. 

Vulvar scale one-fourth the length of segment 9, triangxilar, 
narrowly bifid so as to form two closely apposed scales. 

Distribution. — Shillong, Assam. Two females and one male 
taken by Mr. T. Bainbrigge Fletcher, 19. vii. 28. One female 
was found emerging on the side of a small cement tank. 

This species is interesting from its extraordinary breeding 
place and also from the triangles of the hind-wings being 
traversed, a characteristic shared by L. retrofiexiis Ris and 
L. Scorpio Ris, from both of which it differs in the shape of 
the anal appendages and other characters. The shape of the 
superior anal appendages will also serve to differentiate 
it from L. semperi Selys, L. assimilis Krug., L. gracilis Krug., 
L. gestroi Selys, and L. lansbergei Selys. From L. inclitu's 
Selys it is to be distinguished by the yellow frons and by 
the absence of a humeral stripe. The genitalia appear to 
ally it closely to L. sauteri Ris, L. perforatus Ris, and L. scorpio 



LEPTOGOMPHUS. 369 

Eis ; tke tapering ends of the superior appendages dis- 
tinguishing it from the two former species. 
Type and paratype in my own collection. 

330. Leptogomphus (?) maeulivertex Selys. 

Leptogomphus ? maeulivertex Selys, Aim. Mus. Civ. Geneva, (2) 
vol. X, pp. 478, 479 (1891); WilUamson, Proe. U.S. Nat. Mus. 
vol. xxxiii, pp. 292-295 (1907); Laidlaw, Bee. Ind. Mus. 
vol. xxix, pp. 371, 378 (1922); Praser, J. Bombay Xat. Hist. 
Soc. vol. xxix, pp. 63, 331 (1923); id., ibid. vol. xxxi, pp. 886' 
887 (1927) ; Laidlaw, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. x-ol. Ixxviii, p. ISO- 
(1930); Needham, Ree.Ind.Mus.vol.xxxiv,pp.220, 221 (1932). 

Male unknown. 

Female. — ^Abdomen 33 mm. Hind-wing 31 mm. 

Head : labium black, its base broadly yellow ; anteolypeus 
black, postolypeus black, with a rounded spot on each side 
bordering the eyes ; crest of frons yellow, this colour sHghtly 
overlapping the anterior surface and invaded behind by the 
black of base of irons ; occiput and a medial spot on vertex 
yellow, former black behind, sHghtly emarginate and with 
a convex scallop at its middle. Prothorax black, its dorsum 
and the posterior lobe yellow. Thorax black as far as the 
huiaeral suture, marked with yellow as follows : — ^A sUghtly 
interrupted mesothoraoic collar, narrow antehumeral stripes, 
which form inverted jfigure 7's by confluence with the 
collar below, a fine humeral stripe on each side, broken up 
into an upper spot and a lower fine line ; mid-dorsal carina 
with a small medial spot ; laterally yellow, with the upper 
part of the first lateral suture and the whole of the second 
mapped out in black. Wings hyaline, reticulation black, 
close ; pterostigma dark brown, covering 4 to 5 cells, 3 mm. 
in length ; 15 antenodal nervures and 12 postnodals in fore- 
wings ; basal iitcomplete antenodal nervure absent. Legs 
black, femora yellow, marked with an outer black stripe 
and armed with black spines, which are moderately robust, 
short, and numerous ; hind femur 5 mm. in length. Abdomen 
slender, the borders of segments 8 and 9 slightly dilated ; 
black, marked with yellow as follows : — ^A triangular dorsal 
spot on segment 1 ; a trilobed mid-dorsal stripe on 2 ; sides 
of these two segments broadly yeUow ; 3 to 7 with the mid- 
dorsal carina finely but not quite extending to the apical 
borders of segments 3 to 6, and occupying only the basal 
two-thirds of 7 ; the dorsal stripes on segments 3 to 6 indented 
laterally by an encroachment of the black at the Jugal sutures ; 
remainder unmarked. Anal appendages slender, cylindrical, 
pointed, rather longer than segment 10, separated by a conical 
yellow protuberance. Vulvar scale robust, yellow at base, 
tapering, narrow, extending to the apical border of segment 10, 
deeply cleft into two closely apposed lamellae. 

VOL. n. 2 b 



370 GOMPHTD^. 

Distribution. — ^Meteleo, Buhma, collected by Mr. Fea, 
September 10. 

The absence of the incomplete basal nervure suggests 
that it is rather a Heliogomphus than a Leptogomphus. The 
very long vulvar scale is analogous to that of Gomphus nilgiricus 
and Onychogomphus M-flavum. The discovery of the male 
is necessary to settle its identity. 

Type female, unique, in the Selys collection. I have not 
seen this specimen, a better knowledge of the venation of 
which is needed to place it correctly. 

Subfamily ICTININ^, 

A small subfamily which contains many of the largest 
species of the suborder Anisobteea. Species of this group 
axB characterized by the close reticulation of their wings, 
and by the discoidal cells being of different shape in the fore- 
and hind-wings, these cells beiag traversed by one or more 
nervures. As in the last subfamily, there are more than 
two transverse nervures between the sectors of the are, 
usually a great many more so in the fore-wing ; IRiii and 
MA each possess a weU-marked supplementary nervure, 
whilst the subtrigones of the fore-wings are divided up into 
2 or 3 cells. Generic characters are the presence or absence 
of lateral leaf-like expansions on segments 8 and 9 of the 
abdomen and the shape of the anal appendages. 

Distrihwtion. — With the exception of one genus, which is 
from South America, all are confined to the Oriental and 
Ethiopian regions. Two genera only are found within Indian 
limits. 

Key to Indian Genera of the Svhfamily Ictininse. 

Segment 8 of abdomen widely dilated and with 

•wing-like lateral projections; superior anal [p. 370. 

appendages acute at apex IcTnnjs Rambur, 

jSegment 8 of abdomen not dilated ; superior anal [p. 381. 

appendages obtuse at apex Gomphidia Selys, 

Genus ICTINUS Rambur. (Kg. 118.) 

Ictimis Rambur, Ins. NSvrop. p. 171 (1842); Selye, Bull. Acad. 
Belg. (2) vol. xxi, p. 86 (1854) ; id., Mon. Gomph. p. 263 (1857) ; 
Kirby, Cat. Odon. p. 77 (1890) ; Williamson, Proc. XJ.S. Nat. Mus. 
vol. ssxiii, pp. 272, 278-280 (1907); Laidlaw, Reo. Ind. Mus. 
vol. xxiv, p. 373 (1922); Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soo. 
vol. xxix, pp. 60, 328, 661 (1923); Laidlaw, Trans. Ent. Soo. 
Lond. vol. Ixxviii, p. 176 (1930); Needham, Zool. Sinioa, ser. A, 
vol. xi, faso. 1, pp. 19, 20 (1930) ; id., Ree. Ind. Mtis. vol. xxxiv, 
pp. 217, 219 (1932). 

Size large and build robust ; colour mat black, marked with 
laright citron-yeUow or greenish-yeUow. 



ICTIKtrS. 



371 



Head large and triangular, irons strongly angulated, 
occiput simple or sliglitly concave, and fringed with short 
hairs. Wings : reticulation very close : tomus strongly 
angulated ; base of hind-wing deeply excavated ; membrane 
■long and narrow ; anal triangle 5-celled ; are situated between 
the first and second antenodal nervures ; 10 to 12 transverse 
nervures between the sectors of arc from the are to bifurcation 
of Ss in fore-wings, 6 in hind- wings ; 2 rows of postanal 
cells in fore-wings, 5 to 6 in hind-wings ; a distinct anal loop 
present, made up of 4 to 5 cells and extending proximal to 
base of subtrigone ; no basal incomplete postcostal nervures 
present ; nodal index very high ; primary antenodals the 
first and seventh ; discoidal cell in fore-wings subeqxu- 
lateral, the distal side slightly longer than the two others which 




Fig. 118. — Wings of Ictinus rapax (Rambur), male. 



are equal, made up of 2 to 4 cells by traversing nervures ; 
that of hind- wing 3- celled, narrow and elongate in the length 
of wiag, costal side twice the length of basal and about equal 
to the distal which is sinuous ; pterostigma elongate and 
narrow, about twice the length of the distaaice between the 
node and proximal end of pterostigma, braced ; lA in fore- 
wing but slightly or not pectinate ; Cuii and lA in hind- 
wing parallel to wing-border ; 2 to 4 cubital nervures in fore- 
wiags, 2 in hind-wiags ; subtrigone ia fore- wings 2-ceIIed, 
in hind-wings entire or rarely 2-ceUed; hy3)ertrigones with 
2 traversing nervures ; a supplementary nervure running 
outwards from distal side of discoidal cells ; several strong 
intercalated nervures present. Legs robust, hind femora 
•extending slightly beyond the end of posterior border of thorax 
and furnished with two rows of spines, which are numerous 

2b2 



372 GOMPHIDJE. 

and closely set on the proximal half of limb, longer, more 
robust, and much more widely spaced on the distal half; 
hind tibial spines very closely set and very short and numerous. 
Abdomen cGiated at basal segment, narrow and cylindrical 
from segment 3 to the base of 7, dilated from 7 to 9, segment 8 
markedly expanded and bearing lateral leaf-like projections 
on each side, segment 10 being short and small. Anal 
appendages : superiors half as long again as segment 10, 
narrow and poiated at apex, the inferior very much shorter, 
deepljr bifid, the two branches rather widely divaricate. 
Genitalia : lamina projecting sKghtly, depressed at centre ; 
anterior hamules long robust, hook-like, organs; posterior 
hamules short, flattened, and tongue-hke ; lobe short, scoop- 
shaped ; a fringe of short yellow hairs covering the genital 
sac and obscuring the hamules. 

Genotype, Diasiatomma rwpax Rambur. 

Distribution. — ^Tropical Africa, India, Bttema, Cbyi.on', 
Southern Asia, Java, Sumatra, China, the Philippines, and 
Australia. 

Included in this genus are some of the largest and most 
striking insects of the Order, four species occurring within 
our liraits. 1. rapax, the most common species of the genus, 
has a number of varieties which were formerly classified 
as species ; abundant material from many sources has con- 
vinced me that their specific value can no longer be upheld. 

The larvae usually live in stagnant water, but occasionally 
appear to be compelled by the absence of the latter to breed 
in streams ; when this is the case, they take to deep pools 
in the course of sluggish rivers, such spots conforming closely 
to their natural habitats. The limpet-Hke shape of the 
larva, with its broad fiat abdomen, suggests that at one time 
it was an inhabitant of swift torrential streams, adapted 
to dinging to rocky surfaces. 

Key to Indian Species of letinus. 

fFace largely black; posterior border o£ 

I thoras margined with black ; femora largely 

■. j black 2. 

■ I Face largely yellow; posterior border of thorax 
not margined with black; femora largely 

L^'"°^ '■ [p.377. 

c J Segment 8 -without a basal yellow ring pertinax Selys, 

"■ \ Segment 8 with a broad yellow ring mpax (Ramb.), 

fLabrum not bordered with black; back of [P- ^^^• 

head black ; lateral expansion of segment 8 

margined with yeUow atrox Selys, p. 379. 

Labrum bordered with black; back of head 

marked with yellow ; lateral expansions [p. 378. 

(_ of egment 8 unmarked with yellow anguloms Selys, 



iCTiKus. 373 

331. Ictinus rapax (Rambtir). (Fig. 119, b.) 

Diastaiomma rapax Rambux, Ins. Nevrop. p. 169 (1842). 

Ictinus vorax Rambur (female) RambuTjIns.iirevrop.p. 171 (1842). 

Ictinus rapax Selys, Bull. Acad. Belg. vol. xxi, pt.2,p.90 (1854); 
id., Mon. Gomph. p. 276 (1857) ; Kirby, Cat. Odon. p. 77 (1890); 
Martin, Mission Pavie Indo-Chine, p. 217 (1904); Williamson, 
Proe. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xxxiii, p. 279 (1907) ; Praser, J. Nat. 
Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. iii, p. 457 (1919); id., J. Bombay Nat. 
Hist. Soc. vol. xvii, p. 541 (1921); Laidlaw, Rec. Ind. Mus. 
vol. xxiv, pp. 370, 373, 374 (1922); id., Spolia Zeylaniea, 
vol. xii, p. 339 (1924); id.. Trans. Ent. Soe. Lond. vol. Isxviii, 
p. 176 (1930); Needham, Zool. Siniea, ser. A, vol. xi, faso. 1, 
pp. 23-25 (1930); Eraser, Rec. Ind. Mus. vol. xxxiii, p. 447 
(1931); Needham, op. cit. vol. xxxiv, p. 219 (1932); Fraser 
Ceylon J. Sci., B, vol. xviii, pt. i, pp. 19, 20 (1933). 

Ictinus prascox Selys, Bull. Acad. Belg. vol. xxi,pt.2,p. 89 (1854); 
id.,Mon. Gomph. p. 275 (1857); id., Bull. Acad. Belg, vol. xlvi, 
p. 677 (1878); Kirby, Cat. Odon. p. 77 (1890); Williamson, 
Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xxxiii, p. 279 (1907); Laidlaw, 
Ree.Ind. Mus. vol. xxiv, p. 373 (1922); id., Trans. Ent. Soc. 
Lond. vol. Ixxviii, p. 176 (1930). 

Ictinus mordax Selys, Mon. Gomph. p. 433 (1857); Kirby, Cat. 
Odon. p..77 (1890) ; Williamson, Proe. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xxxiii, 
p. 279 (1907) ; Laidlaw, Rec. Ind. Mus. vol. xxiv, p. 373 (1922) ; 
id., Trans. Ent. Soe. Lond. vol. Ixxviii, p. 176 (1930). 

Ictinus rapax race ? mordax Selys, Bull. Acad. Belg. vol. xxxv, 
pt. 2, p. 768(1873). 

Ictinus rapax rapax Praser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. xxix, 
pp. 60, 328, 661-663, pi. ii, figs. 1, 1 o (1923) ; id., Rec. Ind. Mus. 
vol. xxvi, pp. 427, 470 (1924)j Laidlaw, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 
vol. Ixxviii, p. 176 (1930). 

Ictinus rapax prmcox Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soe. vol. xxix, 
pp. 60, 328, 663, 664 (1923); id.. Bee. Ind. Mus. vol. xxvi, 
pp. 427, 470 (1924) ; Laidlaw, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. vol. Ixxviii, 
p. 176(1930). 

Ictinus rapax mordax Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soe. vol. xxix, 
pp. 60, 328, 663 (1923) ; id., Rec. Ind. Mus. vol. xxvi, pp. 427, 
470 (1924) ; Laidlaw, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. vol. Ixxviii, p. 176 
(1930). 

Male. — ^Abdomen (with appendages) 52 mm. Hiad--wing 
40 mm. 

Head : eyes bluish-grey ; labium yellow, bordered 'with 
brownish ; labrum yellow, with a heavy black border and 
a median prolongation of black from the base which may 
or may not meet the black anterior border ; face and irons 
greenish-yellow, with a black stripe traversing lower part 
of front of frons and expandiag upwards at its middle to 
cut the yellow area into two large lateral triangulax spots ; 
anteclypeus yeUow ; postclypeus black, with a large lateral 
yellow spot on either side ; a black spot at base of frons 
above in the middle line which does not extend as far forwards 
as the crest ; vertex black ; occiput greenish-yeUow, fringed 
with short yellow hairs. Proihorax black, marked with yellow. 
Thorax black, marked with yellow or greenish-yellow 



374 



GOMPHIDiE. 



follows:— A complete mesothoracic collar; obKque dorsal 
spots, short and broad above, pointed below, where they are 
widely separated from the mesothoracic collar ; a large 
central spot in alar sinus ; spots on tergum ; a humeral 
stripe represented by an upper triangular spot and often 
a lower broad streak. LateraUy yellowish-green, with a 
median broad black stripe and the posterior border of the 
metepimeron narrowly yellow ; vestiges of a third yellow 
stripe on the median lateral black band, sometimes an upper 
yellow spot, sometimes an upper and a lower, or again a row 
of three yellow spots (I have never seen a complete yellow 
band). Wings clear or, when fully mature, slightly enfumed. 
Pterostigma black, braced, long, covering 5 to 6 cells ; discoidal 
cell of fore-wings with 4, of hiad-wings with 3 cells ; sub- 
trigone of fore-wing with 2 cells, of hind- wing with 1 cell ; 




Kg. 119. — ^Terminal abdominal segments and anal appendages of 
(a) QomphiiMa kodaguenais Praser, male ; (b) Ictinus rapax (Bambur), 
male. Seen from the right side. 

hypertrigones traversed once or twice ; membrane whitish ;. 



nodal index 



23-13 
14-16 



21-12 
15-13 



3 cubital cells in fore-wing, 



2 in hind- wing ; 6 cells in anal triangle. Discoidal field 
begins with a row of 4 cells and is continued as rows of 2. 
Legs black, coxae and trochanters yellow, and a stripe of the 
same colour on flexor surface of anterior femora ; hind femora 
extending Just beyond hind margin of thorax, furnished 
with an inner and outer row of spiaes, those of the inner- 
row closely set and numerous at the base, gradually lengthen- 
ing and more widely spaced towards the apex, those of the 
outer row closely set and small near the base, followed by 



ICTINUS. 375 

5 or 6 robust, widely spaced spines, the longest in the middle 
of the series. Abdomen black, marked with bright yellow 
as follows : — Segment 1 with an apical dorsal stripe, confluent 
with a large triangular spot on dorsum of 2, and a narrow 
lateral apical stripe, confluent with a broad lateral spot on 2,. 
which involves but does not pass beyond the oreUlet ; 3 with 
nearly the basal half yellow, this turning to pure white low 
down on sides and beneath ; 4 to 6 with large dorsal basal 
spots confluent across the middle line except at apices ; 7 with 
basal half, 8 with rather more than basal half, yellow, the- 
black here indenting the yellow on the dorsal carina ; the 
leaf-Hke expansions all black ; 9 with a lateral basal stripe 
and a small apical lateral spot ; 10 either unmarked or with 
a small subbasal, subdorsal spot on either side and a dorsal 
subapical pair of small spots, the basal spot sometimes much 
lower down on the sides (in one specimen all four spots are 
joined to form a bow-like stripe on the sides and dorsum). 
Anal appendages (fig. 119, b) black, as long as the two last 
segments, cylindrical and tapering. Inferior much shorter, 
deeply bifid, black. Genitalia : lamina tumid, broad, and 
deeply cupped along the free border ; internal hamules 
robust hooks ; ex;temal short flat and tongue-like, all hidden 
beneath a fringe of stout bright yeUow hairs directed inwards 
and covering the genital orifice ; lobe short, trowel-shaped. 

Female. — ^Abdomen 50 mm. Hind-wing 42-44 mm. 

Very similar to the male ; the yellow markings more exten- 
sive ; the abdomen much stouter, laterally compressed and 
shorter. The humeral stripe is nearly always almost complete 
and the lateral black band is always spotted, and there may 
be an almost complete yellow stripe here. Segment 10 
is usually entirely black. AtuzI appendages short, conical, 
black. Occiput raised, a robust spine situated at its middle, 
which in some specimens is minutely bifid, black, with the 
floor of occiput yellow. Wiags with a dark brown basal 
marking extending as far as the first antenodal nervure. 
(This is often present also in the male, but never so well defined 
as in the female). Vulvar scale black, deeply cleft into two 
narrow tongue-like processes which extend nearly to the base 
of segment 10. 

Var. mordax Selys. 

Differs from typical I. rapax in the greater extent of yellow 
on the face ; the pterostigma rather longer, segment 10 
entirely black, whilst 9 has only small lateral spots. Malabar 
specimens, in my collection, have the whole of the ante- 
and postolypeus yellow save for two minute black points 
at the mid(Ue of the latter ; the occiput is almost entirely 



576 GOMPHID^. 

yellow and has a much longer and better developed central 
spine. The lateral black stripes on the sides of the thorax 
are very variable, being sometimes entirely divided by yellow, 
whilst in others, especially in the males, there are only small 
upper and lower spots. 

Var. prcBCOX Selys. 

This is said to difier from typical I. rapax in its slightly 
longer abdomen and sUghtly shorter wings. The superior 
anal appendages are slightly longer and less abruptly truncate ; 
the wing-Uke borders on segment 8 have the denticles more 
pronounced. The face is usually darker, the yeUow on frons 
being divided into two spots by the confluence of the black 
in front with the black above ; segments 3 to 6 have shorter 
basal rings, whilst segment 10 has rather extensive yellow 
markings. 

Distribution. — Throughout India, Buema, Ceylon, and 
Malaysia, except in desert areas. 

A rather variable insect, but the same varieties crop up 
■everywhere in the same locaHties, so that it is evident that 
mordax and proecox cannot be accepted as subspecies or 
geographical forms. 

The insect, which is a very common one, breeds in both 
running and stiU. waters, but principally in the latter. In 
Malabar and Coorg it abounds on every large tank, but during 
the dry months takes to the beds of rivers. Here it may 
be seen perched on a prominent twig facing the water, 
head inclined downwards and abdomen held well up. 
:Should it be disturbed either by a rival, a passing female, 
or by the collector, it dives gracefully towards the surface 
of the water and then banks and turns, &yin.g swiftly off along 
the borders of the pond or stream. If disturbed it usually 
returns to its resting place again and again, or settles close 
by until the danger is past, when it again returns to its first 
resting place. Females are rarely seen, and then only when 
coming to oviposit ; their stay then is of very brief duration. 
Pairing takes place over water, and is not of more than a minute 
or two's duration, after which a few eggs are deposited by 
swift dips over the water, the insect then rising and disappearing 
high over the tops of neighboiffing trees. Unlike most 
Gomphines, the males frequently engage in fierce combat, 
especially if females are frequenting their locality. 

The type of 2. rapax is ia the ServiUe collection, that of 
mordax, from Assam, is in the Selys collection, whilst that 
of proecox, from Pondicherry, S. India, is in the Copenhagen 
Museum. 



ICTIKUS. 377 

332. letinus pertinax Selys. 

I ciinus pertinax Selys, Bull. Acad. Belg.vol. xxi,pt.2,p. 88 {18o4); 
id., Mon. Gomph. p. 270 (1857) ; Kirby, Cat. Odon. p. 77 (1890) ; 
WnUamson, Proo. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xxxiii, pp. 279, 281 ( 1907) ; 
Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soo. vol. xxix, pp. 60, 328 (1923) ; 
Laidlaw, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lend. vol. Ixxviii, p. 177 (1930); 
Needham, Rec. Ind. Mus. vol. xsxiv, p. 219 (1932). 

Male. — ^Abdomen 56 mm. Hind-wing 38 mm. 

Head : labium yellowish ; labium black, with two small 
oval spots at base or the two spots larger and shghtly eon- 
fluent at the centre of lip ; ante- and postcljrpeus black, 
the latter with a small rounded spot on each side ; frons black, 
its crest and upper part of front citron-yellow, divided by 
a prolongation of black from the base ; rest of head black ; 
■eyes greenish during life. Proihorax black, unmarked. 
Thorax black, marked with yellow as follows : — A narrow 
complete mesothoracic collar ; antehumeral stripes very short 
and divergent below ; narrow humeral stripes broadly inter- 
rupted, consisting of an upper spot and a short stripe below it. 
Laterally yellow, with two median oblique black stripes 
more or less confluent at their middles ; a very narrow border 
of black at the posterior part of thorax. Legs black, fore 
femora with a broad yeUow stripe on the inner side and the 
middle pair with a vestige of the same marking. Wings 
hyaline, extreme bases slightly tinted with brown ; ptero- 
stigma black, narrow, covering 6 cells ; costa finely yellow ; 
discoidal eeU of fore-wing made up of 3 cells by a confluence 
of 3 nervures which meet in the centre of the cell, that 

of hind-wing with 2 or 3 cells ; nodal index --- "' ~ ' 

13— 1.^ I 14 — 1 / 

anal triangle 4-celled. Abdomen black, marked with citron- 

yeUow as follows : — Segment 1 unmarked ; 2 with a large 

lateral spot which includes the oreUlet, and, on the mid- dorsal 

carina, a lanceolate stripe which does not extend to the end 

■of segment ; 3 to 6 with dorso-basal spots deeply indented 

behind by the black mid-dorsal carina and occupying about 

one-third the length of each segment (slightly less on 6) ; 

7 with its basal half yellow on the dorsum and subdorsum ; 

8 and 9 each with a broad, roimded, basal lateral spot on each 
side ; 10 unmarked. Segment 8 is bordered with long, 
very narrow wings which overlap the apex of segment and 
are bordered with denticles only at the extreme end. AtioI 
•appendages black, shaped similarly to those of J. rapax. 

Female. — ^Abdomen 51 mm. Hind-wing 44 mm. 

Differs only from the male in sexual characters, and m its 
more robust abdomen. Anal appendages black, shortly 
conical, well sepaiated ; vulvar scale as long as segment 9, 
■deeply bifid, each division shaped like an arrow-head. 



378 GOMPHIDiE. 

Distribution.—BxTBMA., Malaysia, Indo-China and China. 
So far, the allotype, which was taken in Burma, is the only 
record from witMn Indian limits. 

Differs from I. rapax in the black anteclypeus, and 
abdominal segment 8 with lateral spots instead of a basal 
ring and segment 10 entirely black. 

Type a female in the Berlin Museum ; allotjrpe and three 
other males in the Williamson collection, Michigan University. 

333. letiims angulosus Selys. 

Ictinusangulosm Selys, Bull. Acad. Belg. vol. xxi, pt. 2, p. 92 (1854) 
id., Mon. Gomph. p. 281 (1857) ; Kirby, Cat. Odon. p. 77 (1890) 
Williamson, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mizs. vol. xxxiii, p. 279 (1907) 
Laidlaw, Kee. Ind. Mus. vol. xxiv, pp. 370, 374 (1922) ; Eraser, 
J. Bombay Nat.Hist. Soo. vol. xxix, pp. 60, 329, 665, 666 (1923) 
Laidlaw, Trans. Ent. Soe. Lend. vol. Ixxviii, p. 177 (1930) 
Needham, Ree. Ind. Mus. vol. xxxiv, p. 219 (1932). 

Male. — ^Abdomen 53 mm. Hind- wing 43 mm. 

Head : labium and labrum yeUow, with the borders finely 
black ; rest of face and frons yellow, with a vestige of black 
on anteclypeus, 2 small points on postclypeus and a large 
spot on front of frons, the latter with a broad black basal 
line above ; vertex and occiput both yellow, the former 
black in front, the latter narrowly bordered with black. 
Back of eyes black, with a large yellow spot above. Prothorax 
almost entirely black. Thorax black, marked with yellow 
as follows : — ^A complete mesothoraoic collar, broad dorsal 
oblique stripes converging above and resting on the borders 
of the alar sinus, pointed below, but not meeting the meso- 
thoracic collar. Laterally broadly yellow, the sutures outlined 
in black. Tergum spotted with yeUow. Legs black, femora 
broadly yellow on the outer sides, a fine yellow line on the 
outer sides of tibiae ; hind femora with 2 rows of spines, 
the distal 7 or 8 being much longer than the others. Wings 
hyaline, bases clouded with dark brown as far as the first 
antenodal nervure ; costa finely yellow ; pterostigma reddish- 
brown ; discoidal cells with 3 cells ; 19 antenodal and 11 
postnodal nervures in fore-wings ; membrane blackish-brown, 
especially at base. Base of wing deeply excavate, the tornal 
angle very prominent. Abdomen black, marked with yellow 
as foUows : — Segment 1 broadly on dorsum, the marking 
constricted at its middle ; 2 with a broad even dorsal stripe- 
not extending as far as the apex, the sides including the 
oreillets broadly ; 3 to 6 with large lanceolate basal spots, 
extending nearly to the apex on segment 3 and for about 
three-fourths the length of the others ; 7 with a ring occupying 
the basal two-thirds (rather less on the sides) ; 8 with the 
basal half and its sides yellow, the moderately large leaf -like- 



ICHNITS. 379' 

expansions entirely black and not visibly denticulate along 
borders ; 9 black above, yellow laterally ; 10 similarly 
coloured. Anal appendages black, superiors a little longer 
than segment 10, subcylindxical, excavate within, pointed, 
moderately divergent ; iaferior about half the length of 
anteriors, forked, branches straight but separated. 

Female. — Unknown. 

Distribution. — ImnA. (locality unknown) . 

The abdominal markings are sufficiently distinctive to 
separate this jfrom other Indian species. 

Type in the Saunders collection, British Museum. 

334. Ictinus atrox Selys. 

Ictinv^ atrox Selys, Bull. Aoad. Belg. vol. xxi, pt. 2, p. 92 (1854) ; 
id., Mon. Gomph. p. 282 (1857); id., Biall. Aoad. Belg. (2) 
vol.xlvi,p. 677(1878); Kirby.Cat.Odon.p. 77 (1890); William- 
son, Proe. XJ.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xxxiii, p. 279 (1907); Laidlaw, 
Rec. Ind. Miis. vol. xxiv, pp. 370, 374 (1922) ; Praser, J. Bom- 
bay Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. xsix, pp. 60, 329, 664, 665 (1923); 
Laidlaw, Trans. Ent. Soc. Loud. vol. Ixxviii, p. 177 (1930) ^ 
Needham, Bee. Ind. Mus. vol. xxxiv, p. 219 (1932). 

Male. — ^Abdomen 51 mm. Hiad-wing 41'5 mm. 

Head : labium yellowish ; labrum, face, and frons yellow, 
the labrum very finely bordered with black, a fine transverse 
hne across lower part of frons and two tiny spots of black 
below this ; upper part of frons black at base ; vertex and 
occiput yellow, a black stripe crossing the former just behind 
the ooefli. Proihorax black, marked with yellow laterally. 
Thorax black in front, marked with yellow as follows : — 
A complete mesothoracic collar, broad oblique dorsal stripes 
not meeting the alar sinus above nor the collar below ; the 
alar sinus, and a complete humeral stripe slightly constricted 
about its middle. Laterally broadly yeUow, marked with 
fine black Mnes on the anterior and posterior lateral sutures. 
Legs entirely yellow, with black spines. Wings hyahne, 
tinted with yellow, a basal dark brown mark extending 
as far as the first antenodal nervure ; pterostigma yellow, 
7 mm. ; membrane ashy grey. Abdomen black, marked 
with yellow as foUows : — Segment 1 entirely yellow ; 2 with 
a broad triangular spot, its apex just reaching the apical 
border of segment and its basal angles fusing with a broad 
lateral stripe which involves the oreiUets and extends from 
base to apical border of segment ; 3 to 7 with the basal half 
of each yellow ; 8 with very large wing-like lateral processes, 
of which the base is broadly yellow, this continuous with 
a broad yellow ring covering rather more than the basal half 
of the segment ; 9 and 10 with narrow basal rings which 
extend apically on the sides of each segment. Anal a/ppendiages 
very similar to those of rapax, black. 



380 GOJIPHIDiE. 

Female. — Abdomen 54 mm. Hind--wiiig 44 mm. 

Head : lips and face reddish-yellow, changing to citron- 
yellow on the frons, which has a fine sinuous basal black 
band slightly notched before the ocelli ; vertex and occiput 
yellow, the former margined with black in front, the latter 
margined with brown, its border concave, with a small spine 
on either side of the concavity, fringed on the outer side of 
the spines with fine yellow hairs ; back of eyes glossy black, 
with a lateral vestigial yellow spot. Proihorax black, broadly 
bordered with dark yellow on each side. Thorax black, 
marked with yellow as follows : — A complete mesothoracic 
collar ; moderately narrow oblique dorsal bands pointed 
below and diverging widely, but not meeting the collar below ; 
a humeral band a little tapered above, broader below and 
uninterrupted. The sides broadly yeUow, the sutures only 
marked feiely with black.' Legs yellow, marked with black ; 
femora reddish-yellow, fore and middle pairs with an external 
black stripe broadening apically, hind pair with only a vestige 
of this and bearing two rows of black spines, the distal five 
of which are much longer than the others. Tibiae and tarsi 
black. Wings hyaUne, with a sUght yellow tint at the 
bases ; costa yellow ; pterostigma long, dark yellow between 
black nervures, covering about 8 cells ; membrane brownish ; 
discoidal cell of fore- wing with 3 cells formed by the confluence 
of 3 nervures in centre of cell, that of hind- wing with only 

2 cells ; discoidal field begins with a row of 3 cells in fore- wing, 
followed by rows of 2, ia hind- wing beginning with 4 cells ; 

23_'>0 i 22—13 
nodal index vw-Cn ■ -T7r--r,. '= subtrigone of fore-wing divided 
16-18 i 16-15 

into 2 cells, that of hind-wiag entire, small. Abdomen tumid 

at base, a little compressed, black, marked as follows : — 

Segment 1 with a transverse dorsal stripe and the sides 

yeUow ; 2 with a dorsal stripe extending the fuU length, 

very broad at base, tapering apically, the sides broadly yeUow ; 

3 to 6 with the basal half yellow, the apical half black, extending 
basally for some distance along the sides ; 7 with basal half 
yellow, the black encroaching slightly on the dorsum and 
more so on the sides ; 8 with a fine basal black ring, followed 
by a narrow yeUow ring and then black as far as the apical 
border, the yellow ring extending a little apically on the sides, 
the wing-like processes black, narrowly yeUow at the base, 
rounded, strongly denticulate except at bases ; 9 with a large 
dorsal black spot, its base at the apical border of segments 
tapering basally, the rest of segment yellow; 10 black, 
rather less than the apical half yeUow, the apical border finely 
black. AtwH appendages black, longer than segment 10, 
fusiform, pointed. Vidvar scale daxk yeUow, deeply cleft 
to its base into two contiguous lamellae, pointed at apex. 



GOMPEIDIA. 381 

Distribution. — ^The type (a female), in the Selys collection, 
is from either India or China. The male described above, 
which I think is midoubtedly conspecific with the female, is 
in the Pusa Museum, and was probably taken in Bthab. 

/. atrox is distinguished by the large amount of yellow 
both on the face and body. Selys remarks that it is nearly 
related to I. angulosus, but the description of the latter insect, 
of which the male alone is known, reads very differently from 
that of I. atrox. The armature of the female occiput differs 
from other species oilctinus. 

Genus GOMPHIDIA Selys. (Fig. 120.) 

GompMdia Selys, Bull. Aead. Belg. vol. xxi, pt. 2, p. 86 (1834) ; id., 
Mon. Gompli. p. 259 (1857); Kirby, Cat. Odon. p. 76 (1890); 
WiUiamson, Proe. U.S. ICat. Mus. vol. xxxiii, pp. 272, 281, 282 
(1907); Laidlaw,E,ec.Ind. Mus. vol. xxiv, p. 374(1922); Praser, 
J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soo. vol. xxis, pp. 60, 328, 666, 667 (1923) 
Laidlaw, Trans. Ent. Soo. Lond. vol. Ixxviii, p. 178 (1930) 
Needham, Zool. Siniea, ser. A, vol. xi,fasc. l,pp. 19,25, 26(1930) 
id., Ree. Ind. Mus. vol. xxxiv, pp. 217-219 (1932). 

Size large, build robust ; colour mat black, marked with 
bright citron-yeUow, closely resembUng species of the last 
genus, to which GompMdia is nearly related. Some of the 
species are the largest insects known in the Order. 

Head large and triangular, frons strongly angulated, occiput 
simple or concave and fringed with short hairs. Wings : 
reticulation very close ; tomus strongly angulated ; base 
of hind-wing excavate ; membrane long and narrow ; anal 
triangle 5-celled ; arc situated between the second and 
third antenodal nervures or opposite the second ; 8 transverse 
nervures between the sectors of arc from the arc to bifurcation 
of Rs in fore-wing, 4 to 6 in hind-wing ; 2 rows of postanal 
cells in fore-wing, 4 to 6 in hind- wing ; anal loop very irregular, 
and blending on the proximal side with the common reticu- 
lation of the wing ; basal incomplete antenodal nervures 
absent ; nodal index very high ; primary antenodal nervures 
the first and the sixth or seventh ; discoidal cell in fore-wings 
with costal and distal sides about equal and both half as long 
again as the basal, made up of 3 to 4 cells, that of the hind- 
wings 3-celled, very elongate in length of wing, costal and 
distal sides approximately equal and double the length of 
basal, the distal side markedly sinuous ; pterostigma elongate 
and narrow, braced, about twice the length of the distance 
from node to proximal end of the pterostigma ; lA in fore- 
wing but shghtly pectinate ; Cuii and I A in hind-wing parallel 
to the wing-border ; 3 to 4 cubital nervures in fore- wing, 
2 in hind-wing ; subtrigone of fore-wing 2-celled, that of 
hind-wing entire and sometimes incomplete, its proximal 



382 



GOMPHID^. 



side joining the base of the discoidal cell ; hypertrigones 
traversed twice ; a supplementary nernire running outwards 
from the distal side of discoidal cells ; several strong inter- 
calated nervures always present. Legs robust, hind femora 
extending to posterior end of thorax and furnished with a 
group of small, closely-set, numerous spines at the proximal 
half and two rows of longer, more robust spines at the distal 
half ; hind tibial spiues short, numerous and very closely-set. 
Abdomen dilated at base, then narrow and cylindrical as 
far as segment 7, terminal segments again dilated, but not 
nearly to the same extent as in genus Ictinus, and segment 8 
without lateral wing-like prolongations. Anal appendages ; 
superiors nearly twice the length of segment 10, flattened 
laterally, forcipate and blunt at apex ; inferior very short, 
very deeply bifid, the two triangular branches but slightly 




Fig. 120. — ^Wings of Gomphidia kodaguensis Eraser, male. 

divaricate. Genitalia : lamina very sinuous, cupped above, 
and with its centre shghtly prolonged; anterior hamules 
flattened, long, narrow processes minutely spined at apex; 
posterior hamules much broader and a Httle shorter, obtuse 
at apex ; lobe shaped Hke an inverted hehnet, broad and 
moderately deep. 

Genotype, Gomphidia T-nigrum Selys. 

Distribution.— JJiilike the last genus, this is purely Oriental 
in its range, but occurs throughout the region. Five species 
are found within our limits, of which G. fletcheri Pras. is one 
of the largest dragonflies known. The larv^, which are similar 
to those of Ictinus, breed in clean submontane streams ; this 
habitat, and certain features of the venation, point to the 
genus being a more primitive one than Ictvtms. 



GOMPHIDIA. 383 

Key to Indian Species of Gomphidia. 

(Taee yellow, -with T-shaped black mark on [p. 383. 

< upper surface of frons T-nigrum, Selys, 

LFaoe black, marked -with yellow 2. 

f Very large species (abdomen more than 60 mm. [p. 386. 

J in length) fietcheri Fras., 

j Smaller species (abdomen less than 60 mm. 
(. in length) 3. 

{A superior humeral thoracic spot present .... 4. 
No superior humeral thoracic spot present . . 5. 

Subtrigone of fore-wings made up of 3 cells; [p. 391. 

abdominal segment 10 entirely black pearsoni BVas., 

4. ■{ Subtrigone of fore-wings made up of 2 cells 
only ; abdominal segment 10 broadly yellow [p. 389. 
dorsally Jcodaguensis Fras., 

'No yellow spots on the medial lateral stripe of [Fras.,p. 387. 

thorax ; frons entirely yellow above williamsoni 

5, ■{ An upper and a lower yellow spot on the medial 
lateral stripe of thorax; frons black, marked [p. 38S. 
with yellow above abboiii Will., 



335. Gomphidia T-nigrum Selys. 

Qomphidia T-nigrum Selys, Bull. Acad. Belg. vol. sxi, pt. 2, p. 86 
(1854); id.,Mon.Gomph.p.260(1857); Kirby, Cat. Odon. p. 76 
(1890); Williamson, Proo. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xxxiii, p. 282 
(1907); Laiaaw, Rec. Ind. Mus. vol. xxiv, pp. 370, 374 (1922) ; 
Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soo. vol. xxix, pp. 60, 329, 668, 
669, pi. ii, figs. 3, 3 a (1933); id., Reo. Ind. Mus. vol. xxvi, 
pp. 427, 470 (1924) ; id., ibid. vol. xxxiii, p. 447 (1931); Need- 
ham, op. eit. vol. xxxiv, p. 219 (1932). 

Mak. — ^Abdomen 53 mm. Hind-wing 38 mm. 

Head : eyes bluish-grey ; lips, face, and frons bright citron- 
.yeUow, upper surface of frons marked with, a black line in 
floor of sulcus, which forms a T by meeting a short medial 
transverse black line on front of frons ; vertex black, the two 
points of vesicle yellow, occiput largely yellow, its hind border 
raised, its floor filled by a pyramidal eminence. Prothorax 
brownish-black. TJtorax black ; a broad yellow meso- 
thoracie collar barely interrupted at its middle ; two broad, 
short, dorsal obhque yellow stripes, pointed below and not 
meeting the mesothoraoie collar ; the sides broadly yellow, 
with a broad median black stripe marked above and below 
with a small upper and a large inferior spot of yellow. Humeral 
.spot vestigial, represented only by a small upper spot, the 
ailar sinus black, the tergum spotted with yeEow. Legs 
black, coxae and trochanters spotted with yeUow. Hind 
femora with two rows of very robust, evenly and widely 
spaced spines, longest at the middle of femora, crowded 
■at the extreme base, where they are very minute. Wings 



384 GOMPHID^. 

hyaline, eosta yellow as far as the pterostigma, which is yellow 
bordered with black ; diseoidal cell in fore-wing 4-celled, 
the basal cell divided into 2 cells, hind-wing 3 cells long ; 

nodal index I ^ ; 3 cubital cells in fore-wing, 2 in 

9— i^ 1^—10 

hind- wing ; subtrigone in fore-wiag 2-celled, that of hind- wing 
entire ; anal triangle o-celed. Abdcmien black, broadly 
marked with yellow as follows : — Segment 1 diffusely yeUow 
on dorsum ; 2 yeUow except for an irregular black ring at the 
apex, which extends forwards on either side of dorsum and 
also below along the ventral border ; 3 to 6 with the basal 
half yellow (rather less on 6) ; 7 and 8 with narrow black 
apical rings, broadest on 8, extending forwards along the 
ventral border on both segments ; 9 with a fine lateral stripe 
at the base and the basal part of dorsal carina finely yellow ; 
10 with a small dorsal spot. AtmI appendages brownish ; 
superiors longer than segment 9, broad at base, compressed 
and of even width thereafter, bevelled at the apex, curving at 
first outwards and then inwards, the apices meeting ; inferior 
one-third the length of superiors, seen in profile imdulated, 
from below its branches diverging and broadly triangular. 
Genitalia very similar to those of G. fletcheri (to which this 
insect is more closely related than to other species, both 
by its anal appendages and genitalia) ; lamina short and 
broad, bluntly pointed, somewhat excavate ; internal hamules 
long tapering hooks, the apices curHng a little outwards ; 
external hamules long narrow and acute tongue-Hke pro- 
cesses, bright yellow in colour, projecting markedly from the 
genital sac and hugging the lobe, which is also yellow and 
broadly funnel-shaped. 

Female. — Abdomen 53 mm. Hind-wing 43 mm. 

Very similar to the male. Mandibles marked with black 
at the base ; labrum all yellow ; occiput concave at its middle ; 
dorsum of segment 2 bearing a triangular yellow spot ; the 
other black markings of abdomen of greater extent ; segment 9 
without any dorsal stripe ; 10 entirely black. Anal appen- 
dages short, conical, brownish. Vulvar scale cleft for about 
three-fourths of its length, the divisions slightly divaricate, 
extending nearly to base of segment 10. 

Distribuiion.—The type, in the Selys collection, is fi-om 
NoETHERK India (locality unknown). I have never received 
specimens from that region, but have seen the species in 
considerable numbers on the Katraj Lake, Poena, Decoan. 
In flight it looks very hke an Ictinus, but its bright yellow 
colour is sufficient to distinguish it even on the wing It 
patrols the borders of the lake for long distances, the males 
engaging each other in combat as they pass. 



GOMPHIDIA. 385 

336. Gomphidia abbotti Williamson. 

Gompkidia abbotti Williamson, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xxxiii, 
pp. 282-285, text-figs. 9, 10 (1907); Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. 
Hist. Soe. vol. xxix, pp. 60, 329, 672, 673, pi. ii, fig. 4, 4 a 
(1923); Laidlaw, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. vol. Ixxviii, p. 178 
(1930); Needham, Reo. Ind. Mus. vol. xsxiv, p. 219 (1932). 

Male. — ^Abdomen 53 mm. Hind-wing 4 mm. 

Head, : eyes bluish-green ; labium brownish ; labrum 
black, marked with two large transversely-oval lateral yellow 
•spots ; anteelypeus yellow, postclypeus black, with a small 
lateral yellow spot ; frons black, its crest narrowly in front 
and the upper surface yellow, the sulcus black, this colour 
extending forward nearly to the crest (in Burmese speci- 
mens this black area is much restricted) ; occiput raised, 
black, fringed with short hairs. Proihorax brown, yellowish 
laterally. Thorax black, with a yellow mesothoracic collar 
-slightly interrupted in the middle line ; oblique yellow dorsal 
spots resting on the alar sinus above, widely divaricate below, 
■extending about half-way to the mesothoracic collar; humeral 
stripe entirely absent ; laterally black, marked with a narrow 
-anterior stripe of yellow on the mesepimeron and another, 
wider, on the metepimeron, between which there is a small 
upper spot on the black area between the two yellow stripes ; 
tergum spotted with yellow. Legs black, armature as in 
0. wiUiamsoni. Wings hyaline, evenly and palely enfumed ; 
membrane white ; pterostigma dark brown, over 4 to 5 cells, 
braced ; discoidai ceU of fore-wing with 4 cells, 3 cells long, 
-the basal divided into 2, that of hind-wing 3 cells long ; sub- 
trigones on fore-wing traversed once, that of hind-wing entire ; 
1 to 2 nervures in hypertrigones ; 3 cubital nervures in fore- 
wing, 2 in hind-wing ; nodal index ~ ■ ; 5 cells 

10— lo I iZ—W 

in anal triangle. Abdmnen black, marked with yellow as 
follows : — Segment 1 with a dorsal basal spot and a narrow 
apical one low down on the sides ; 2 with a dorsal median 
«pot and a small lateral which involves the oreillets ; 3 to 6 
with dorsal spots confluent over the dorsal carina except 
at the extreme apex of spots ; 7 with nearly the basal half 
yellow ; 8 with a small basal lateral spot and a smaller one 
on 9 ; 10 with a median dorsal spot (this in the Burmese 
specimens covers the basal half of the dorsum). Anal 
appendages : superiors considerably longer than segment 10, 
compressed, of about even width to the apex which is squarish, 
separated iu their entire length but converging at the apices ; 
the inferior much shorter, a little sinuous and directed up 
as seen in profile, deeply cleft, the branches widely divaricate 
and triangular seen from beneath. Genitalia black, tipped 
-with yeEow, similar to those of Q. wiUiamsoni. 
VOL. n. 2 c 



386 GoarPHiDa:. 

Distribution. — ^The tifpe male, in t]ie United States National 
Museum, is from Trong, Lower Siam. I possess a specimen 
from Maymyo, Btjema which answers to the above description, 
the slight variations between it and Mr. Williamson's de- 
scription being probably due to changes taking place through 
decomposition. 

The entire absence of the humeral stripe separates this 
species from G. hodaguensis. 

I 
337. GompMdia fleteheri Fraser. 

Gomphidia fleteheri Eraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. xxix, 
pp. 669, 670, pi. ii, figs. 2, 2 a, text-fig. 2 o ( 1923) ; id., Eec. Ind. 
Mus. vol. xxvi, pp. 427, 470 (1924); Laidlaw, Trans. Er).t. 
Soo. vol. Ixsviii, p . 1 79 ( 1 930 ) ; Fraser, Beo. Ind. Mus. vol. xaxiii, 
p. 447 (1931); Needham, op. oit. vol. xxxiv, p. 219 (1932). 

Male,. — ^Abdomen (with appendages) 63 mm. Hind-wing 
42 mm. 

Heed : eyes bottle-green ; middle lobe of labium brownish, 
lateral lobes yellow ; labrum black, marked with two greenish- 
yellow spots at base ; face and frons greenish-yeUow, a black 
stripe across lower part of front of frons which sends a pro- 
longation up to meet a medial black marking on upper surface 
of frons occupying the floor of sulcus and expanding towards 
the vesicle ; vertex and occiput black, the former raised 
into two prominent points, the latter raised laterally and 
medially and fringed with pale-coloured hairs. Protfiorax 
black, marked with a yeUow anterior collar. Thorax black, 
marked with greenish-yellow as follows : — ^A broad meso- 
thoracic collar interrupted in the middle line ; very short 
and broad, oblique dorsal stripes rather widely separated 
from the- mesothoracic coUar. Laterally broadly yeUowish- 
green, with a medial broad black band which is marked above 
and below by large yeUow spots. Tergum spotted with 
yellow. Legs black, eoxse and trochanters yellow, hind 
femora with two rows of robust spines, short, numerous 
and crowded at the base, longest and widely-spaced at the 
middle, and with 5 or 6 short, closely spaced ones at the apex. 
Wings hyaline, enfamed somewhat patchily with warm brown ; 
pterostigma black, very long, covering 6 to 7 cells, braced; 
discoidal cell in fore-wing with 3 to 4 cells, that of hind-wLng 
with 3 cells in a line ; hypertrigones traversed twice in all 
wings ; subtrigone in hind-wing entire, in fore-wing formed 
of 3 cells by conjunction of 3 nervures at centre of cell ; nodal 

19-15 



. , ■ 14-20120-12 15-18 
mdex 



14-14 16-14' 14-14 



14-14 



2 cubital nervures. 



in hittd-wii^, 3 to 4 in fore-wing ; 6 to 7 cells in anal triangle^ 
(In one specimen the discoidal cells in fore-wings have only 



GOMPHIDIA. 387 

3 cells and the subtrigones have only 2 cells.) Abdomen 
black, marked with yellow as follows : — Segment 1 with a broad 
dorsal spot and a narrow apical streak low down on the sides > 
confluent with a lateral spot on segment 2 which involves 
the oreillet and is limited apically by this structure ; 3 to & 
with elongate dorsal spots confluent over the dorsal ridge 
except at the extreme apices, and gradually diminishiii^ 
in size jfrom 3 to 6 ; 3 with also the ventro-lateral border 
narrowly yellow ; segment 7 with the basal half yellow ;. 
8 with a complete narrow basal ring ; 9 with a mere vestige- 
of this, and 10 entirely immarked. AtioI appendages black. 
Superiors broad at base, compressed in the apical half, apices- 
bevelled off and turning in to meet each other. The inferior 
only one-third the length of superiors, undulated in profile, 
flat and triangular as seen from below. Genitalia : lobe 
rather flat, the border emarginate ; internal hamules very 
long, robust hooks ; external hamules long, flat, narrow, 
tongue-like lobes projecting well out from the genital sac ; 
lobe funnel-shaped, prominent, embraced on either side by 
the outer hamules. 

Distribution. — Cooeg. Two males taken at Hallery, near 
Mercara, on the borders of a rocky mountain stream, 3,800 ft. 
altitude. 

The insects were very shy and unapproachable, so that I 
finally had to bring them down with a charge of dust-shot. 
They bore a close resemblance, when on the wing or resting, 
to Ictinus or to Megalogom/pJms hannyngtoni, for which latter 
they were mistaken until secured and examined. When settled 
they rested with the head inclined somewhat downwards 
and the abdomen held stiffly and straight out, this latter 
feature distinguishing them from the curved scimitar-lLke- 
abdomen oi Ictinus. 

The large size of Q. fletcheri will distinguish it from any 
other Indian species of Oomphidia ; other Oriental species, 
approaching it in size are O. krugeri Martin, which has the 
oblique dorsal stripes joined to an upper humeral spot, and 
G. perakensis Laid., in which the nodal index is naueh higher 
than in O. fletcheri. 

Type in the Author's collection. 



338. Gomphidla williamsoni Eraser. 

Qomphidia wUliamsoni Praser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soo. vol. xxix, 
pp. 670, 671, pi. ii, figs. 5,5 a (1923) ; Laidlaw, Trans. Ent. Soc. 
Lend. vol. l:^viii, p. 179 (1930); Needham, Bee. Ind. Mus. 
vol. xxxiv, p. 219 (1932). 

Male. — ^Abdomen (with appendages) 54 mm. Hind-wing, 
43 mm. 

2o2 



388 GOMPHID^. 

Head : eyes bottle-green ; labium yeUow ; labrum black, 
enclosing two moderately large yellow spots ; jfrons greenish- 
yellow above and in front, a medial basal black spot sometimes 
present above but never extending as far forwards as the 
■crest ; face greenish-yellow below, black above, this colour 
invading the yellow on the front of frons so as to cut it into 
two lateral spots ; vertex and occiput black. Proihorax 
black, with an anterior yellow coUar. Thorax black, marked 
with greenish-yellow as follows : — ^A mesothoracic collar 
slightly interrupted in the middle line ; broad, oval, obUque, 
dorsal stripes narrowing below, where they may be concnected 
to the mesothoracic coUar or widely separated from it (separated 
in one male and in the single female examined ; connected 
in two males) ; laterally two very broad greenish-yellow 
stripes separated by a broad black stripe which is quite 
nnmarked ; the anterior yeUow stripe sending a tongue-like 
process back above, which may have been formed by confluence 
with an upper yellow spot, the posterior stripe covering 
-the whole of metepimeron ; tergum spotted with yellow. 
Wings hyaline, rather deeply enfumed with warm brown ; 
-costa black ; pterostigma blackish-brown, very long, braced ; 
all discoidal cells 4-eeUed ; anal triangle with 5 cells ; 
- - "" 18—11 

Legs entirely black. Abdomen 



nodal index 



12-14 14-11" 

black, marked with yellow as follows : — Segment 1 with a 
■dorsal apical triangle and an apical lateral spot low down 
•on the sides ; 2 with a broad dorsal stripe not quite reaching 
the apex, laterally a broad spot of yellow which just meets 
•the dorsal spot at its base and extends to the ventro-lateral 
border below, involving the oreillet ; 3 to 6 with elongate 
■dorsal spots confluent over the dorsal crest save for the 
extreme ajpex, these spots gradually decreasiag in size from 
3 to 6, 3 with a long basal streak low down on the sides ; 7 with 
the basal half yeUow, 8 with a tiny lateral basal streak, 
■9 unmarked ; 10 with a small rounded spot on the centre 
of the dorsum. Anal appendages black ; superiors long and 
sinuous, laterally compressed, blunt and bevelled at the apex ; 
inferior very much shorter, leaf-like and curlmg upwards 
■as seen in profile, flat and -triangular as seen from below. 
Genitalia : lamina deeply excavate, more pointed and longer 
than in <?. fletcheri ; internal hamules short, robust hooks, 
much shorter than in G. fletcheri ; external hamules broadly 
iaiangular, flat and not markedly projecting from the genital 
sac ; lobe funnel-shaped ; external hamules and lobe tipped 
with yellow. 

Female. — ^Abdomen 54 mm. Hind-wing 45 mm. 

Very similar to the male, but the yellow markiiags broader 
and better defined. Wings rather more deeply enfumed; 



nodal index ^^ 
12-15 



(JOMPHIDIA. 389' 

20-13 



. Occiput raised, a small point 

at its centre, finer than that found in Ictinus ; vesicle black, 
marked with two small yellow spots. The dorsal oblique 
stripes widely separated from the mesothoracic coUar ; the 
black stripe, traversing the sides of thorax, marked with 
a large lower spot. Segment 2 of abdomen almost entirely 
.yeUow, the lateral band very broad and extending the entire 
length of the segment, the dorsal stripe also very broad 
in its basal two-thirds, the apical third connected to it by 
a narrow neck only ; segment 9 with a fine lateral basal 
streak similar to that on 8 ; segment 10 unmarked. 
Av/il appendages very short, conical, black. Vulvar scale 
very characteristic, deeply cleft at its base into two long, 
narrow, tongue-like, fohate processes, the apices of which 
extend as far as the base of segment 10. 

Distribution. — Duars, Bengal [H. V. O'Donel). 

The species is closely allied to G. abbotti and G. kodaguensis, 
especially to the latter. It differs from G. Jcodaguensis in 
the individual greenish-yellow area on the upper surface 
of the frons, with at most a very small black spot at the base, 
also in the absence of an upper humeral spot and of spots 
on the lateral black band on the thorax. From G. abbotti 
it differs in the absence of spots on the lateral black band 
of the thorax and of black on the upper surface of the frons • 
also in the much greater extent of yellow on segment 2, etc. 

Type in the British Museum. 



339. Gomphidia kodaguensis Fraser. (Fig. 119, a.) 

OompMdiakodaguensis Fraser, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soe. vol. xxix. 
pp. 671, 672 (1923) ; id., Reo. Ind. Mus. vol. xxvi, pp. 427, 470 
(1924); Laidlaw, Trans. Ent. Soe. Lend. vol. Ixxviii, p. 179 
(1930); Fraser, Reo. Ind.MuB. vol. xxxiii, p. 447(1931); Need- 
ham, op. cit. vol. xxxiv, p. 219 (1932). 

Mak. — ^Abdomen (with appendages) 53 mm. Hind-wing 
42 mm. 

Head : eyes bottle-green ; face and frons bright citron- 
yellow, the latter with black marks in floor of sulcus and 
on upper part and front, and a transverse black line on the 
lower part of front, all these black areas confluent ; labium 
yellow ; labrum yellow, narrowly bordered with black, 
the ground-colour spht into two large spots by a medial 
vertical black streak running from the base ; occiput black, 
raised, fringed with very short pale yeUow hairs ; vertex 
black, the vesicle elevated into two very acute prominent 
points. Prothorax black, with a narrow anterior yello# 
collar. Thorax black, marked with yellow as foUows : — 



390 GOMPHID^. 

-A mesothoracie collar broadly broken in the middle Line ; 
two broad, oval, greenish-yellow dorsal stripes, pointed below 
and not nearly meeting the mesothoracie coUar ; a small 
upper spot representing the rudimentary humeral stripe. 
Laterally two broad yellow stripes separated by a broad 
black stripe, which includes an upper and a lower yeUow 
spot ; the posterior yellow stripe covering the whole of metepi- 
meron. Tergum spotted with yellow. Legs black ; coxae, 
trochanters, and fore femora yeUow. Wings hyaline, costa 
black, the apices and posterior borders palely and evenly 
■enfumed with warm brown ; pterostigma very long, black ; 

22-15 

■ discoidal cell of fore-wings with 



nodal index 



14r-15 15-13 

3 to 4 cells, of hind-wings with 3 cells (traversed twice) ; 
5 cells in the anal triangle ; 5 cubital nervures in fore- wing, 
3 in hind-wing ; subtrigone in fore-wing traversed once, 
in hind-wing jEree ; hypertrigones traversed once or twice. 
Abdomen black, marked with yeUow as follows : — Segment 1 
with a fine apical dorsal ring ; 2 with a small oval dorsal 
spot on the basal two-thirds, a small lateral spot which 
involves the oreUlet, and subdorsally and subapically a very 
tiny yellow spot ; 3 to 6 with dorsal basal elongate spots 
confluent over the dorsal crest except at the extreme apices ; 
■3 also with a narrow basal streak along the ventro-lateral 
border ; apices of genital lobe and external hamules also 
1}ipped with yellow ; 7 with the basal half yellow ; 8 with 
an elongate transverse basal spot ; 9 umnarked ; 10 with 
a dorsal spot expanding apicaUy and covering almost the entire 
dorsum. Anal appendages (fig. 119, a) black. Oenitalia 
.similar to those of G. williamsoni, to which this iasect is 
•closely related, as also to those of G. abbotti. 

Female.— Vndescnbed. One which I saw but failed to 
■capture appeared to have markiags sioiilax to those of the 
male, but the abdominal rings broader and more conspicuous. 

Distribution. — South India : Coorg (in montane areas), 
Vayitri, Malabar Wynaad, Bolovumpatti Forest, and the 
Mudis HiUs in the Coimbatore district. This species is 
common in Coorg, especially on the Sampaji and Bhagmandala 
Eiivers, from where the type comes. It is a scarce insect 
elsewhere. 

G. kodaguensis diEEers from both G. williamsoni and G. abbotti 
in having the face and Hps almost entirely yellow and by the 
black on frons joining up with that on the upper surface. 
Erom G. williamsoni it again differs in the more restricted 
yellow markings on segments 1 to 3 and in the broader markings 
on segments 8 to 10 of the abdomen ; from G. ahbotti in the 
greater number of antenodal nervures and in the vestigial 



GOMPHIDIA, 391 

htiineral spot on the thorax, which is absent in G. williamsoni. 
Type in the British Museum ; paratypes in my own, Morton, 
and Laidlaw collections. 

340. GompMdia pearsoni Fraser. 

Qomphidia pearsoni Fraser, Ceylon. J. Sci., B, vol. xviii, pt. i, 
pp. 20-22 (1933). 

Male. — Abdomen (with appendages) 60 mm. Hind-wing 
42 mm. 

Head : labrum bright yellow ; labium black, with two 
small citron-yellow spots at base ; bases of mandibles yellow 
at base ; anteclypeus brown ; postclypeus bright citron- 
yellow on the lower half, black on the upper half; frons 
black, with a large citron-yellow triangular spot on each side 
above, which overlaps slightly on to the anterior surface ; 
vertex and occiput black, the latter friaged with short black 
hairs ; eyes bottle-green during life. Proihorax black. 
Thorax black, marked with bright citron-yellow as follows : — 
A broad, slightly interrupted mesothoracic collai ; short 
pyriform antehumeral stripes, the lower ends pointed and 
strongly divergent ; a small upper humeral spot ; two broad 
stripes on the sides, an anterior at the level of the spiracle, 
and a much broader stripe covering the posterior two-thirds 
of the metepimeron ; lastly a small upper and a lower spot 
•on the black band dividing these two yellow stripes. Legs 
black. Wings hyaline, palely enfumed, especially at the 
apices ; pterostigma long, braced, covering 5 to 7 cells, 
black ; 4 cells in the discoidal ceU of fore-wing, 3 in hind-wing ; 
2 to 3 cells ia subtrigone of fore-wing, entire in hind-wing ; 
.3 cubital nervures in fore-wing, 2 in hmd-wing ; nodal index 



12-22 



23-13 

Abdomen black, marked with citron-yellow 



12-15 14-13 

as follows : — Segment 1 with a vestigial apical dorsal spot 
.and a fine linear stripe on the apical border each side ; 2 with 
the oreiUets, a small lateral spot on the apical side of these, 
.and a mid-dorsal triangular basal stripe extending for two- 
thirds the length of segment ; 3 to 6 with small triangular 
basal spots, emarginate apically and becoming gradually 
smaller, on 6 almost obsolete ; 7 with the basal half yellow, 
partially bisected on the sides by the black jugal suture; 
8 with a narrow hnear baso-lateral stripe on each side ; 
remaining segments unmarked. AtmI appendages black ; 
superiors half as long again as segment 10, compressed, 
narrow and of even width throughout, bevelled to a poiat 
at apex ; inferior only one-third as long, deeply emarginate, 
forming two triangular lobes, the apices of which are sUghtly 
turned up and end in three minute teeth. 



392 GOMPHID^. 

Female unknown. 

Distribution. — Ceylon : BeKhul Oya, and Bibile, Gal Oya, 
from May to July. 

This species is closely related to G. Tcodaguensis, but is 
distinguished by its larger size, the less extent of the yellow 
markmgs, segment 10 being quite unmarked. The sub- 
trigone of the fore-wiags is made up of 3 cells instead of 2, 
as in G. kodaguensis. The species also shows a strong resem- 
blance to G. fletcheri, but it is smaller and less robust than 
the latter, and the yellow markings, especially on the face 
are less extensive. 

Type in the Colombo Museum ; paratype in my own 
collection. 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



[All names printed in italics are synonyms. When a species is mentioned 
on more than one page, the page on which the description occurs is 
indicated by thickened mimerals.] 



abbotti (Gomphidia), 

383, 385. 
aberrans aberrans 

(Davidius), 162, 165. 
aberrans {JDavidius), 

165. 
aberrans {Hagenius), 

165. 
aberrans seuehalensis 

(Davidius), 162, 167. 
aeinaoes (Lamelligom- 

phus), 271, 280. 
aeinaoes (LamAlogom- 

phus), 280. 
acinaees {Onychogom- 

phus), 280. 
Acrogomphus, 156, 

316. 335. 
adamantina {Bhino- 

oypha), 9, 12. 
JEshna, 197. 
iESCHOTD^, 153. 
AGKIIDiB, 1. 

AGBinsTiE, 2, 118. 
Agrion, 5. 
Allogomphus, 291. 
Allophssa, 5, 7, 95. 
alma (Epalkige), 76. 
amoina amxsma (Vesta- 

lis), 132. 
amoena {Calopteryx), 

132. 
amcena (Vestalis), 
. 126,132. 
Amphipteryx, 114. 



andamanensis (Libel- 

lago), 60, 61, 66. 
andamanensis {Micro- 

menis), 66. 
andersoni (Mnais), 140. 
angulosus (Ictinus), 

372, 378. 
Anisogomphus, 159, 

187. 
Anisoneura, 114. 
Anisopleura, 73, 75, 84. 
Anisoptbba, 152. 

AOTSOZyOOPTBEA, 151. 
annularis ( Onychogom- 

phus), 242, 265. 
annulatus (Macrogom- 

phus), 341, 342, 345, 

349. 
Anormogomphus, 158, 

172. 
apiealis apicalis (Vesta- 
lis), 125, 128. 
apicalis (Rhinocypha), 

41. 
apicalis submontana 

(Vestalis), 130. 
apicalis (VestaUs), 128, 

131. 
Archineura, 135. 
asiatica (Ohlorocypha), 

57. 
asiatica vittata {Libel- 

logo), 56. 
assimilis (Leptogom- 

phus), 368. 



atrox (Ictinus), 372, 

379. 
aurantiaca (Libellago),. 

59, 61, 70. 
aurantiacus {Miaro- 

merus), 70. 
aureus (Onyohogom- 

phus), 242, 254. 

basilaris basiJaris 

(Matrona), 145. 
hasilaris {Oalopteryx), 

145. 
basilaris (Matrotia), 

145. 
basilaris nigripeotus 

(Matrona), 144, 147. 
Bayadera, 73, 75, 78. 
beesoni (Bhinocypha)^ 

48. 
bicornutvs [Qomphus), 

303. 
bicomutiis {Heterogom- 

phus), 303. 
bieornutus (Megalo- 

gomphus), 293, 303. 
bidentatus (Leptogom- 

phus), 363, 364, 367. 
bifaseiata (Rhino- 

eypha), 7, 8, 29. 
bifenestrata (Rhino- 

eypha), 7, 8, 33. 
biforata abbreviata 

(Rhinocypha), 9, 45,. 

48. 



394 



AIPHABBTICAX INDEX. 



biforata beesoni 
(RhinoGypha), 9, 4-5, 
48. 
biforata biforata 

(Rhinoeypha), 45. 
biforata delimbata 

(Rhinoeypha), 9, 45. 
biforata (Rhinoeypha), 

6, 9, 45. 
■biforceps acinaces 

(Lamellogomphus), 

280. 
biforeeps biforceps 

(Lamellogomphus), 

271. 
biforceps (Lamelligom- 

phus), 271, 277. 
biforceps {Lamellogom- 
phus), 271. 
biforceps (Lindenia), 

271. 
biforceps nilgiriensis 

(Lamellogomphus), 

276. 
bifo rceps nilgiriensis 

(Onychogomphua), 

276. 
■biforceps (Onychogom- 

phus), 270, 271, 279. 
bis^nata (Rhino- 
eypha), 6, 9, 49. 
bistrigatus (Gomphvs), 

247. 
■bistrigatus (Lindenia), 

247. 
bistrigatus (Onyoho- 

gonxphus), 242, 247, 

249, 251. 
bivittatus (Anisogom- 

phus), 188, 189, 192. 
himttatxis (Oomphiis), 

192. 
bivittat'US (Temnogom- 

phus), 192. 
blandiis (Libellago), 65. 
■blandus (Micromerus), 

65. 
bocki (Pseudophsea), 

103. 
brevioauda (Bayadera), 

79, 83. 
bronnea (Allophsea), 

95, 98. 
hrunnea (Euphsea), 98. 
brunnea (Pseudophiea), 

98. 
Btinnagomphus, 158, 

199, 211. 
iurmictis (Microgom- 

phus), 358. 



cacharensis (Lamelli- 

gomphus), 275. 
cacharieus (Lamelli- 

gomphus), 271, 275. 
cacharictts (Lamello- 
gomphus). 275. 
Caliphsea, 149. 
CmsMXEUx, 148. 
Calooypha, 5, 53. 
Calopteryx, 5. 
eampioni (Chlorogom- 

phus), 339. 
cardinalis (Indophsea),. 

105, 108. 
cardinalis (Pseudo- 

phssa), 108. 
carissima (Pseudo- 
phiea), 100, 102. 
caudalis (Anisogom- 

phus), 189, 192, 196, 
oauvericus (Burma- 

gomphus), 213, 222. 
cerastes (Indogomphus), 

260. 
cerastes (Merogom- 

phus), 260. 
cerastes (Onyehogom- 

phus), 242, 260. 
cerastis (Lindenia), 260. 
cerastis (Onychogom- 

phus), 260. 
cerastis (Ophiogom- 

phus), 260. 
ceylonica (JBshna), 330. 
ceylanicus (Qomphus), 

330. 
ceylonicus (Qomphus), 

330. 
oeylonious (Heliogom- 

phus), 334, 380. 
ceylonicus (Heterogom- 

phus), 298. 
ceylonicus (Megalo- 

gomphus), 294, 298. 
oheUfer (Morogom- 

phus), 352. 
chinensis (Agrion), 121. 
ehinensis (Cahpteryx), 

121, 124. 
chinensis ehinensis 

(Neurobasis), 120, 

121. 
chinensis (LiheLlula), 

120, 121, 124. 
chinensis (Neurobasis), 

121. 
Chlorooypha, 5, 55, 59, 

63. 
circidaris (Acrogom- 

phus), 261. 



ciroularis (Onychogom- 

phus), 241, 261. 
Climacobasis, 119, 135, 

137. 
eomes (Anisopleura), 

85, 87. 
confusa (Caliphsea), 

141. 
consimilis (Oaliphsea), 

149, 151. 

COBDXIMlCtASTBBIDJE, 

153. 

costalis (Mnais), 144. 
auneata (LibeUago), 9. 
cuneata (Rhinoeypha), 

6, 7, 8, 9. 
Cyclogomphus, 158, 

178. 



davidi assamensis 
(Davidius), 162, 168. 

davidi davidi (David- 
ius), 162, 168. 

davidi (Davidius), 162, 
168. 

davidii (Davidius), 168. 

Davidioides, 157, 225. 

Davidius, 157, 160. 

ddineatus (Davidius), 
164. 

Diastatomma, 197, 
239, 305. 

Dieterias, 149. 

dimidiata (Dysphsa), 
92. 

diminutivus (Onycho- 
gomphua), 285, 286. 

dingavani (Onyoho- 
gomphus), 242, 255, 
258. 

dispar (Agrion), 56. 

dispar (Euphsea), 195. 

disparilis (Oalopteryx), 
121. 

dispar (Indophsea), 74, 
105. 

dispar (Pseudophsea), 
105. 

dolabratus (Platygom- 
phus), 207, 208. 

drummondi (LamieUo- 
gomphus), 273. 

duarensis (Burmagom- 
phus), 313. 

duwensis (Indogom- 
phus), 313. 

duarious (Onyehogom- 
phus), 242, 244, 245. 

Dysphsea, 76, 91. 



ALPHABETICAIi INDEX. 



395 



■earnshawi (Acrogom- 

phus), 263. 
earnshawi (Mnais), 

140, 142. 
earnshawi (Onyoho- 

gomphus), 242, 263, 
echmoooipitalis (Ony- 

ehogomphus), 241, 

257. 
Echo, 119, 134. 
■elwesii (Notholestes), 

149, 151. 
Epallage, 73, 75, 78. 
EpAKCAoraJB, 2, 71. 
Bpigomphinjb, 157, 

315. 
Epiophlebia, 151. 
•ethela (Dysphsea), 92. 
J!«pft«o,78,95,99,104. 



fatima (Agrion), 76. 
fatitna (Epallage), 73, 

76. 
faiime {Epallage), 76. 
fatime (Euphsia), 76. 
feje (Platygomphus), 

208, 210. 
fenestrella (Libellago), 

17. 
fenestrella (Bhino- 

oypha), 7, 8, 17. 
finalis (Libellago), 60, 

61, 67. 
finalis {Micromerus), 

67. 
flavicolor {Heterogom- 

phus), 303. 
flavieolor (Megalogom- 

phus), 293, 303. 
fletoheri (Gomphidia), 

383, 386. 
Jorcipata (Libellvla), 

241. 
fraseri (Acrogomphus), 

336, 337. 
fraseri (Indophsea), 74, 

104, 105, 110. 
Jraseri (Pseudophsea), 

110. 
frontalis (Lindenia), 

238. 
frontalis (Mesogom- 

phus), 230, 238. 
frontalis (Onychogom- 

phus), 238. 
fulgipermis (Khino- 

eypha), 25. 
iuroata (Anisopleura), 

85, 89. 



geome.tr icus nigrescens 

( Onychogomphus), 

243. 
gestroi (Leptogom- 

phus), 364, 365, 

368. 
GoMPHiDJB, 153, 154. 
Gomphidia, 156, 370, 

381. 

GOMPHIN^, 157. 

Gomphus, 158, 197, 

207, 211, 220. 
gracilis amcsna [Vesta- 

lis), 128. 
gracilis (Calopteryx), 

126. 
gracilis gracilis (Vesta- 

lis), 126. 
gracilis (Leptogom- 

phus), 368. 
gracilis montana (Ves- 

talis), 128. 
gracilis (Neurobasis), 

128. 
gracilis {Vestalis), 126. 
grammicus {Gomphus), 

256. 
grammicus {Lindenia), 

256. 
gram/micus {Mesogom- 

phus), 256. 
grammicus (Onycho- 
gomphus), 242, 256. 
greeni (Libellago), 59, 

61, 68. 
greeni {Micromerus), 

68. 
gynostylus (Cyclogom- 

phus), 178, 185. 



heterostylus (Cyelo- 

gomphus), 179, 182, 

185. 
hilary® (Rhinoeypha), 

7, 8, 36. 
hyalina (Bayadera), SO, 

81. 
hypsilon (Cyologom- 

phus) 180. 



icteroptera (Mnais), 
140, 143. 

ICTININJE, 157, 370. 

lotinus, 156, 370, 387. 
ignipennis (Khino- 

eypha), 6, 7, 9, 23. 
immaoulata (Bhino- 

eypha), 7, 8, 35. 
inas {Rhinoeypha), 41. 
inolitus (Leptogom- 

phus), 363, 364. 
indioa (Bayadera), 79. 
indica {Epallage), 79. 
indica {Ewpheea), 79. 
Izidogomphus, 309. 
Indophsea, 75, 104. 
inglisi (Lamellogom- 

phus), 273. 
inglisi (Stylogomphus), 

289, 290. 
iridea (Bhinocypha), 7, 

9,20. 
iris (Zygonyx), 339. 



japonious (Sieboldius), 
317. 



Hagenius, 315. 
hannyngtoni {Hetero- 

gomphus), 296. 
hannyngtoni (Megalo- 

gomphus), 294, 295, 

296. 
hasimarious (Burma- 

gomphus), 213, 216. 
Heliogomphus, 315, 

316, 322. 
henryi (Mesogomphus), 

229, 230, 234. 
Heterogomphus, 291, 

339. 
heteropterus (Anormo- 

gomphus), 173, 174. 
heterostyla {Oyclogom- 

phus), 182. 



krugeri (Gomphidia), 
387. 

kumaonensis (David- 
ius), 162, 171. 

kiritsohenkoi (Anormo- 
gomphufi), 174, 176. 

kalarensis (Heliogom- 
phus), 325, 328, 329. 

kodaguensis (Gomphi- 
dia), 374, 382, 389, 
392. 



laidlawi (Burmagom- 
phus), 213, 220. 

laidlawi (Calooypha), 
53. 

laidlawi (Bpiophlehia), 
151. 



396 



ILPHABETICAL INDEX. 



laidhwi (Rhinocypha), 

53. 
Laxaelligomphus, 155, 

160, 269. 
LaTudlogomphm, 160, 
. 269. 
laakanensis (Maero- 

gomphus), 342, 349. 
lansbergei (Leptogoiu- 

phiis), 367, 368. 
Leptogomphus, 315, 

362. 
lestoides (Anisopleura), 

83, 85, 86. 
kstoides [JEuphsea], 86. 
LiBELXA&ra.ffi:, 2. 
Libellago, 3, 4, 5, 55, 

58. 
LiBELXUDiD.*:, 153. 
lilUputians (Microgom- 

phas), 353, 357. 
Lindenia, 239. 
liadgreni (Mesogom- 

phus), 230, 235. 
Kndgreni [Onyck ogom- 

phizs], 235. 
lineata {Agrion), o9. 
liaeata blanda (Xibel- 

lago), 60, 65. 
lineata (Calopteryx), 

5